ABSTRACT The researchers decided to conduct a study called “Low Fat Fruit Salad Yogurt” wherein the researchers will observe and see the result of the product. Yogurt is not just a delicious snack with fruits on the bottom, it has great health benefits. It is an excellent source of protein, calcium, riboflavin and vitamin B 12. When yogurt is compared to milk, yogurt contains more calcium and protein because of the added cultures in the yogurt. Yogurt must contain active and living cultures to be yogurt. It improves natural defense, it contains a good amount of phosphorus and 88% water.
People with a risk of osteoporosis should eat at least one serving of yogurt per day. It has also been claimed that yogurt may protect against some types of cancer but more investigations have to be carried out. The researchers first made a normal yogurt using the following ingredients: milk, one of the main ingredients of a yogurt; buttermilk powder and skim milk powder, so that the milk will thicken and it will become creamy. They heated the milk, add buttermilk and skim milk powder and refrigerated it so that after a few hours it will be a real yogurt.
While the made yogurt was being refrigerated, the researchers began to cut the four fruits; namely, apple, banana, papaya and pineapple, into small pieces so that once they made yogurt is done, they’ll just add it. ? ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The researchers would like to thank the following: First, our guaridans; namely, Analyn Mostiero, Jocelyn Cepe, Mari-len Jaudines, Julie Jaudines, Elizabeth Jovero and Analyne Valdecantos for giving us the financial support in this study and for helping us to make the Investigatory Project a success.
Second, our classmates, especially Ariane Sampaga, and friends who gave the researchers support in their survey and during the difficulties they have encountered. The researchers also want to thank Ms. Ramona Dimalaluan for allowing us to conduct this study and for understanding whenever there are errors in the experiment during the last quarters that includes the issue of approving the study. And last but not the least, God who gave the researchers strength and knowledge to finish the product. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
In this Chapter, the Researcher will discuss about the Problems that will be encountered by the researchers, the Background of the topic, the Significance of the Study and the Scope and Limitations of the Study. 1. 1 Background of the Study Fruit salad, also called Macedonia, is a dish consisting of various kinds of fruit, served either in their own juices or a syrup. In different forms fruit salad can be served as an appetizer, a side-salad, or a dessert. When served as an appetizer or as a dessert, a fruit salad is also known as a fruit cocktail. Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk. It is a favorite breakfast, lunch, or snack food found in the dairy aisle of the grocery store. It is a thick, custard- or pudding-like food. The Researcher chose this study because they are interested on how does yogurt affect the weight of a person when eaten regularly. ? 1. 2 Statement of the Problem The study which the researcher will conduct focus on the yogurt that will be made using the following fruits: papaya, banana, apple and pineapple.
The purpose of this study is to make Low Fat Fruit Salad Yogurt. The researcher aims to answer the following questions: Specific Problem: ?What is the difference between the made product and commercialized ones? ?Does it take a hard time to make a yogurt? ?What might be the effect of eating the made product? 1. 3. Significance of the Study All of us can benefit from this study in such a way that it will help us to widen our knowledge on how a yogurt can affect our body because Yogurt is easier to digest than milk.
Many people who cannot tolerate milk, either because of protein allergy or lactose intolerance, can enjoy yogurt. And even most picky-eaters will eat yogurt in dips and smoothies and as a topping. 1. 4 Scope and Limitations The only concern of this study is to know the reason on how can the given fruits when mixed with other ingredients make a low fat yogurt. This study also includes the advantages on picky eaters. This study is limited to use the given fruits and main ingredients of a yogurt. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE and CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
In this Chapter, the Researcher will discuss about the Review of Literature, the Conceptual Framework, the Hypothesis and the Definition of Terms. 2. 1. Review of Literature A. Fruits The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context, and the term is not synonymous in food preparation and biology. Fruits are the means by which flowering plants disseminate seeds, and the presence of seeds indicates that a structure is most likely a fruit, though not all seeds come from fruits. The term “fruit” has also been inaccurately applied to the seed-containing female cones of many conifers.
Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fruit_salad B. Fruit Salad The star attraction of fruit salad is, of course, fruit. Typically, the fruit is peeled or otherwise prepared, and cut into bit-sized pieces to make it easier to eat. Any number of fruits and berries can be used in fruit salad, including apples, raspberries, bananas, mangoes, persimmons, kiwis, pineapples, blueberries, oranges, tangerines, and numerous others. Some cooks simply present fruit salad plain, sometimes with a theme, like tropical fruit salad or Mediterranean fruit salad.
In other instances, fruit salad may be prepared with a simple acidic dressing which is designed to keep the fruit from browning. Lime juice, for example, may be used on a tropical fruit salad, or saba may be mixed in with a Mediterranean fruit salad. Vinaigrettes may also be utilized, or the fruit may simply be dipped in acidulated water to prevent browning. Other fruit salads are made with cream dressings, ranging from tangy dressings with blue cheese or sour cream to sweet dressings with whipped cream or mascarpone cheese. Fruit salads can get quite complex, with additions like grilled fruit or savory dressings.
In the 1950s and 1960s, gelatin salads made with sweet flavored gelatin and fruit inclusions were very popular. Sometimes vegetables may be added to a fruit salad, giving it a more savory bent, and a fruit salad may also be paired with greens, nuts, bread, and other savory ingredients. Any number of ingredients can be added to dressings, including yogurt, honey, mustard, hot peppers, sesame oil, soy sauce, and so forth, with cooks preparing a dressing which best blends with the ingredients in the salad. The nutritional value of fruit salad varies widely, depending on the fruits and dressings used.
Many fruits are high in fiber and an assortment of vitamins, especially if their peels are left on, as in the case of apples, grapes, kumquats, and other fruits with edible rinds or peels. Fruit salad typically tastes best when fresh, although it can be refrigerated for up to a day, and if tossed with an acidic dressing, the risk of bacterial contamination is typically fairly low. Source: http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-fruit-salad. htm •Apple (Malus domestica) The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the most widely cultivated tree ruits. The tree is small and deciduous, reaching three to twelve (3 to 12) metres (9. 8 to 39 ft) tall, with a broad, often densely twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged simple ovals five to twelve (5 to 12) cm long and three to six (3–6) centimetres (1. 2–2. 4 in) broad on a two to five (2 to 5) centimetres (0. 79 to 2. 0 in) petiole with an acute tip, serrated margin and a slightly downy underside. Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves. The flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, and two point five to three point five (2. to 3. 5) centimetres (0. 98 to 1. 4 in) in diameter. The fruit matures in autumn, and is typically 5 to 9 centimetres (2. 0 to 3. 5 in) diameter. The center of the fruit contains five carpels arranged in a five-point star, each carpel containing one to three seeds. Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Apple •Banana (Musa acuminata) Banana is the common name for a type of fruit and also the herbaceous plants of the genus Musa which produce this commonly eaten fruit. They are native to the tropical region of Southeast Asia.
Bananas are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. Today, they are cultivated throughout the tropics. Banana plants are of the family Musaceae. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of fibre and as ornamental plants. As the banana plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy they are often mistaken for trees, but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudostem. For some species this pseudostem can reach a height of up to two to eight (2–8) m, with leaves of up to three point five (3. 5) m in length.
Each pseudostem can produce a bunch of green bananas which when ripened often turn yellow or sometimes red. After bearing fruit, the pseudostem dies and is replaced by another. Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Banana •Papaya (Carica papaya) The papaya (from Carib via Spanish) is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, and was cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classic cultures. It is sometimes called a “big melon” or a “paw paw” but the North American pawpaw is a different species, in the genus Asimina.
It is a large tree-like plant, the single stem growing from five to ten (5 to 10) meters tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk; the lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, fifty to seventy (50-70) cm diameter, deeply palmately lobed with seven (7) lobes. The tree is usually unbranched if unlopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large fifteen to forty-five (15-45) cm long, ten to thirty (10-30) cm diameter fruit.
The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. The fruit’s taste is vaguely similar to pineapple and peach, although much milder without the tartness. Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Papaya •Pineapple (Ananas comosus) Pineapple is the common name for an edible tropical plant and also its fruit.  It is native to the southern part of Brazil, and Paraguay.  Pineapple is eaten fresh or canned and is available as a juice or in juice combinations.
It is used in desserts, salads, as a complement to meat dishes and in fruit cocktail. While sweet, it is known for its high acid content (perhaps malic and/or citric). Pineapples are the only bromeliad fruit in widespread cultivation. It is one of the most commercially important plants which carry out CAM photosynthesis. Pineapple contains a proteolytic enzyme bromelain, which breaks down protein. Pineapple juice can thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat. The enzymes in raw pineapples can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly or other gelatin-based desserts.
The bromelain breaks down in cooking or the canning process, thus canned pineapple can generally be used with gelatin. These enzymes can be hazardous to someone suffering from certain protein deficiencies or disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Raw pineapples also should not be consumed by those with hemophilia or by those with kidney or liver disease, as it may reduce the time taken to coagulate a consumer’s blood. Consumers of pineapple have claimed that pineapple has benefits for some intestinal disorders and others believe it serves as a pain eliever; others claim that it helps to induce childbirth when a baby is overdue. Pineapple is a good source of manganese (91 %DV in a 1 cup serving), as well as containing significant amounts of Vitamin C (94 %DV in a 1 cup serving) and Vitamin B1 (8 %DV in a 1 cup serving). Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Pineapple – cite_note-5 C. Yogurt Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Soy yoghurt, a non-dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk.
Dairy yoghurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. Milk is heated and cooled for an hour. While it is heated, the bacteria are added for fermentation. People have been making—and eating—yogurt for at least 5,400 years. Today it is a common food item throughout the world. A nutritious food with unique health benefits, it is rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. There is evidence of cultured milk products being produced as food for at least 4,500 years.
The earliest yoghurts were probably spontaneously fermented by wild bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus native to and named after Bulgaria. The oldest writings mentioning yogurt are attributed to Pliny the Elder who remarked that certain nomadic tribes, including the Bulgars, knew how “to thicken the milk into a substance with an agreeable acidity”. The use of yoghurt by medieval Turks is recorded in the books Diwan Lughat al-Turk by Mahmud Kashgari and Kutadgu Bilig by Yusuf Has Hajib written in the 11th century. Both texts mention the word “yoghurt” in different sections and describe its use by nomadic Turks.
An early account of a European encounter with yoghurt occurs in French clinical history: Francis I suffered from a severe diarrhea which no French doctor could cure. His ally Suleiman the Magnificent sent a doctor, who allegedly cured the patient with yoghurt. Being grateful, the French king spread around the information about the food which had cured him. Until the 1900s, yoghurt was a staple in diets of people in the Russian Empire (and especially Central Asia and the Caucasus), Western Asia, South Eastern Europe/Balkans, Central Europe, and India.
Bulgarian student of medicine in Geneva Stamen Grigorov (1878–1945) first examined the microflora of the Bulgarian yoghurt. In 1905 he described it as consisting of a spherical and a rod-like lactic acid bacteria. In 1907 the rod-like bacteria was called Lactobacillus bulgaricus (now Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus). The Russian Nobel laureat biologist Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, from the Institut Pasteur in Paris, was influenced by Grigorov’s work and hypothesised that regular consumption of yoghurt was responsible for the unusually long lifespans of Bulgarian peasants.
Believing Lactobacillus to be essential for good health, Mechnikov worked to popularise yoghurt as a foodstuff throughout Europe. A Sephardic Jewish entrepreneur named Isaac Carasso industrialized the production of yoghurt. In 1919, Carasso, who was from Ottoman Salonika, started a small yoghurt business in Barcelona and named the business Danone (“little Daniel”) after his son. The brand later expanded to the United States under an Americanised version of the name: Dannon. Yoghurt with added fruit jam was patented in 1933 by the Radlicka Mlekarna dairy in Prague. It was introduced to the United States in 1947, by Dannon.
Yoghurt was first introduced to the United States by Armenian immigrants Sarkis and Rose Colombosian, who started “Colombo and Sons Creamery” in Andover, Massachusetts in 1929. Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon inscribed with the Armenian word “madzoon” which was later changed to “yogurt”, the Turkish name of the product, as Turkish was the lingua franca between immigrants of the various Near Eastern ethnicities who were the main consumers at that time. Yoghurt’s popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s when it was presented as a health food.
By the late 20th century yoghurt had become a common American food item and Colombo Yoghurt was sold to General Mills in 1993. Nutritional value and health benefits Tzatziki, an appetiser made with yoghurt, popular in Greece and Bulgaria, where it is called Dry Tarator Yoghurt is nutritionally rich in protein, calcium, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. It has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk. People who are moderately lactose-intolerant can enjoy yoghurt without ill effects, because much of the lactose in the milk precursor is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial culture.
Yoghurt also has medical uses, in particular for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions, and in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. One study suggests that eating yoghurt containing L. acidophilus helps prevent vulvovaginal candidiasis, though the evidence is not conclusive. Yoghurt is believed to promote good gum health, possibly because of the probiotic effect of lactic acids present in yoghurt. A study published in the International Journal of Obesity (11 January 2005) also found that the consumption of low fat yoghurt can promote weight loss.
In the trial, obese individuals who ate 3 servings of low fat yoghurt a day as part of a low calorie diet lost 22% more weight than the control group who only cut back on calories and did not have extra calcium. They also lost 81% more abdominal fat. Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Yoghurt 2. 2 Definition of Terms: These are the following terms that are being used in this study: a)Inoculate -To introduce a serum, vaccine, or antigenic substance into (the body of a person or animal), especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease. b)Scorching To wither or parch with intense heat. c)Deciduous – Plants that lose their leaves at the end of the growing season. d)Interchangeably -Following each other in alternate succession. – Admitting of exchange or mutual substitution. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In this Chapter, the Researchers will discuss about the Materials and Procedure that will be used in the study. 3. 1. Materials The researchers will need the following ingredients: the chosen fruits, apple, banana, papaya and pineapple; low fat milk; skim milk powder; and buttermilk powder. The researchers will also need the following materials to ake the product: knife and knifing board, for slicing; pan, for heating the milk; spoon, for stirring; and bowl, a temporary container. 3. 2. Procedures First, Put two (2) cups of low fat milk in a pan. Heat in low fire. Then, keep stirring. Second, add two to five (2-5) tablespoons of skim milk powder and stir. Third, when it boils, put four to six (4-6) tablespoons of buttermilk powder. Fourth, put into a container with lid. Fifth, Put it in a refrigerator and leave it overnight. Sixth, Peel the fruits then chop it into small pieces. Last, when the yogurt is ready put the small pieces of chopped fruits in the yogurt. CHAPTER IV
RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS In this chapter, the researcher will discuss the results and discussions of the made product. 4. 1. Results TRIAL 1 – Blended Fruits OBSERVATIONS TasteThe taste was good at first, but after a while it tasted like medicine, specifically, biogesic. The taste was awful. The fruits cannot be tasted. ColorThe yogurt’s color was yellowish. TextureIt looked like mango shake. There were many tiny bits of fruits. TRIAL 2 – Medium Chopped Fruits OBSERVATIONS TasteThe taste needs a little more sour and sweetness. The fruits were too big to chew. ColorThe yogurt’s color was white. TextureThe yogurt was a little bit creamy.
The fruits are a little bit bigger for the yogurt. TRIAL 3 – Tiny Bits of Chopped Fruits OBSERVATIONS TasteThe yogurt was much tastier than before. You will be able to taste the sourness of the yogurt. The fruits can be tasted clearly. ColorThe yogurt’s color was like white with a little bit of orange and pink because of the apples. TextureThe yogurt was creamy. It looked like an ordinary yogurt. 4. 2. Discussions In terms of taste: trial one is the worst since it tasted like medicine, to be exact paracetamol; trial two is a little bit sour than the first trial; and trial 3 is far better than the previous trials.
In terms of color: trial one is yellowish; trial two and trial three are normal. In terms of texture: trial one is worst; trial two is a average; while trial three is normal. In this case, the researchers have observed that in terms of taste, color, texture and other aspects, the trial 3 is the best. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION In this chapter, the researchers will discuss about the conclusion and recommendation for this study. 5. 1. Conclusion The researchers therefore conclude that four fruits in a yogurt are also recommendable since normal yogurts only have one or two flavors.
Thus, the made yogurt is unique. They also conclude that making a yogurt is hard and can take about a day since it would be needed to refrigerate it overnight. 5. 2 Recommendation The researchers recommend to the people who are interested to make this study is to find ways to make the yogurt much creamier. The researchers also recommend to use substitute ingredients that are usual to find and that is affordable, because the ingredients such as buttermilk powder and skim milk powder are very hard to find.
The researcher who made this Investigatory Project recommends making use of some materials that the interested people already have to avoid spending too much money. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Fruit_salad http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-fruit-salad. htm http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Apple http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Banana http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Papaya http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-a-low-fat-diet. htm http://hubpages. com/hub/How_to_make_your_own_yogurt_-_An_illustrated_guide