List Of Learning Issues Accounting Essay

Fiscal statements are structured fiscal representation of the fiscal place of and minutess undertaken by an endeavor. Because fiscal statements are used by so many different groups ( investors, creditors, directors etc ) , there are sometimes called all-purpose fiscal statement. The aim of general- purpose fiscal statements is to supply information about the fiscal place, public presentation and hard currency flow of an endeavor that is utile to a broad scope of users in doing economic determinations. Fiscal statements besides show the consequence of direction ‘s stewardship of the resources entrusted to it. To run into this aim, fiscal statements supply information about an endeavor ‘s assets, liabilities, equity, income and disbursals ( including additions and losingss ) and hard currency flows. This information, along with other information in the notes to fiscal statements, assists users in foretelling the endeavor ‘s future hard currency flows and, in peculiar, the timing and certainty of the coevals of hard currency and hard currency equivalents.

Component of fiscal statements:

  1. Balance Sheet ( or statement of fiscal place )
  2. Income Statement ( or the net income and loss history )
  3. Cash Flow Statement
  4. Statement of Changes in Equity
  5. Accounting Policies and explanatory notes

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet shows the assets belonging to the company ; its liabilities and equity as at year- terminal. Assetss are the economic resources that are owned or controlled by a company. For illustration, hard currency, account receivable, stock list, land and edifices are categorized as assets. As for liabilities, it is the duties to pay hard currency, reassign other assets or supply services to person else. The illustrations are unpaid phone measures, short term loans and history collectible. Following, proprietor ‘s equity is the residuary sum ; net assets available after all duties have been satisfied. It increases when proprietors make extra investing in a concern. On the other manus, it decreases when the proprietors take back portion of their investing. The points mentioned above are related to one another and can be arranged into an accounting equation:

Assets= Liabilities + Owner ‘s Equity

Income Statement

Performance of the company is reflected in this statement. The income statement shows grosss, disbursals, and net income or net loss. Grosss are the sum of assets created through concern operations while disbursals are the sum of assets consumed through concern operation. Net income or net loss is the step of public presentation of a company. If the grosss are more than disbursals, it is net income. In contrast, if the disbursals are more than grosss, it is net loss.

Cash Flow Statement

This statement reports the sum of hard currency collected and paid out by a company in the operation, puting and funding activities. Operating activities are those activities that are portion of the day-to- twenty-four hours concern of a company. Investing activities are activities associated with purchasing and selling long- term assets. Fiscal activities are those activities whereby hard currency is obtained from or repaid to proprietors and creditors.

Statements of Changes in Equity

It reports sum of net income for the period and the alterations in equity. The statement shows a first capital balance, the net income for the period, a tax write-off for any drawing made and the stoping capital balance.

Accounting policies and explanatory notes

It is the of import extra notes to specify statement prepared. Any extra information that is non shown in the fiscal statement will consequence reasonably presentation.

2 ) Planning, Directing and Motivating and Controlling


Planing involves set uping a basic scheme, choosing a class of action, and stipulating how the action will be implemented. An of import portion of planning is to place options and so choose among the options the 1 that best fits the organisation ‘s scheme and aims. For case, if the company ‘s basic aim is to gain net income for their proprietors, top direction must take the option that can accomplish this aim. Besides, top direction must equilibrate the possible benefits against the cost and demand on the company resources when they are choosing the option. All the of import options considered by direction in the planning procedure impact grosss or cost, and direction accounting informations are indispensable in gauging those impacts.

Directing and Motivating

Directors besides look after daily activities and seek to maintain the organisation working swimmingly. This requires actuating and directing people. Managers assign undertakings to employee, arbitrate, replies inquiries, work out on-the-scene jobs, and do many little determinations that affect clients and employees. Therefore, directing is that portion of a director ‘s occupation that trades with the modus operandi. Managerial accounting informations such as day-to-day gross revenues studies are ever used in this type of daily determination devising.


In commanding map, directors seek to guarantee that the program is being followed. The key to effectual control is feedback, which signals if the operations are on the path. This feedback is provided by assorted inside informations studies. One of it is public presentation study, which compares budgeted to existent consequences. Performance reports suggest where operations are non continuing as planned and where some parts of the organisation may necessitate extra attending.

The Planning and Control Cycle

This rhythm involves the smooth flow of direction activities from be aftering through directing and motivation, commanding and so back to planning once more. All of these activities involve determination devising, which is the hub around which the other activities revolve.

3 ) Traveling Concern Concept

Businesss today are formed without make up one’s minding as to the peculiar clip it will discontinue. In other words, accounting records are prepared with the premise that there are no marks or indicant that the entity will discontinue operations in the foreseeable hereafter. Therefore, the chief intent of the concern is to transport out concern with the exclusive aim of doing net incomes. All bing resources such as land and edifices and vehicles are to be used in the normal class of operation for the intended intent of harvesting net incomes. Most resources of the house are acquired to be used instead than to be sold. Therefore, this construct gives precedence to the usage of historical cost in the readying of fiscal statements. That is, it allows accountant to enter assets at what they are deserving to a company in normal usage, instead than what they would sell for in a settlement sale.

4 ) Break- Even Point

Break- even point is the degree of gross revenues at which net income is zero. Once the break- even point has been reached, net runing income will increase by the sum of the unit part border for each extra unit sold. The break- even point can be computed utilizing either the equation method or the part border method. These two methods are tantamount.

The Equation Method:

Profits= ( Sales- Variable disbursals ) – Fixed disbursals

It is widely used in CVP ( Cost-Volume- Profit ) analysis. Rearranging the above equation:

Sales= Variable expenses+ Fixed expenses+ Net incomes

At the break- even point, net incomes are zero. Therefore, the break- even point can be computed by happening the point where gross revenues equal the sum of the variable disbursals plus the fixed disbursals. The break- even point in entire gross revenues dollars can be computed by multiplying the break- even degree of unit gross revenues by the merchandising monetary value per unit.

The Contribution Margin Method:

The part border method is a shortcut version of the equation method already described. To happen how many units must be sold to interrupt even, divide the entire fixed disbursals by the unit part border.

Break- even point in units sold= Fixed disbursals

Unit part border

A fluctuation of this method uses the CM ratio alternatively of the unit part border. The consequence is the break- even point in entire gross revenues dollars instead than in entire units sold.

Break- even point in entire gross revenues dollar= Fixed disbursals

CM ratio

This attack, based on the CM ratio, is peculiarly utile when a company has multiple merchandises and wants to calculate a individual break- even point for the company as a whole.

5 ) Control Activities

Control activities are those policies and processs, in add-on to the control environment and accounting system that direction has adopted to supply sensible confidence that the company ‘s established aims will be met and that fiscal studies are accurate. By and large, there are five classs of control activities.

I ) Adequate segregation of responsibilities

Company who has appropriate segregation of responsibilities is said to be holding a good internal control system. Under this control system, no one section or person should be responsible for managing all stages of a dealing. This segregation is non possible for little concerns because the limited figure of employees prevents division of all the different maps. However, there are three maps that should be public presentation by separate sections or by different people.

  1. Authorization – Authorizing and the executing of minutess. For illustration, the sale of a edifice or land.
  2. Record maintaining – Recording the minutess in the accounting diaries.
  3. Custody – Having a physical ownership of or command over the assets involved in minutess, including operational duty. For illustration, holding control over the production map.

By dividing the duty for these responsibilities, a company realizes the efficiency derived from specialisation and besides reduces the mistakes, both knowing and unwilled that might be happening.

two ) Proper processs for mandate

A strong system of internal control requires proper mandate for every dealing. In corporate organisation, this mandate originates with the shareholders who elect a board of managers. It is so delegated from the board of managers to upper- degree direction and finally throughout the organisation. While the board of managers and upper- degree direction possess a reasonably general power of mandate, a clerk normally has limited authorization. Therefore, the board would authorise dividend, a general alteration in policies, or a amalgamation. A clerk would be restricted to authorising recognition or a specific hard currency dealing. Merely certain people should be authorized to come in informations into accounting records and fix accounting studies.

three ) Adequate paperss and record

Adequate paperss and record is a cardinal to good controls. Documents are the physical, nonsubjective grounds of accounting minutess which allows direction to reexamine any dealing for appropriate mandate. In short, equal certification provides grounds that the recording and sum uping maps that lead to fiscal studies are being performed decently. Easily interpreted and understood, designed with all possible utilizations in head, pre-numbered for easy designation and trailing, and formatted to enable rapidly and efficient handled are the features of a well- designed papers.

four ) Physical control over assets and records

Some of the most important policies and processs involve the usage of equal physical precautions to protect resources. For illustration, a bank would non let important sums of money to be transported in an ordinary auto. Similarly, a company should non go forth its valuable assets unprotected. Examples of physical precaution are fireproof vault for the storage of classified information, currency, and marketable securities. Records and paperss are besides of import resources and must be protected. Re-creating lost or destroyed records can be dearly-won and time-consuming, so companies make backup transcripts of records. Therefore, supplying proper safeguard reduces chances for employees to embezzle assets.

V ) Independent cheque on public presentation

Having independent cheques on public presentation is a valuable control technique. Independent cheques incorporate reappraisals of maps, every bit good as the internal cheques created from a proper segregation of responsibilities. There are many ways to independently look into public presentation. Using independent referees such as hearers, is one of the most common. In add-on, compulsory holidaies, where another employee performs the holidaying individual ‘s responsibilities, periodic rotary motions or transportations, or simply holding person independent of the accounting records reconcile the bank statement are all types of independent cheques

6 ) Matching Principle

The duplicate rule is based on the accrual construct that requires all costs and disbursals incurred to bring forth grosss must be recognized in the same accounting period as the related grosss. This means that if a cost is incurred to get or do something that will finally be sold, so the cost should be recognizes as an disbursal merely when the sale take topographic point. For illustration, the cost of the ware sold should be matched to the gross derived from the sale of that ware during the period. Expenses that can non be matched with grosss are assigned to the accounting period in which they are incurred. For case, the exact sum of electricity used to do an car by and large can non be determined, but since the sum for a month or twelvemonth is known, that sum can be matched to the grosss earned during the same period.

As shown in Exhibit 1, this procedure of fiting disbursals with recognizes grosss determines the sum of net income reported on the income statement.Net income is the most widely used index of how good a company has performed during a period.

Exhibit 1

Get downing of describing period End of describing period

Recognized grosss

= Net income for period

Matched disbursals

7 ) Agenda of Cost of Goods Manufactured ( COGM ) and Cost per unit

Agenda of cost of goods manufactured contains the three elements of merchandise costs which are direct stuffs, direct labour, and manufactured operating expense. It is use to cipher the cost of natural stuffs, direct labour, and manufactured operating expense used in production. By the manner, it is besides usage to cipher the fabrication costs associated with goods that were finished during the period. In fact, we can cipher the cost per unit of finished goods by spliting the entire unit produced from the sum manufactured cost.

Statement of Cost of Goods Manufactured

Direct stuffs:

Get downing stock list thirty

( + ) Purchasesthirty

Materials available thirties

( – ) Ending stock listthirty

Materials used thirty

Direct labour thirty

Manufacturing operating expense:

Indirect stuffs xxx

Indirect labour thirty

Depreciation thirty

Utilities xxx


Entire fabrication costs xxx

( + ) Get downing work in procedurethirty


( – ) Ending work in procedurethirty

Cost of Goods Manufacturedthirty

Cost per unit is equal to the sum of Cost of Goods Manufactured over the figure of unit produced. It may be dependent on the clip period considered and therefore it can impact the supply curve and are a cardinal constituent of supply and demand. Cost per unit will change depends on the measure produced. Cost per unit is distinguishable from the monetary value and depends on the interaction with demand through snap of demand and supply. In the instance of perfect competition, monetary value may be lower than cost per unit due to fringy cost pricing.

Cost per unit =Cost of Goods Manufactured
Number of unit produced

8 ) Cost Classifications ( Manufacturing costs and Non-manufacturing cost )

Fabrication costs

Consist of direct stuffs, direct labour, and fabricating operating expense.

  1. Direct stuffs

    Direct stuffs are those stuffs that become an built-in portion of the finished merchandise and whose costs can be handily traced straight to the finished merchandise. For illustration: engine that installed in a auto.

  2. Direct labour

    Labor costs that can be easy and handily traced to single units of merchandise. Since direct workers typically touch the merchandise while its production, it is sometimes called as touch labour. For illustration: linemans who install equipment on auto.

  3. Manufacturing operating expense

    Fabrication costs that can non be traced straight to specific units produced. It consists of indirect stuffs, indirect labour, and all fabrication costs other than direct stuffs and direct labour. All costs which are associated with runing the mill are classified as fabrication operating expense. For illustration: care and fixs on fabrication installations.

Non-manufacturing costs

There are two classs of non-manufacturing costs which are selling costs and administrative costs.

  1. Selling costs

    Costss necessary to acquire order and present the finished merchandise to the client. It is besides known as order-getting and order-filling costs. For illustration: gross revenues committees.

  2. Administrative costs

    All executives, organisational, and clerical costs associated with the general direction of an organisation instead than with fabrication and merchandising. It is frequently called merchandising, general, and administrative ( SG & A ; A ) costs. For illustration: wages of clerk.

Merchandise costs

All costs involved in geting or doing a merchandise. Direct stuffs, direct labour, and fabricating operating expense are included in merchandise costs. Merchandise costs are foremost assigned to an stock list history on the balance sheet. After the goods are sold, the costs are released from stock list as disbursals ( cost of goods sold ) and matched against gross revenues gross. Merchandise costs are besides known as inventoriable costs since they are ab initio assigned to stock lists. In fact, non all merchandise costs are treated as disbursals in the period they incurred. They are treated as disbursals in the period in which the related merchandises are sold. Meaning that a merchandise cost ( direct stuffs or direct labour ) might incur during one period but non recorded as an disbursal until a period when the completed merchandise is sold.

Time period costs

All the costs that are non merchandise cost. Gross saless committees and the rental costs of administrative offices are period costs. Alternatively of manufactured goods, period costs are disbursals on the income statement in the period in which they are incurred utilizing the usual regulations of accrual accounting. All merchandising and administrative disbursals are considered period costs. For illustration: advertisement and executive wages.

Fabrication Costss

Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead

Merchandise Costss
Non-manufacturing Costss

Selling Costss Administrative Costss

Time period Costss

Problem Designation

Sheema de Florist Sdn. Bhd. found that their company ‘s Income Statement was suffered from an operating loss of RM 155,000 in the past one-fourth. The new accounting director ‘s helper had doubled checked the figures but the consequence was still the same.

At the terminal of the 2009, the company ‘s transit truck has involved in a route accident and 5,000 boxes of their assortment destroyed. The 5,000 boxes were portion of the 25,000 boxes of assortment merchandises completed in the three month of the mill ‘s operation which expecting for the sale in January 2010. The company intended to claim from insurance company for their losingss but unluckily the insurance company said that their claim was inflated. To find whether the assortment mill is profitable, so do a determination if the mill should go on runing in the hereafter.

Problem Solution:

Harmonizing to the income statement of Sheema de Florist Sdn. Bhd. , the comptroller made a major error in income statement. She did non enter fabrication ( direct stuffs, direct labour and fabricating operating expense ) and non fabrication costs ( selling and administrative costs ) individually. It is indispensable to separate between fabrication and non-manufacturing cost while bring forthing the income statement.

Hence, the income statement must be corrected. First, we have to cipher the cost of goods manufactured. Then, natural stuffs, work in procedure and finished goods have to be identified and calculated to happen out the cost of goods manufactured. Harmonizing to the extra information given by Cik Normee, merely 80 % of indirect stuff cost and 90 % of the public-service corporations cost relate to fabricating operations. The staying history relates to selling and administrative activities.

Besides, cost of goods sold has to be calculated in income statement because it is the cost from mill for bring forthing goods which is different from the operating disbursals. After placing the cost of goods sold, we will be able to cipher the gross net income as shown in the income statement below.

The Potpourri Factory

Statement of Cost of Goods Manufactured

For the one-fourth ended December 31, 2009


Direct Materials used:

Get downing natural stuffs stock list 0

+ Raw stuffs purchased384,500

Natural stuffs available 384,500

– Ending natural stuffs stock list50,000


Direct labour 80,000

Manufacturing operating expense:

Cleaning supplies, production 6,500

Indirect labour cost 50,000

Care, production 47,000

Indirect stuffs ( 80 % x RM 65,000 ) 52,000

Insurance, production 9,000

Utilities ( 90 % x RM 40,000 ) 36,000

Depreciation, production equipments 35,000235,500Entire fabrication costs

added 650,000

+Beginning work in procedure0

Entire fabrication costs 650,000

– Ending work in procedure( 25,000 )

Cost of goods manufactured625,000

The Potpourri Factory

Income Statement

For the one-fourth ended December 31, 2009


Gross saless ( 20,000 boxes ) 930,000

Less cost of goods sold:

Get downing finished goods stock list 0

+Cost of goods manufactured625,000

Cost of goods available for sale 625,000

– Ending finished goods stock list ( 125,000 )

Cost of goods sold500,000

Gross net income 430,000

Less operating disbursals:

Selling & A ; administrative wages 90,000

Ad 200,000

Depreciation, office equipment 18,000

Indirect stuffs 13,000

Utilities 4,000

Travel, sales representative60,000385,000

Net net income 45,000

Besides that, job occurs when Potpourri Factory attempts to claim for their 5,000 boxes of merchandise which are lost in the truck caused by an accident. However, the mill is non able to claim from insurance company. This is due to insurance company, Insurful Sdn. Bhd claims that the sum is inflated.

Cik Normee has made error by taking entire operating disbursals, RM 1,085,000, as the entire cost for the period. She made another error by taking merely 20,000 boxes as figure of boxes produced in ciphering cost per box. It is supposed to be 25,000 of boxes as it is entire production for one-fourth twelvemonth.

With the cost of goods sold we calculated above, we are able to cipher accurate cost for the 5,000 boxes of assortment merchandises which was involved in accident.

Entire cost of the period=RM 625,000

No. of boxes 25,000

= RM 25

Therefore, existent cost per box of the potpourri merchandise is RM25 and non RM 54.25. Therefore, the costs for 5,000 boxes @ RM 25 per box =RM 125,000. Entire sum that the Potpourri Factory should claim is merely RM125, 000 and non RM271.250. It is inflated than existent sum that the mill supposed to claim. With this sensible sum, insurance company should be apt to counterbalance for the mill ‘s claim.


In decision, we learnt that planning, directing and actuating and commanding are playing indispensable function in running a concern. And these three activities involve determination doing all the clip. In add-on, we understand that fiscal public presentation and place can be judged by fiscal statements. Besides, a company is fixing their accounting records by presuming that company will non rent in foreseeable hereafter. Furthermore, we learnt how to calculate break-even point as it is a degree of gross revenues which net income is zero. It is impossible for a company to put to death this point instantly. They can merely derive net income by selling more units than the break-even point.

Following, we know that internal control is of import to observe fraud and avoiding employees to pull strings histories. Cik Normee mentioned that she has double- checked the figures. However, harmonizing to internal control, segregation of responsibilities is needed chiefly is to cut down mistakes. As for fiting rule, we know that disbursals can merely be recognized in the same period where grosss are recognized. Furthermore, we learn the cost term: fabrication and non fabrication cost. Manufacturing cost includes direct stuffs, direct labours, fabricating operating expense while non fabricating cost includes those indirect cost such as indirect labour and indirect stuffs.

Finally, we found that the Potpourri Factory is really gaining a net income of RM45,000 for the one-fourth twelvemonth ended December 31, 2009 in the income statement which is non same as what Cik Normee found. This is because the income statement she did was incorrect while she double-checked these figures. Income statement is important in concern public presentation. Therefore, it is needed to cipher accurately and dependability as it is used to mensurate company ‘s public presentation. After recalculating the sum, we found that sum of the Potpourri Factory should claim is merely RM125, 000 and non RM271.250 which is inflated than the existent the mill supposed to claim. Harmonizing to the corrected income statement, the Potpourri Factory was gaining net net income RM 45,000 alternatively of the IncomeStatement prepared by Sheema de Florist Sdn Bhd. which was net loss RM155,000.Therefore, this company should go on the concern of assortment.


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