Since the fire in Shek Kip Mei on 25 December 1953 that made 53,000 people homeless, due to the shantytowns of the China immigrants were destroyed. As the population growing of Hong Kong is really fast from the five decennaries ago due to the immigrants and birth rate. At present, Hong Kong Government is confronting the job of denseness populated. For this ground, Hong Kong Government assigns Hong Kong Housing Authority to develop public lodging plan of “ multi narrative edifice ” for immigrants to populating at that place. Therefore, Hong Kong Housing Authority has been turn into the biggest public lodging developer and the individual owner in Hong Kong. Nevertheless, the lodging status and the practicableness is the of import consideration of the territory, because the chief construct of public lodging is satisfy the basic and existent demand of townsfolk, who can non afford the private lodging demand.
Nowadays, there are many public lodging estate are out of the current criterion and outmoded owing to the clip is elapse. So, Hong Kong Housing Authority launches the Comprehensive Redevelopment Programme to do an betterment of life quality to the renter that life in old public lodging estate, there are 566 mark block about 231,403 flats which was built before 1973 are demolished and the Comprehensive Redevelopment Programme was completed in January 2010. Otherwise, the Housing Authority carry out the Entire Maintenance Scheme in 2006 about covering 600,000 flats, the Housing Authority article demoing that the chief construct of this strategy is Proactive and comprehensive attack to place care jobs, so Prompt response to exigencies and renters ‘ petitions, eventually, Enhanced promotional and educational programmes to better the care quality and service in public lodging estate and heighten the quality of life environment to the renter.
At this minute in this clip, Hong Kong Housing Authority had made two different programme which are care and renovation in different period to heighten the life quality of public lodging estate. Building care is a method to sustainable of maintaining and enhances the map of installations of aged public lodging. Redevelopment is a method that demolish the antique edifice and renovation, it is really complicated, because there are many factors are contained, ( e.g. psychological science affect of renter, usage of clip, cost of finance, handiness of the land ) .
For this ground, the intent of this survey is research the benefit and disadvantage of care and renovation of aged public lodging, express the different and troubles to predate the renovation and care and convey up my recommendation that base on the sentiment of public and the feasibleness survey on the really status for the hereafter edifice direction for Hong Kong, .
In this survey, I will first supply some background information of aged public lodging in Hong Kong. Then, I will show a clear conceptual background of care and renovation, such as the definition of care and renovation, and critically reexamine the status of aged public lodging in Hong Kong.
Then, I will measure and analyze the purpose of authorities policy for pick between care and renovation of aged public lodging, in order to do the best determination between acceptance of care and renovation of aged public lodging in Hong Kong.
In add-on, I will sketch and discourse the factors lending to the determination. Besides, I will chiefly concentrate on three factors, economic, environment and structural safety. And, I will so sketch the advantages and disadvantages of care and renovation, which can impact the determination between acceptance of care and renovation of aged public lodging.
Finally, I will sum up the factors which can impact the determination devising and supply some recommendations for the future determination devising and renovation for public lodging estate.
Purposes and Objective
The purpose of this thesis is to reexamine and measure the determination for the old public edifice between care and renovation of Hong Kong.
A historical reappraisal the background of public lodging in Hong Kong.
A literature reviews the definition of care and renovation and compares the factor which determines the determination between renovation and care.
Carry out research and interview with selected mark edifice and group.
Choice of public edifice for instance survey.
A critical information analysis and information based on the decision drawn from all reappraisal and research.
Decision and recommendation based on the critical analysis and consequence of the research.
History of public lodging in Hong Kong
The visual aspect of public lodging in Hong Kong chiefly due to the fire in Shek Kip Mei on 25 December 1953, the fire destroyed the stopgap places of refugees from Mainland China, go forthing 53,000 people homeless. After the fire, and confronting a rush of immigrant population, so the authorities launched a public lodging plan to present the thought of “ multi narrative edifice ” for the immigrant population life at that place, therefore get downing a programme of mass public lodging, supplying low-cost places for those on low incomes. Some bookmans have argued that the authorities has been exaggerating the function of the fire in the history of public lodging in Hong Kong.
Presents, public lodging installation is the weightiest place of the society. Public lodging estate major provided a place for peoples who ca n’t afford the private adjustment in existent demand, because the rates of public lodging are truly lower than private lodging. At present, there are 169 public lodging estate ( about 656,000 public rental flats and abode about 2.2 million people ) under the Housing Authority ‘s ( HA ) direction range.
Research methodological analysis and important of survey
Research is a procedure, which is the manner to acquire the reply and inquiry to hypothesis in different manner of this survey and back up the decision from information of the research. Furthermore, methodological analysis is usage for prove the truth of the premise, the methodological analysis that is choose from literature reappraisal ( e.g. intelligence, article, diary, book ) and probe for mark individual ( e.g. group interview, single interview, questionnaire ) .
Chapter one is the Introduction of this survey, in this portion, the history of Honk Kong public lodging estate is introduced foremost, so specify the chief focal point of this survey clearly and explicate the beginning of information about this survey. Therefore, a clear construct of this survey provided for the reader from this chapter.
Chapter two is the Literature Review, in this chapter, the definition and feature of care and renovation are identify by literature or article or diary, after that, the factor of influence that between care and renovation is recognize base on the construct findings of care and renovation, the of import information from the article or diary are recap and compare the informations on the most relevant.
Chapter Three is the Methodology, in this portion is to do a critical reappraisal on the determination for the old public edifice between care and renovation of Hong Kong. The methodological analysis consists of a literature reappraisal, followed by questionnaire study and the subsequent interview. The decision from the analysis of the consequences of questionnaire and interview studies would be served as a land for explicating the recommendations.
Chapter Four is the Findingss and Data Analysis, in this portion all information and information that collected would be organized in this chapter and elaborate treatment and analysis would be presented from the interview and the questionnaire.
Chapter Five is the Conclusion and Recommendations, in this chapter, concluding decision and recommendations will be made based on the treatment, collected information and analysis made in Chapter three and four.
Definition of Care
Harmonizing to British Standard 8210 defined care as the combination of all proficient and administrative action intended to retain an point in, or reconstruct it to, a province in which it can execute its needed map. And the old version of British Standard ( BS 3811: 1964 ) stated that care as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an point, or reconstruct it to, an acceptable status. There are few constituents are identified from the above definition.
Harmonizing to the British Standard stated that Action non merely related to the physical executing of care work, besides concerned with its induction, funding and organisation. The impression of an acceptable status, which implies and apprehension of the demand for the effectual use of the edifice and its parts, which in bend compels broader consideration of edifice public presentation,
Chartered of Institute of Building offer the followerss definition of care: ‘Works undertaken in order to maintain, reconstruct or better every installation, e.g. every portion of edifice, its services and environments, to an in agreement criterion, determined by the balance between demand and available resources ‘ .
The commission on Building Maintenance recommended the acceptance of the followerss:
Definition of care: ‘Work undertaken in order to maintain, reconstruct or better every installation e.g. every portion of edifice, its services and surrounds to a presently acceptable criterion and to prolong the public-service corporation and value of the installation.
Proper care can widen the utile life of a edifice well. Renovation of old edifices is sometimes a feasible option to redevelopment as it causes much less break to the affected occupants. It can besides better the environment and cut down the demand for urban reclamation from the Planning environment and Lands Branch, 1996
British criterion ( BS 3811: 1984 ) classified care as three parts as follow,
I. Planned care ; described as organized care and carried out with forethought, control, and the usage of records to predetermined program.
two. Preventive care, it is carried out at preset or to other prescribed standards and intended to cut down the likeliness of an point non run intoing an acceptable status.
three. Runing care, which can be carried out whilst an point is in service.
Definition of Renovation
Renovation means that the society shall pulverize and redevelop the old bedraggled edifice with hapless populating status into a productive and desirable usage in order to use the land resources.
Hong Kong Housing Authority described that the renovation and clearance purposes to better the life criterion for occupants in older estates and to guarantee that installations and benefits do non dawdle excessively far behind the newer estates.
The sentiment focuses on pulverizing old and dilapidated edifices which supplying hapless living conditions and bettering populating conditions by piecing big pieces of land for comprehensive planning and the restructuring of the community through supplying better and appropriate community installations and unfastened infinite. ( P.K. Kam 2002 )
Housing Authority stated that the land usage within the community, new chances may be identified which may take to better planning and development within the territory, including chances for lodging. ( HKHA )
Redevelopment as an effectual agencies to comprehensively revamp an old country by upgrading the street design and the community amenities every bit good as to better use the in deficit supply of land resources. ( Urban Renewal Authority )
Comprehensive lodging reclamation can supply greater unfastened infinite and community installations. Typical nonsubjective include: suited re-housing ; increased comfortss ; community saving ‘ architectural preservation and financial results, among others that base on Couch 1990, Rapkin 1980
Factors which Determining the Decision between Redevelopment and Maintenance
The ground for renovation chiefly as the followers:
Replacement of whole elements of constituents
When the whole elements of constituents are functionally unsatisfactory ; incur high care or running costs and aesthetically unacceptable ( Lee Maintenance Management ) , the constituents will be redeveloped.
2. Design restraints, deficiency of comfortss
Since, the populace ‘s outlook for bettering the criterion of life environment is lifting. A redeveloped constituent will supply a better life environment to the occupants. Areas concern such as to better the status, value and life span of public lodging assets, heighten local communities and back up the local building industry.
3. Maximize the use of land
Redevelop a constituent non merely can increase the efficiency of land use, but besides provide a better integrating of transit and commercial installations and the proviso of new territory installations.
4. Change of secret plan ratio
Plot ratio control was under the Building Ordinance is a device used by be aftering governments, to curtail the sum of floor infinite provided in new edifice in relation to their site country. The population grows at ( the rate of population growing is approximately one million per decennary in Hong Kong ) approximately a million every decennary in Hong Kong. With limited land resources, farther addition in denseness in high of lodging development is inevitable. In add-on, supply more tenancy ratio, the tenancy ratio of 2.23sq m per individual that had been established in the 1950s and changed over clip to 4.25sq m per individual in the 1980s, up to day of the month, the current tenancy ratio stands at 7 sq m per individual.
The big assembly of land through the Comprehensive Development Area ( CDA ) comcept has two major benefits from the contrivers point of position, Booth ( 1996 ) and Listokin ( 1974 ) ; Waver and Blabcock ( 1979 ) ; all cited by Tse ( 2001 )
The CDA sites can accomplish the maximal secret plan ratio ;
It can accomplish a better designed layout and block temperament and supply equal communal installations for the development.
structural and edifice safety
American Planning Association elaborated that the edifice in which it is insecure for individuals and unhealthy to populate or work due to decrepitude ; impairment ; faulty design or physical building ; unequal public-service corporations ; deficiency of airing, light or healthful installations taint by risky substances and renovation might be considered.
The grounds for care chiefly as the followers:
1. Environmental impact
Environmental impacts originating from the destruction, building and operation of the renovation undertaking and related activities, hence the environmental impact of care plants are much better to avoid and minimise the possible environmental impacts to the populace.
2. Long clip for the completion of new estates
The entire lead-time for the completion of new estates is about 4 old ages including: planning, design, tendering and building.
3. Lower operation and care cost in the long tally
Preventive care construct has developed in Housing Authority. In position of the fact that regular fix and care can non basically work out the jobs originating from ageing, such as H2O ooze in the balcony, corroding of H2O pipes, wear and tear of concrete, etc. the Housing Department is researching ways to upgrade or keep elderly estates comprehensively in order to better renters populating environment Building rehabilitation is one of the options being explored in covering with aged estates.
4. High building costs are non cost-efficient
Tight budget of Housing Authority incurring such high building costs is non cost-efficient and will besides impact the environment during building phase.
Advantages of renovation
There are several benefits for the Housing Authority during renovation First of wholly, the rationalisation of land usage and the chance for increasing lodging production, peculiarly for Housing Authority renovation site where boundaries may be modified to optimise development strength.
The ability to convey in other resources to ease renovation of bing public lodging estates, including the private sector and other quasi-government bureaus. This could enable some older estates to be redeveloped for higher and more productive utilizations that would otherwise stay for a long clip due to a deficiency of suited response lodging.
One of the benefits is that the betterment to the physical conditions of the country that would profit bing public lodging occupants and at the sme clip enhances the attraction and desirableness of Housing Authority developments.
Besides, the grater diverseness of land usage and type of developments will help in bettering the secio-economic mix in the country and supply lodging occupants with more picks and lodging chances.
Furthermore, building occupations created by the development of new edifices and new substructure and the remodeling in bing edifices
Redeveloping edifice can halt the spread of impairment and blight of aging edifice and bettering the safety and environment of next countries
Lacks of renovation
Government ‘s renovation plans have the undermentioned lacks:
Migration of huge figure of people is a complicated procedure necessitating detailed planning, monitoring and certification. A high per centum ( up to 40 % ) of Hong Kong population is housed in Public Housing Estates. An extended re-housing and redevelopment plan is required, which exerts heavy force per unit area on work force, clip and money.
Destruction of a edifice is a dearly-won procedure. Furthermore it creates building waste undesitably inescapably. The waste, if inappropriately reused, can ensue in pollution of the environment and depletion of resources. Besides noise and ocular pollutions can go nuisances to nearby occupants.
New estate designs are frequently based on economic values. Besides, cost efficiency and high practicality had been the attack adopted in the new developments, missing in the encouragement of communal interactions. The new estates have more humdrum and self-enclosed life environment.
Significances and Advantages of Maintenance
Harmonizing to David Highfield ( 2000 ) defined that the cost of renovating and re-using and bing edifice is by and large well less than the cost of destruction and new building since many of the edifice elements are already constructed.
One of the rules advantages of choosing of renovation and re-use of bing constructing – instead than destruction and building – is that, in he bulk of instances. The renewed or redeveloped adjustments will be available in a much shorter clip. And the shorter contract continuance reduces the effects of rising prices on edifice costs, besides the overall development period could be shorter and reduces the cost of financing the strategy
The work required refurbishing and bing edifice would usually take well less clip than the alternate if destruction, site clearance and the building of a new edifice. Time nest eggs, during the pre-contract design, be aftering permission and edifice plants stages of development.
The client obtains the edifice Oklahoman and hence begins the earn reveue from it ( e.g. leases, retail gross revenues of fabricating net incomes ) at an earlier day of the month.
With the increasing cost of new-build work, effectual care of bing constructing stock is become more of import and building care now represents a important proportion of building end product.
About unstable supply of building plants, harmonizing to Patricia Hillebrandt ( 2000 ) stated that the finding of demand for building activity is a really complex matter and to a great extent depends on the policy of authorities either straight through its intercession in the populace sector, or through its influence on the general degree of economic sciences activity in the private sector.
The criterion of care achieved has an of import influence on the quality of the built environment and there seems small uncertainty that society will go on to anticipate higher criterions in new and existing edifices. Presents, care is a important and of import portion of the work of the constrctuion industry.
The environmental advantages, one of the many ways in which energy ingestion can be reduced is to recycle and re-use exising resouces every bit much as possible, in penchant to devouring even more energy by replacing them. E.g. when major changes are made, will by and large utilize less energy than destruction and new physique.
Housing Authority stressed that care can ease early defect deteration and rectifection. This canavoid the extra disbursals originating from farther impairment and it enables constructing elemets and services installings to be replaced at the optimal clip in order to accomplish the upper limit serviceable life ( Press Release: Home CARE Maintenance for Public Housing Estate, 1 March,2001 )
Disadvantage of Care
Although care is good to the aged edifice and many articles are back uping this position, but there are no perfect positions of any affair, so in this portion, the disadvantage of care is shown as the follows:
The attendant criterion of life may non populate up to modern-day outlooks.
Very limited potency for positive impact with respect to lad usage and edifice public presentation.
The current mismatch in lodging type supply and demand and the general inefficient layout of the site would stay.
This attack dose non count for the comparatively short life span of the bing lodging.
Deterioration and Obsolescence
The life rhythm analysis by Flanagan ( 1989 ) , which includes the undermentioned points:
Physical impairment ; economic obsolescence ; functional obsolescence ; technological obsolescence ; societal obsolescence ; location obsolescence ; legal obsolescence ; aesthetic and ocular obsolescence ; image obsolescence ; and environmental obsolescence.
Base on Aikivuori ( 1995 ) asserts that the defects of edifice are comparative, non absolute and hence hard to mensurate objectively. The replacing due to obsolescence is non technically rational since it does non optimise the usage of constructions until the terminal of their lastingness. Since disciplinary replacing is defined as the undertaking aimed at deteriorated constructions in unacceptable physical status.
Harmonizing to Taylor ( 1980 ) proposes that impairment has no portion in the accrued lower status caused by obsolescence and the impairment and obsolescence are 2 dissociable issues. Both Taylor ( 1980 ) have categorized the causes of replacing into these 2 categories, e.g. impairment and obsolescence.
Therefore, Aikivuori ( 1995 ) view the grounds for the determination to originate a renovation undertaking as a footing of the demand. The phenomena doing renovation are classified into 5 classs in his survey as follows: failure in the edifice due to impairment: alteration in usage: optimisation of economic factors: capable characteristics of the determination shaper: and the alteration of fortunes.
Life Span of Building Components
Base on the chief subject of this survey, the life span of edifice constituents is a really critical portion to supply the sustainable development environment and heighten the value and practicableness of the elderly edifice. Besides, it is a critical portion to impact the determination between care and renovation, so the edifice constituents should be co-ordinate with the methodological analysis to show consequence that meet the international criterion, the methodological analysis is truly simple to included many-sided application and give a suited advice of the analysis or reappraisal for different type of edifice in Hong Kong or other state.
Harmonizing to the related RICS diaries “ Measuring the Life Expectancies of Building for Life Cycle Costing ” by Ashworth ( 1996 ) convey up the thought is about the rate of depreciation of edifice constituents depend on different information or information supporting and the choice of relevant life span reappraisals. Base on the theory from this diary, the anticipations may be unsure, due to a proper design and care agreement or physical impairment and obsolescence affect or the quality of refurbishment stage. Anyhow, different types or usage of edifice have different renovation lives and the statement of anticipations incidence is of import than overall edifice life span.
Macdonald ( 2003 ) indentified the edifice demand and purpose of life is at least 50 old ages or supra, if there is good craft in building phase and arrange review and care work on rhythm. Actuality, most of the edifice may be demolished before the terminal of clip and reconstruct, if there is any economical net income of that topographic point or may be alter the usage of edifice to run into the new demand.
Base on the information from RICS, the serviceable life span of aged public lodging can be widening about 10-15 old ages, due to a systematic and rhythm care agreement. Therefore, the aged public lodgings are structurally safe, that mean it is unneeded to pulverize and redevelopment.
The life span constituents of public lodging estates as follow:
Life Span ( twelvemonth )
External wall tile
Vinyl sheet or tile
Internal wall pigment
Waterproofing, bituminous coating
Therefore, there are many factors impacting the life anticipation of edifice constituents and need to be considered when doing replacing determinations, including the quality of the constituents, the quality of the installing, degree of the care, conditions and climatic conditions and strength of their usage. Some constituents remain functional but become disused because of altering manners and manners and gustatory sensation or because of merchandise betterment.
RICS defined that the edifice construction may be designed utilizing stuffs, constituents and engineering that may last for about 100 old ages or more, depending on the quality and criterions expected from users.
This research aims is to measure and critical reappraisal on the factor lending to the determination between the acceptance of care and renovation of aged public lodging estate in Hong Kong with find the determination between care and renovation in public lodging estate from the questionnaire and interview and proficient record of the edifice construction life span. The methodological analysis consists of literature research, study through questionnaires and interviews and reviews the sentiment of renter and authorities. With a position to make this, I will utilize the questionnaire and instance survey in the thesis severally. As a new research country, the research worker adopted a multi-faceted attack using multiple methods for the aggregation of research stuffs.
There are several methods to make the research. The first method is to see relevant authorities sections and functionaries in order to hold a deep apprehension to the research. The 2nd method is that, by reexamining some electronic and printed paperss every bit good as participant observations in order to hold an up-dated and comprehensive apprehension of the issues.
The chief methodological analysiss used for the thesis are documental reappraisal on relevant public lodging policies peculiarly on the Comprehensive Redevelopment Programme ( CPR ) and Home CARE Maintenance in both printed and electronic signifier has been conducted. Besides, instance survey is used to analyze the purpose of authorities policy for renovation and care for old public lodging estate. The grounds for taking the above instance survey for this thesis can be specifically elaborated into 2 facets: fiscal and environment impacts between renovation and care that take topographic point in public lodging estates.
Furthermore, questionnaires were besides used to function the intent of supplying a through apprehension of the old public lodging estates physical environment, where the renters live and socialise and their true-wish or desires on care and renovation.
Research the bing old public lodging estate in Hong Kong
In 2010, the public lodging estate in Hong Kong which is less than 30 old ages old about 87 % and about 13 % estates were built before 1980. The most common aged public lodging estate is Choi Hung Estate, Kwai Shing Estate, Lai King Estate, which is over 35 old ages old.
With a position to keep the lodging criterions, public lodging estates which are 30 old ages old or above are require upgrading by betterment steps or installations. However, some other 30 plus old ages old public lodging estates require to hold renovation, because its construction is non carry through the safe criterion or going wasteful to take care.
For the ground that the oldest block design “ Mark I ” to “ Mark VI ” public lodging estates and the former authorities low cost lodging estates built in the 1950s and 1960s are obsolete by today ‘s criterions, the above block designs were cleared for renovation in June 1999.
The Government started to redevelop these edifices in the seventiess. Up to 31 December 2004, 694 blocks of these estates incorporating some 249,360 families were redeveloped.
Review of edifice conditions in public lodging in Hong Kong
In this subdivision, I will show an overview of the current position of old public lodging estates in Hong Kong.
In Hong Kong, the staying early authorization estates included, Shek Kip Mei Estate, Fuk Loi Estate, Choi Hung Estate. Although the life environment fundamentally can run into the normal criterions, it is non a all right status in comparing with the public lodging estate which built after 70s.
In the 1960 ‘s, there were some fringy betterment for the public lodging design. The betterments non merely increase a small more living infinite in the public lodging units, but besides the community installations were significantly improved. Besides, the edifice block is bigger than earlier, the narratives were increased to 16 and corridors were moved indoors, but neighbourliness was discouraged by the long monstrous slab blocks.
Presents, all units in the ageing public lodging estates are self-contained with basic installations such as shower tray and H2O cupboard in the lavatory, cooking bench and sink in the kitchen, drying rack, electricity, non and cold H2O supplies etc.
In order to upgrade the installations, a more energy-saving lift system will be introduced. Besides, a security system will be installed in all rental blocks, which includes electronically controlled security Gatess and door phones for each unit and telecasting surveillance system in common countries from the security counter next to the chief entryway on land floor.
In this questionnaire, there are 10 inquiries to roll up tenant sentiment on this subject of Choi Hung Estate and Lai King Estate, besides, it can roll up more basic information of the selected estate
In order to guarantee truth in the collected informations by all interviewers, structured questionnaires was adopted in which similar inquiry were asked at each interview. Owing to the restriction in resources, quota sampling was adopted in the survey. Data was collected every bit detailed as possible through face-to-face interview.
Basic information of the mark estate
Lai King Estate is located in Kwai Chung territory, this estate was built in 1975 about 35 old ages old, there are 7 block in this estate and the block manner is old slab and the level size are 22.7 – 50.3 M2, about 4200 rental level. The electricity supply and security system was upgrade in 2000 and Entire Maintenance Scheme was finished the in-flat review in 2004
Choi Hung Estate is located in Wong Tai Sin territory, this estate was built in 1962 about 48 old ages old, there are 11 block in this estate and the block manner is old slab and the level size are 24.1 – 69.2A M2, about 7400 rental level.
Questionnaire Survey Shek Kip Mei Estate and Kwai Shing West Estate
Overall Arrangement of Questionnaire
There are 15 inquiries shown in this questionnaire for our interviewee to reply, all of the inquiries are related to this subject of survey “ determination between Maintenance and Redevelopment ” , besides it included a particular agreement to acquire the existent sentiment and deep significance of the purposes of survey from this questionnaire.
In inquiry 1 – 4, it is about the basic information of the interviewee, in this portion, some informations is about the age of interviewee, clip of life, figure of household life with and scope of income for month get from these four inquiries, cognize more about the background of interviewee to give a supporting for the information analysis.
In inquiry 5 -8, were asked about any defect was found in the in-house country or public country and which defect is the most of import respect to interviewee. We can understand “ Which defect is the most common found in elderly estate ” and “ Which type of defect is pay close attending by interviewee ” . These four inquiries chiefly use to take interviewee to reply following inquiry painstaking due to oppugn 5 -8 can take interviewee to introspect their estate.
In inquiry 9 – 12, these inquiries were asked “ Are you satisfy this estate ” , “ Would you like to travel to new estate ” and “ Would you pay higher rent for new estate ” , these inquiries can take to understand the degree of satisfy from the elderly estate.
In inquiry 13 – 16, these inquiries were asked about the remark of doing determination between care and renovation, the chief concern to do a determination. These four inquiries use to roll up the sentiment and concern of care and renovation from interviewee
Choice of instance survey
The chief purpose to transport out the selected topical instance survey for this thesis is develop and heighten the basic information that shown in the completed questionnaire.
Case 1 Kwai Shing Estate
Kwai Shing West Estate was built in the 1975 ( the age at twelvemonth 2010 is 35 ) , this is a big range lodging estate in the Kwai Tsing Distract. Therefore, the estate involved 10 towers which is old slab block type, included over 5 300 rental flats and the level size is round 22.7 – 54.9 metre square. The initial planning for care of Kwai Shing West Estate and sing the agenda and colony of care for the estate of 10 blocks, the care work will be carry out measure by measure and move in circle.
The In-Flat Inspection of Total Maintenance Scheme of Housing Authority was begun in September 2007 and finished in March 2009 of 10 blocks of Kwai Shing West Estate. Harmonizing to the in-flat review study, spalling is the most occur in this estate and the other is water-seepage, distorted metal window, escape drainage and all of these defects were maintained by Housing Authority. In add-on, Housing Authority will responsible to transport out the work of cover-walkway, barrier free installations and better the security ( CCTV ) system to better the life environment quality and lift up the convenient of public installations for the renter
The Housing Authority is be aftering to transport out the 2nd rhythm in-flat review of the rental houses country to accomplish the original intent of the good pattern for constructing care on April 2011, that is detect and rectify the defect at an early phase, non merely forestall some unneeded outgo on major disciplinary care will be saved. Besides, the life span of edifice can be extend by the properly care.
Presents after these care policy or strategies, the figure of unit and the size of Kwai Shing West Estate had non any alterations due to none of redevelopment work or alternation and add-on work carry out in this estate, merely transporting out some care work ( e.g. external wall re-painting work and public country, TMS Scheme ) . But, the agreement of constructing care non merely upholds the life span and ensures the edifice construction safety to alleviate concern of renters, besides educate the renters about edifice care and set up the religion of promise of edifice safety. Otherwise, the renters of this estate may be pay attending to edifice care, because of transporting out all these care work or strategy, nevertheless, constructing care work non merely continue the life span, value and quality of edifice, besides make renters more pay attending on defect and care of edifice and give edifice care instruction to tenant.
Time for Maintenance
Case 2 Shek Kip Mei Estate
Shek Kip Mei Estate was built in 1954 ( the age at twelvemonth 2010 is 56 ) . In the early phase of this estate were H-shaped edifices ( no lift ) , which involved 29 blocks of six to seven floors, the size of each flat is about 120 square pess with lavatory and shower installations for a household about 4-6 individuals. Base on the basic life demand and the demand of renter at present ( at least 5.5 square metres for a individual ) and the lift is the indispensable portion of any edifice in this twenty-four hours. The alteration of the basic demand of renter is expressed the installations and size of this estate are out of the present criterion. Otherwise, harmonizing to the review record about Shek Kip Mei Estate of District Maintenance office of Housing Authority found that spalling and H2O ooze is really frequently seen and the strength of concrete is on the downside.
When the age was alteration and quality of edifice besides can non catch the basic criterion presents and carry out edifice care is non the best pick to do betterment to the estate due to it can non hold any big alteration at nowadays after care. Therefore, renovation of Shek Kip Mei Estate is the better pick to better the value and practicableness. In the other caput, the Phase 2 of Shek Kip Mei Estate renovation programme was proceed on 2000 and transport out into 2 stages individually under building.
Presents, the agenda of redevelopment strategy was completed 1 stage renovation programme to unclutter the old relocation H-shaped blocks built in the 1950s and 1960s. Up to now, the estate comprises 11 towers which is Non standard block type and New Slab block type in Phase 1, included over 5 200 rental flats and the level size is round 11.5 – 55.7 metre square in Phase 1, the Phase 2 renovation programme is still treating on in-between phase ( anticipate completion clip is 2015 ) , harmonizing to the blue-paint program of Phase 2 renovation programme non merely built residential edifice, besides included market, shopping promenade and public garden. In the hereafter, this is a big range lodging estate in the Sham Shui Po Distract.
Remark of this estate
At present, redevelopment programme of Shek Kip Mei Estate ( Phase 1 ) had already finished in March 2006 ( from March 2003 ) , the figure of rental flats were addition to 5200, when
Time for renovation
Case Study 3 So Uk Estate
So Uk Estate was built in 1960 ( say 50 old ages old, if there is no renovation carry out ) , in the original phase of this estate was involved 16 blocks, which included Linear B type manner and Non-standard type manner edifice. The size of level is about 19.5 – 49.1 square metre with lavatory and shower installations for a household about 4-6 individuals or more.
The estate was built alongside of homesteader countries. The homesteader was subsequently demolished for the building of the estate of 16 blocks in 1960. The blocks were called “ Houses ” and named after assortments of flowers. Unlike many public lodging estates built subsequently, the architectural design of the estates is alone in Hong Kong. There are 5,316 flats in the estate, with countries runing from 19.5 to 49.1m2, with capacity of 15,200. [ 1 ]
Of typical design, the estate was the place of many celebrated persons during their young person in Hong Kong, for illustration, Sam Hui and his brothers, Wong Ka Kui and his brother in the set Beyond and many others.
As of 2008, over 48 old ages, the construction is still in good status but its estimated high care cost made the Hong Kong Housing Authority decide to pulverize the six blocks in March 2012. The Authority will counterbalance occupants and assistance in their move. It has besides allowed occupants the option of traveling into Un Chau Estate Phases 2, 4, and 5 in Sham Shui Po. [ 2 ]
A foundation titled, “ Farewell So Uk ” [ 1 ] was established as a historical archive for the Estate and to document its history of its occupants. It is sponsored by the Salvation Army of Hong Kong and the Salisbury YMCA.
Findingss and Data Analysis
In this chapter, the jobs and problem of renovation or care of aged public lodging estate is elevated and study in this portion, the consequence of informations analysis is base on the information, which came from the mark public lodging estate tenant sentiment.
Tax return of questionnaire
In this portion, I will chiefly concentrate on the concern between care and renovation of aged public lodging estate, harmonizing to the information that collected from the informations base of Housing Authority or the questionnaire and interview from the renter. Otherwise, questionnaire study was conducted at March 2010 Begin, there are among 110 renters from Shek Kip Mei Estate and Kwai Shing West Estate had invited indiscriminately to do out the questionnaire. Finally, there are 63 questionnaires were completed and returned from Shek Kip Mei Estate and Kwai Shing West Estate.
Deduction of Economic and Social Benefit
Base on R. Chudley ( 1981 ) “ The Maintenance and Adaptation of Building ” that indicated the edifice work would be carry out in the first determination, if the determination is between to continue care work or be a new building. In my sentiment, if the defect is serious that will take the outgo of care rise up, may be excessively high. Furthermore, the consideration of the sensible cost may be depending on three factors. First, any good can be obtain in the determination, 2nd, do an outlook of the cost of the work is unreasonable or non, when the work is completed, 3rd, do an consideration of the work is necessary and ineluctable or non.
Harmonizing to the position of the above and make full into instance survey 2 – portion of Shek Kip Mei Estate and So Uk Estate. Hong Kong Housing Authority expect to pass HK $ 15 hundred million to set up a edifice care program for this estate, particularly on concrete spalling fix work and reinforcement work to heighten the life span for about 15 old ages in 2005, but there are some sentiment to convey up the job of this consideration that lead a immense outgo and the defect can non be solve precisely, while the care plants are still carry out on a regular basis, it is because of the age of this estate.
Regard to Environment Considerations
The pattern of environmental friendly is the most of import consideration, but nowadays Hong Kong Government is non show respective of this component a batch.
In the most of the renovation instance or new plants instance in Hong Kong should be do more betterment to the life conditions in the aged public lodging estates. There are 2 major benefits from the good environmental pattern: First, the renovation could supply a better designed agreement to heighten edifice characteristic, living quality and suited communal installations. Second, the acquired sites could accomplish the maximal secret plan ratio to utilize the limited land resources efficaciously. But in the other caput, renovation may be bring forthing big measures of building waste and nuisance if there is deficiency of direction of disposal to cut down the affect to public from building.
Duration of Building
As mentioned before, many bookmans frequently believed that lasting structural stuffs such as steel and concrete will supply the longest service lives for the edifice. Reasons for destruction were alternatively related to altering land values, deficiency of suitableness of the edifice for current demands and deficiency of care of assorted non-structural constituents.
Research Subject: Renovation and Maintenance of Aged Public Housing Estate
( Please E‡ tick on your selected reply )
Basic Information of Interviewee ( Estate: )
1. The age scope of interviewee
2. Time period of unrecorded in this estate
18-28 old ages old a-?
29-39 old ages old a-?
40-60 old ages old a-?
Over 60 old ages old a-?
& lt ; 10 twelvemonth a-?
10-20 old ages old a-?
20-30 old ages a-?
& gt ; 30 old ages a-?
3. No. household member
4. Income of household per month
Live entirely a-?
2-4 peoples a-?
& gt ; 5 peoples a-?
& lt ; $ 10,000 a-?
$ 10,000 – $ 20,000 a-?
Rental addendum ( CSSA ) a-?
Main organic structure of Questionnaire
5. Type of in-house defect found in your level
Concrete Spalling a-?
Water Seepage a-?
Deboned Tile a-?
Deformed Window / Door flexible joint a-?
Skining off plaster a-?
Deformed gate door a-?
6. Which portion is the most of import of in house care
Concrete Spalling a-?
Water Seepage a-?
Deboned Tile a-?
Deformed Window / Door flexible joint a-?
Skining off plaster a-?
Deformed gate door a-?
7. Type of visual aspects defect in public country
Concrete Spalling a-?
Water Seepage ( Pipe ) a-?
Skining off plaster a-?
Elevator system a-?
Security system a-?
8. Which portion is the most of import of in public country
Concrete Spalling a-?
Water Seepage ( Pipe ) a-?
Skining off plaster a-?
Elevator system a-?
Security system a-?
9. Are you satisfied this estate
10. Any short approach of this estate? ( if the pervious sentiment is “ No ” )
11. Would you like to travel for new estate
12. Would you pay higher rent for new estate
13. Which thought you will choose for this or the aged public lodging estate
14. Which factor will impact your the pick of care and renovation
Populating environment a-?
Realistic of constructing a-?
Life span in future a-?
Antiquities and memorials civilization rehabilitation a-?
15. Would you like to set up same territory without the clip and addendum affect ( If renovation )
16. Make you hold to be after a redevelopment programme of this estate?