Livelihood Skills Development For TVET Intervention Commerce Essay

Food and Agriculture sector is the chief stay of Somalia ‘s economic system. 55 % of Somalia ‘s population is dependent on farm animal genteelness, 10 % on agribusiness and about 5 to 10 % in agricultural associated sectors i.e. olibanum ( aromatic gum ) ) extraction, aggregation of honey, fells and teguments treating etc. Similarly a sensible figure of people are dependent on fishing. Unfortunately this sector is neglected due to assorted grounds. The civil war ravaged the population involved in these Fieldss in a major mode, full communities were displaced, farm animal herds and flocks were wiped out and harvests destroyed. Different facets of this sector are being dealt with as under:

Livestock. The largest section of Somalia ‘s population depends on farm animal which is the most vivacious sector of its ‘ economic system. However this sector is a much developing beginning of support. Other than the natural export of farm animal there has been really small value added add-on in this field. Any development in the field of tanneries, leather goods makers, their export or constitution of modern slaughter houses/abattoir for local or export oriented meat will travel a long towards income coevals. There is besides a demand of increasing the direction expertness in this field to manage merchandises at assorted degrees. The estimated farm animal population of Somalia is as under:

Somaliland: Estimated Population of Livestock ( Thousands )

Year Goat Sheep Camel Cattle Total

2001 6,676 7,391 1,508 356 15,932

2002 6,837 7,517 1,525 360 16,238

2003 7,001 7,644 1,542 364 16,551

Beginning: Ministry of National Planning and Co-ordination Somaliland Department of Statistics and Research

Puntland: Estimated Population of Livestock ( Million )

Year Goat Sheep Camel Cattle

2000 20.0 9.3 2.9 Not available

2001 20.2 9.5 3.1 Not available

2002 20.7 9.9 3.6 Not available

Beginning ; Ministry of Planning and Statistics, Puntland, Puntland Facts and Figures 2003

Figures for Central and South Somalia are non available.

2.1. Opportunities exist in farm animal trade in marketing for export and domestic markets. There is a demand for value add-on through little and average graduated table endeavors involved in processing. Interventions aimed at developing and upgrading the farm animal markets would lend to increased employment chances and family incomes. In order to make so following are recommended:

2.2. Recommendations:

Inadequate modern abattoir capablenesss, meat freezing equipment or any value added add-on is adversely impacting the potency.

Expanding bing veterinary Centres and veterinarian resources.

Creation of veterinary helper ‘s organic structure or system to look after the medical wellness of farm animal.

It suffers from unequal commissariats of wellness and hygiene related medical specialties. Due to this deficit there is unequal support to livestock Herders in the field

Water direction for herds demands betterment. If possible the State authoritiess and local communities should fall in custodies to build H2O pools for animate beings. .

2.3. TVET Intervention: The undermentioned suggestions may be considered by all stakeholders:

Human resource/capacity edifice by keeping direction classs for enterprisers and farm animal breeders.

Training and upgrading of bing veterinarian resources besides adding new 1s. There are really few veterinaries soon trained in this field

Better animate being farming patterns taught at the VTCs and encouraged to be followed.

Sheep and caprine animals are the chief stay of Somalia farm animal wealth

3. Milk and Dairy Products. The potency in raising production in this field is much higher than at present due to the handiness of big farm animal wealth. Out of milk merchandises, butter and ghee ( cooking oil ) is refined from milk besides yoghurt. Almost all these merchandises are locally consumed and no formal measure is exported. The milk Sellerss constitute the tail terminal of the milk merchandises selling system get downing from engendering and tendering herds in state side. Intervention can be made at all phases of this system for heightening production. Following job countries are identified for intercession to be made for farther betterment in this sector:

3.1 Problem Areas:

Inadequate modern equipment for treating butter, cheese or yoghurt or any other value added add-on is adversely impacting the export potency.

Storage or deep freeze installations are missing.

Prolonged drouth has resulted in hapless farm animal conditions in near past impacting milk outputs.

TVET should take at heightening the quality of farm animal for milk merchandises like butter, cheese, yogurt and ghee which can supply many occupation chances to the population.

Agricultural Fieldss in Somaliland with possible for significant addition in production.

4. Agribusiness. This is one field with maximal growing potency and pronounced ability to increase Somalia ‘s agricultural wealth. Somalia is classified as a semi-arid state, similar to Pakistan and parts of India which both have a big agricultural base. Saudi Arabia is every bit if non more waterless and has achieved nutrient autarchy in wheat besides domestic fowl, farm animal and dairy merchandises. It is soon exporting some of these merchandises to adjacent states. CSS with a big potency for betterment is in thick of continued civil discord. In the remainder of Somalia, big countries peculiarly in the Somaliland receive more than 14 inches ( 35 millimeter ) of rainfall per annum ; semi waterless agricultural patterns can be done in an organized mode as this is adequate to turn at least one good harvest. It will necessitate conjunct attempt by all stakeholders to accomplish nutrient autarchy. However this is besides one sector where major authorities or giver support is required for capital plants besides broad micro credits to the husbandmans. Modern agricultural patterns if incorporated can convey in a green revolution.

4.1. Recommendations for Improvement in Livestock and Agriculture Sector.

There is a demand to open up more VTCs in this sector as the bing installations are unequal.

Small or look into dikes may be constructed by TVET stakeholders particularly FAO wherever possible to hive away overflow rainwater peculiarly during brassy inundations.

Construction of embankments for halting and retaining H2O on inclines.

Water preservation patterns i.e. rain harvest home, usage of trickle irrigation, ponds for storage and ooze of H2O can give a significant jump-start to the agribusiness sector.

The formation of agricultural co-ops. An attempt can be made in this sector for the ultimate purpose of traveling in for concerted agriculture.

State authoritiess may see giving unclaimed or unutilized farm land to multinational corporate houses for modern corporate agriculture.

Use of new techniques i.e. , debut of drouth immune harvests etc may be undertaken.

4.2. TVET Intervention: Should take topographic point in all of the above mentioned Fieldss depending upon resources and precedence.

Crude methods do non let full potency to be exploited in agricultural field

5. Fisheries Sector. Somalia has a long coastline 3300 kilometres long, out of which Puntland has 1300 kilometer of coastline and Somaliland 850 kilometer, the staying being with Central and South Somalia. The chief fishing Centres are Bossaso, Kandala, Aluula, Hafun, Eyl, Garaad in Puntland and Berbera, Lyo-addo and Elayo in Somaliland. Harmonizing to a UNO feasibleness survey for Somaliland these colonies have approx 2643 boats[ 1 ]of which approx 60 % are operational. It supports the support of approx 5872 fishermen. Out of this about 170 operational boats are in Puntland. The fishing is chiefly done with 6-8 meters fiber glass boats with outboard engines bing US $ 4000 to 5000 each. No fishing trawlers or fish processing launches/ships are available. This allows other states peculiarly Yemen to angle in Somalia ‘s pelagic economic zone. The gimmick includes sharks which is the pillar of this industry, deeps sea lobsters. mullets, tuna and mackerel along the seashore. The Tsunami of 2004 destroyed a big figure of boats in Hafun and do break in the fishing gimmick.

Fish prevarication in freezers/chillers for export at Bossaso

5.1. Approximate Catch and Potential[ 2 ]

Puntland: Catches about 19,000 dozenss with a possible capacity of 180,000 dozenss per annum. The fishing industry is the 2nd highest income gaining sector after farm animal.[ 3 ]

Somaliland: The fishing gimmick ranges from 1000 dozenss to 1500 dozenss. It has an approximative potency of 40,000[ 4 ]dozenss annually with out jeopardizing the stock. Merely an undistinguished part is being caught now.

CSS figures are non available.

5.2. The normal fishing rhythm starts with fisherman selling their gimmick to bargainers who have the capacity to keep up to 1000 ton in big containers or deep-freezes. They in bend sell it off to exporters chiefly to KSA and UAE. A fisherman can gain up to US $ 10 per kg for fish and US $ 80/20kilo for lobsters and US 90-100/kilo for dried shark fives,

5.3. Somaliland has one fish cannery at Laskoreh in Sanaag country which was originally established by the Soviet Union and was once more rehabilitated in 2002 by a group of local business communities. A modern lobster processing works is individually operational at Eyl in Puntland.most cold storage installations day of the month back to pre civil war yearss.

5.4. The maximal gimmick is exported from Bossaso ; even Somaliland fishermen use this installation alternatively of Berbera. However the hapless status of the route web deters the fishermen from other topographic points from switching their gimmick to chief fishing ports like Bossaso. The chief exports are frozen lobster, filleted fish, smoke-cured and sundried shark and tuna which are besides consumed in Mogadishu, CSS, and Kenya ‘s coastal countries.

5.5. Obstacles:

Inadequate and old fishing equipment along with deficit of trim parts is a major job

The demand to better the handling and processing of gimmick is imperative. Attempts are needed to make a fulltime industry for the smoke, salting, drying of shark meat, shark fives and other fish.

Fishing by illegal trawlers due to the inability of the State Governments to patrol the economic zone.

Fish hygiene and sanitation demands to be given more importance, both for export and local ingestion.

The selling and exporting system is non to the full developed. Inadequate cold storage and exports installations hamper exports.

No corporate fishermen ‘s organisation exists to look after their jobs or to buttonhole for their rights.

5.6. Recommendations:

Constitution of a fishing related establishment or VTC to develop and steer fishermen.

VTCs to develop fishermen learners in fix of fiber glass boats, engines, cold storage equipment and other accessory machinery.

Enforcement by governments is required ; a proper coastguard or enforcement mechanism needs to be created. This is besides a field in which former sea plagiarists can be rehabilitated.

A proper selling mechanism for exports is required to be developed.

The fish processing industry should be bit by bit developed towards holding value added add-ons.

The fishing industry needs support from State Government ‘s every bit good as the international community so that it can move as a feeder for at least 5-6 times more population base.

Form cooperatives or fishermen associations to jointly work out common jobs.

Domestic fowl. This is another field with a big growing potency for supplying more employment chances. Presently it is much neglected and most of the domestic fowl meat and eggs etc. are imported. It is non as capital inducement as agribusiness, initial cost of domestic fowl could be borne by the donors/NGOs etc in the signifier of micro credits. Subsequently the loans can be returned in a rhythm of few months, this little rhythm is adequate to bring forth sufficient income.

6.1. Recommendations. Vocational Training can be given to house holds for constitution of domestic or little domestic fowl farms with possible to go bigger as the expertness additions.


Honey has been extracted from beehives in the natural state for centuries in Somalia. Recently due to donor funded plans at that place has been a gradual addition in this field. Both the ruddy coloring material assortment and white honey is produced, the latter largely from the natural state. Both the monetary value and production of honey have increased and it is being sold largely in the internal market. The monetary values range from the US $ 8-12 per kg at the highest to the US $ 4/kilo[ 5 ]in the rural countries near the production countries. Honey is bringing good monetary values soon here in Somalia hence really small is exported.

Recommendations. An attempt can be made to do it an exportable trade good by better scaling and packaging. Honey has a booming market in Europe and Middle East. It is a really booming sector with good potency to turn in future. However more people need to be trained at the VTCs and micro credits given for stuff used for bee habitation ( bee settlements lodging ) stuff.

Frankincense ( Aromatic Gum ) . Somaliland and Puntland are among the universe ‘s largest manufacturers of olibanum ( aromatic gum ) extracted from gum trees. The incense burned in most of the Arabian states, China and Far East comes from Somalia. The gum trees fundamentally grew wild in semi-arid inland fields. The gum output is affected by the height and precipitation it receives. Both should be every bit high as possible. Most of the gum trees and the land environing them are owned by absentee landlords. The gum extraction is done by provincials who get a portion from the entire harvest. Some trees are contracted or leased out to contractors who take this on rental for a specific figure of old ages. Due to this peculiar ownership job, the provincial or the contractor do non make any long term investing with the consequence that outputs remain hapless. This sector is extremely labour intensive as everything at all phases has to be done by work force. It is largely done by adult females in a back breakage mode in really hot and dry conditions, incense cleansing and its scaling is besides largely done by adult females.

8.1. Problem Areas

Lack of resources / fundss to transport out the full procedure.

The prevalence of absentee landlords prohibits capital injections.

Lack of coordination among the workers. The concerted system may be examined for debut.

Lack of research or rating adversely affects the monetary value. There has been some bead in monetary values in the Middle Eastern markets in the recent yesteryear due to under invoicing etc.

Government backing or ownership is largely missing

8.2. Recommendations.

Establish an establishment or VTC to provide for this.

Rating system to be introduced along with enfranchisement.

Resolve complex ownership system.

More investing for acquiring value added points.

Marketing mechanism to be improved

State Governments should be advised to be more involved giving backing to this sector as it is large beginning of support for people, gross for authoritiess ‘ and for gaining foreign exchange.

Hides and Skins. Small-scale bargainers buy them from meatmans who are largely adult females and so sell them to bargainers from towns /cities. The general quality of fells and teguments is hapless, hygiene and sanitation besides needs betterment. The camel fells, which can be a large beginning of income coevals, are largely discarded although there is demand for them in Canada and some other states. There are tanneries in Bossaso from where the fells and teguments are exported to Pakistan, China, India and Italy. Through the procedure of TVET the export potency in this field can be enhanced well. Shoes, jackets, ticker straps, place screens, couch / auto screen and bags etc can be produced with minor attempts.

Hides and teguments lying in the unfastened in a tannery near Bossaso

10. Construction and Infrastructure Rehabilitation: The building sector is one of the fastest turning sectors of Somalia ‘s economic system, people are traveling to the metropoliss chiefly due to civil discord and high insecurity in rural countries. On the norm a Somali metropolis is duplicating its population every 5 to 6 old ages. This is ensuing in unplanned growing, slums, deficiency of communicating links, and deficiency of H2O and sewage installations. No state can come on with out giving due consideration to its substructure development. This sector seems non to be acquiring the precedence required.

Infrastructure Rehabilitation. Since the full sector has to take-off from abrasion it can take a qualitative jumped by presenting modern patterns this is a field where major investings are required but will bring forth income for significant figure of people. Major states i.e. China, USA, European states can play a major axial rotation in mobilising this sector. This will ensue in making occupations and down watercourse demands for most of the accomplishments required. To resuscitate this sector a three phase scheme is advocated to the authorities:

Phase 1. Planning, Restoration and rehabilitation of bing communicating substructure.

Phase 2. Development of new roads, streets and telecommunication substructure.

Phase 3. Development of ports, airdromes and subsidiary communicating construction.

10.2. For the following twosome of old ages Stage 1 is recommended except in the fast growth metropoliss where buildings of roads and sewage system etc are recommended on a precedence footing.

10.3. Town Planning. Space reserve for park, schools, infirmaries and commercial countries should be done at be aftering degree instead than in a hit-or-miss manner as we are seeing now. This nascent sector needs attending of the international community involved in conveying peace and repose to Somalia. Good town planning seaports good life conditions and attachment to edifice Torahs and processs, which improves the civic sense of people populating in these metropoliss. Over all it will move positively to better the sense of security besides making conditions contributing for good life in public.

10.4. Recycling. The recycling of used stuffs peculiarly plastics, glass, paper and many other points can well better the environmental debasement taking topographic point besides making extra income for those engaged in this field. Similarly flush H2O can be recycled after domestic, industrial or commercial usage for agribusiness or re-afforestation intents. The recycling activities will make significant figure of occupations in this field peculiarly in and around the fast development metropoliss.

10.5. Recommendations. The undermentioned suggestions may be considered:

Awareness and Advocacy. Awareness degree should be raised by all stakeholders for attachment to standard building and edifice codifications.

TVET Intervention. The VTCs should get down new topics i.e. town planning, draughtsman, recycling and such accomplishments in their course of study being developed under UNESCO-PEER ‘s protections.

Material tantrum for recycling lying at a dumping site in Bossaso

11. Electronicss and Telecommunication Industry. This sector has one of the largest growing potencies. The fix of cell phones, computing machines, Television and wirelesss etc. is being carried out largely with local skilled or semi-skilled labor. Similarly the telecommunication industry is one of the fastest turning Fieldss in Somalia. It is about wholly in the private sector, there are six different companies in the field of telecom. Telecom, Golis, Nationlink, Soltel, Soltilco and Silalink. Telecom is the leader in the field with more than 80 % of the market and using a big figure of employees. These companies have formed a anteroom group to acquire grants and benefits from the State authoritiess. International call charges are the cheapest in the country ; less than US $ 1/2.0 per min[ 6 ]. V-sat orbiter engineering is being widely used for pass oning in rural countries. All of these communicating companies are linked with major international operators

11.1. Recommendations:

Training Institute for Executives. Merely fundamental preparation is being carried out in Somalia, all advanced proficient, selling and administrative accomplishments are sharpened abroad. Most of the executive/manager degree functionaries are foreign trained. The planning of proficient instruction for technology, concern disposal and other allied topics for degree degree classs may be done with the purpose of get downing these topics in proficient establishments in future.

Electronic goods/mobile phones fix store at Baroma

TVET Potential. This field needs to be exploited to the full. Most of the people working in this sector are self taught, few have had experience of being taught at a proper VTC. More vacancies may be created at the VTCs for this sector.

12. Mining Sector

. Somalia has rich sedimentation of coal[ 7 ]; Cu, Zn and lead etc. Puntland reportedly has sedimentation of emeralds and other gemstones on its boundary lines with Ethiopia. There is no regulative authorization over this sector or proper preparation, equipment, , likewise some other dearly-won minerals i.e. gold, treasures, emeralds etc are found but no extraction at commercial degree is taking topographic point due to absence of installations.

It has rich sedimentation of oil and gas, Chinese, American and South African companies have been researching in this field. Peace is required before any major development can take topographic point in this field. It is suggested that authorities should concentrate on this sector which can convey batch of wealth to the state in times to come.

TVET contrivers may get down planning now for preparation of skilled work force so that when the clip comes skilled/semi-skilled work force can be mobilized in a short period.

13. Health and Sanitation Sector. Somalia has lost some of its work force working in this sector to foreign states. Besides physicians there is an acute deficit of paramedical staff and mid-wives etc. There is besides choice shortage as some of the infirmaries are non satisfied with the quality of the paramedical staff. There is the demand to upgrade both the quality and quantum of the end product. A suggestion was mooted to acquire trainers and demonstrator nurses from neighbouring states of East Africa The presence of these nurses will non merely better their preparation in the interim period but will besides heighten the paramedical installations of these hospitals/clinics during the interim period.

Expatriate staff in a Puntland Hospital

Culture and Heritage Preservation. To inquire for cultural and heritage saving from a society contending for its very endurance is a far call. However awareness has to be taken as to what can be done even under most inauspicious fortunes. Cultural and heritage saving has a direct bearing on the rational and mental wellness of a state. It will finally ensue in creative activity of a more cohesive, intellectually exciting and suiting society. This is precisely what is required in Somalia now, the intellectuals within and those who are interested demand to mobilise their synergisms into this field.

Present State. There has been small attempt to continue the centuries old heritage of Somalia. The civil war, highly rapid urbanisation without any town or environmental planning, the interruption up of the household as a unit due to civil discord has taken a heavy toll on the Somali manner of life. Old imposts, traditions and edifices are interrupting down at a really fast rate. If nil is done to salvage the cultural and architectural heritage of the state, irrevokable and irreversible harm would hold taken topographic point. Besides saving there is a demand to hold museums and cultural Centres at least in the State capitals. It needs a complete survey by itself.

Documentation. There is a demand to document and salvage old common people vocals, common people narratives, poesy, marionette and theater group acts, music and other cultural events that use to take topographic point. Even events like camel, Equus caballus and donkey races have a topographic point in the cultural history of a state. There has been a immense break in this sector because of the civil discord.

Cultural Position of Women. Unlike other mobile Muslims societies. The adult females enjoy an enviable position in the Somali society. They are working in offices, stores, commercials organisations, running concern endeavors besides acquiring educated in assorted accomplishments. This manner their part to the national economic system is important. An attempt to further better their standing and position supplying more and better educational installations peculiarly in the field of TVET would travel a long manner towards bettering their batch. It will besides move as an illustration for other such societies.

Preservation of Archeological Sites. Should be undertaken by affecting some of the giver organisations with long standing historical, cultural and other linkages and engagement in the Horn of Africa.

Historical Buildings In this connexion besides continuing ancient archaeological sites, traditions, imposts, humanistic disciplines and trades, the heritage in the field of building, may be preserved. Some of the old colonial edifices made of rock and lime howitzer are still standing. These elements are native to Somalia and non imported trade goods like cement, aluminium, iron/steel or tiles etc. These edifices are environmentally friendly catering for the local climatic conditions. Besides making occupations and employment, this will besides make consciousness and educate the populace in saving of their heritage and civilization.


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