Maintenance Of Non Structural Elements Construction Essay

Non-structural elements refer to edifice elements which are non responsible for back uping the burden in a edifice. For illustration, non-load bearing wall ( or divider ) , its coating, completing to ceiling and floor. Defects are ever found in such elements during their life. In this chapter, the symptoms, causes and redresss of some common defects in non-structural members will be covered.

3.1 External Wall Appendages:

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External extremities are extra fond regards to the external wall, normally they are cantilevered constructions which include canopies and balconies, architectural projecting characteristics, air-conditioner supporting frame and drying racks. Although the structural designs of these elements have already ensured suited for their cantilevered public presentation, hapless craft, deficiency of care and fix to contend against natural weathering would pull development of defects, unduly shorten their life-span and finally ensue in prostration. In a worst instance, such prostration might be sudden without prior obvious symptoms such as desertion taking to tragic effects.

Except for canopies which are largely found in dais degrees, other extremities are normally thin and little in size but big in Numberss which are hard to look into and supervise. Therefore, equal resources should be allocated for regular review and fix in order to forestall them from going falling jeopardies.

Balconies and Windowss of single units normally provide good points for review of defects in the outside of the edifice. Owners descrying any defects in the outside of the edifice should describe to the belongings director or the Owners ‘ Corporation ( OC ) for their action, irrespective of whether the defects are at the outside of their ain units or other units.


Cracking at junctions

Peeling-off of picture

Loosening of fond regards

Spalling concrete or denudation ( exposure ) of steel support

Corroding of metal parts

Water ooze

Vegetation growing or damaged by fungus

Possible Causes:

Junction is the weak point of the construction where taking the highest burden

The extremities are exposed to endure onslaught

Lake of regular picture and other care

Canopies and balconies are RC cantilever constructions, support bars are placed near the top surface where clefts will besides foremost get down to develop. ( the chief supports are placed near the underside of the component in conventional strengthened concrete constructions )

If sealing at the top is unequal or damaged by the clefts leting immersion of H2O, corrosion will cut down the effectual cross-sectional country of the support bars. Then the strength of support saloon for keeping the cantilever slab will be lowered and do sudden prostration.

Repair Methods:

Carry out item probe to look into whether it is structural cleft. If yes, it may be required to pulverize and retrace, depends on the Registered Structural Engineer ‘s ( RSE ‘s ) recommendation.

Cover up the surface clefts with cement sand howitzer or grouting injection

Remove the peeling-off coatings and use with a new one

Remove the relaxation of fond regards, piece up or replace the corrosion parts

Repair the spalling concrete and cover up the steel support

Remove the rust of metal and repaint or replace it if necessary

Apply waterproofing stuff to the characteristic ‘s repairing point on the external wall

Remove the flora or fungus, and so reinstate any amendss

3.2 Advertising Signboard

Some of the advertisement signboards are fixed under the soffit of the canopy and some of them are fixed on the external wall as a type of cantilever construction.


Relaxation of Connection

Corroding of steel

Damage on the edifice constructions

Cause nuisance or make obstructors to the populace or residents of the edifice

Dangerous to the populace

Possible Causes:

Lack of care

Atmospheric corrosion due to muffle and pollution

Chemical corrosion

Water trapped between the laps and articulations of metals

Abandoned or no longer in usage

Repair Methods:

Re-fix the articulations decently and transport out regular review and care

Eliminate cause of moist conditions

Spot or replace the corroded parts and avoid contact from caustic chemicals

Repair the damaged edifice constructions.

Using a protective coating to metals

Remove unsafe signboards instantly

3.3 Curtain wall

Refer to the treatment in window and partly will be farther discussed in following degree.

3.4 External Coating

3.4.1 External Wall Tiling

Figure 59 – Crack of tiling on external wall


Crack of wall surfaces

Bulging with hollow base

Loosening of parts

Falling off

Produce ‘hollow sound ‘ when tapped with a cock

Possible Causes:


Structural motion such as differential colony

Thermal motion

Defective or losing enlargement articulations

Poor craft ( e.g. non adequate coverage of adhesive to tile, honeycomb concrete substrate etc. )

De-bonding between tile and bedding howitzer ( substrate straight reach the concrete ) , tile with bedding howitzer and concrete substrate, ensuing in ‘hollow sound ‘ when tapped with a cock

Repair Methods:

If no hollow tiles found but checking merely, it can be repaired by injection of grouting or through unfastened up and fix by retiling.

For debonding tile, all loose parts should be removed instantly to extinguish the at hand danger.

If merely debonding found between the tile and the bedclothes howitzer, take the loose tile and re-tiling to the faulty country with suited adhering agents or adhesive in order to keep protection to the external wall. A proper bonding of single tile to its bedclothes howitzer is important to avoid return of the same defects. Adequate enlargement articulations should be allowed for thermic motion.

In instance debonding is found between the bedclothes howitzer and concrete wall, both tile and bedding howitzer should be removed. Then use a new bedclothes howitzer bed to the concrete wall before retiling. A proper key between the bing concrete wall and the freshly applied bedding howitzer is really critical, it can be formed by using spatterdash and slurry coat of adhering agent on top of concrete wall before laying of bedding howitzer. Allow equal enlargement articulations excessively.

When hapless substrate such as honeycomb, loose concrete or spalling concrete found after remotion of bedding howitzer, the loose parts should be removed down to the sound concrete substrate, and so rectify the concrete defects before application of new bedding howitzer. If the defects found are so extended so replacing or add-on of steel support bars, partial or destruction and rewording of certain parts of concrete elements will be considered necessary.

3.4.2 Rendering


Crack of wall surfaces

Loosening of parts

Falling off

Produce ‘hollow sound ‘ when tapped with a cock

Possible Causes:


Structural motion

Thermal motion

Defective craft

Missing enlargement articulations

Debonding between render and concrete substrate

Repair Methods:

If no hollow render found but checking merely, it can be repaired by injection of grouting or through unfastened up and fix by re-rendering.

All loose parts should be removed instantly to extinguish the at hand danger.

A proper key between the bing concrete wall and the freshly applied render is really important to avoid return of such defects. The key can be formed by using spatterdash and slurry coat of adhering agent on top of concrete wall before re-rendering.

When hapless substrate such as honeycomb, loose concrete or spalling concrete found after remotion of render, the loose parts should be removed down to the sound concrete substrate, so repair the concrete before application of new render. If the defects found are so extended so replacing or add-on of steel support bars, partial or destruction and rewording of certain parts of concrete elements may be required.

3.5 Paintwork on Rendering


Blisters or bubbles formed

Flaking ( little pieces of pant )

Skining ( larger in size )

Figure 60 – Skining off painting on the wall

Possible Causes:

Moisture in the render had non dried out before application of painting

Chemical onslaught on the pigment

Repair Methods:

Eliminate all beginnings of H2O or wet affect the render

Remove the bing picture and allow the render dried out

Repaint on the prohibitionist, clean and sound substrate of render

3.6 Window

3.6.1 Aluminium Window


Deformed or unbarred window frames or sashes

Window sashes/hinge bars excessively tight to open or shut

Loose or losing stud or prison guard

Loose flexible joint saloon

Grey white pulverization looking at the flexible joint, paths, studs and prison guard, bespeaking corrosion of aluminum

Water escape between window frame and sash

Locking device of window sash non working decently

Broken glass window glass

Missing aluminum angle for procuring the glass window glasss

Falling off

Possible Causes:


Lack of care and preventative steps

Poor design

Poor craft

Misuse of the window

Preventive steps:

Regularly clear the dust or soil in the flexible joint bars

Keep the path and upper portion of the sash prohibitionist

Lubricate the flexible joint saloon on a regular basis ( e.g. WD40 )

Should non hang any objects including apparels on the window sash to avoid doing extra burden on the flexible joint saloon

Do non enforce force per unit area to the window sash when cleansing windows to avoid overemphasizing the flexible joint saloon

Exercise cautiousness when cleansing

Do non coerce to open the window

Ask for review and fix instantly one time defects found, and inspected on a regular basis by experient contractors ( e.g. one time per 3 old ages )

Repair Methods:

Replace any broken or cracked glass window glasss at one time with the same type and thickness of glass

Replacement of aluminum angle must be done at one time to avoid falling of glass window glasss.

Replace or re-fixing the repairing constituents such as prison guard and studs

Replace the lockup device which can non work decently to forestall harm consequence in typhoon

Replace the window frame at one time if the window frame is deformed or unbarred. The window frame must be firmly and stiffly fixed to the gap by repairing Lugs. Otherwise, it will be really unstable after typhoon and may do harm

Replace the window frame if the frame have deformed or deteriorated to a considerable extent

Replace the window frame if the quality of the frame or its waterproofing stuffs make fulling up the spread between the frame and the parent construction is in uncertainty, which taking to changeless escape beyond fix

Suitable waterproofing grouting should be decently applied between the window frame and the gap with an extra coat of waterproofing stuff around the frame

Joints in window frames and subdivision should be decently sealed with suited sealer. The window frame should be appropriately equipped with H2O bars at its sill to forestall entry of H2O. A uninterrupted gasket of suited stuffs should besides be decently applied along the whole margin between the window frame and openable sashes.

3.6.2 Steel Window

Figure 61 – Rusty steel window Figure 62 – Broken glass window glasss


Rusty frames, grip or wicket

Deterioration or loss of sealer to keep the glass panels

Broken glass window glass

Dislodgment of sashes

Possible Causes:


Lack of care and preventative steps

Repair Methods:

Repaint the frame and wicket to protect the window from corroding

Regularly lubricate the flexible joints or replace if necessary

3.7 Internal Coating

3.7.1 Hairline and shrinking clefts


Hairline clefts in plaster

Multi-directional clefts ( shrinking clefts )

Cracks between panel wall and structural elements such as wall or column

Figure 63 – Hairline clefts in plaster of the wall

Possible Causes:

Surface shrinking clefts in plaster or other coatings will impact the visual aspect merely and do non make large safety jobs. Surface clefts are little hairline clefts developed within the completing bed non perforating down to the strengthened concrete construction.

Insufficient clip for the hardening of plaster

Repair Methods:

Cut and make full up the person clefts with fix howitzer and redecorate to fit the bing coatings.

Resurfacing may be required if snap is excessively serious.

Let sufficient clip for bring arounding procedure to be completed in resurfacing

3.7.2 Differential motion clefts


Cracks occur at the junction of two different stuffs in the background construction, e.g. concrete and brickwork

Cracks typically found in the junction between the column and wall, and the junction between the external and internal component.

Possible Causes:

Differential motion occur in the background stuffs such as concrete and brickwork

The background stuffs respond otherwise to the alterations in humidness and temperature

Repair Methods:

Provide flexible/expansion articulation by bring forthing a channel, or make fulling up the spread with joint filler and sealer

Supply a screen strip which fixed to one background component merely in order to cover the spread between different stuffs

3.7.3 Plaster Delamination


Full thickness of plaster loose and come off from the background

Produce ‘hollow sound ‘ when tapped with a cock

Cracks occur

Plaster bumps

Figure 64 – Plaster loose and falls down from the wall

Possible Causes:

Poor craft

Lack of good key between the concrete background and the underseal plaster

Repair Methods:

Hack-off all of the debonded plaster from the affected country and clean the loose stuff

Supply a good key to the background concrete by using spatterdash, or roughening the concrete surface. Using a slurry coat of adhering agent on the concrete surface before re-plaster.

3.7.4 Tile Loose or Falling Off

Lapp as external wall tiling, refer to subdivision 3.4.1.

3.8 Floor

3.8.1 Timber Floor


Falsifying ( distorted ) of lumber floor

Gaps appear between lumber boards

Edges curl upwards

Possible Causes:

Gaps looking is normally because the lumber strips have non dried out adequately before being fixed, shrinking occur go forthing spreads between strips

Expansion of timber strips and deficient enlargement spreads between the strips lead to borders curl upwards

The enlargement of timber strips may due to extra H2O used for cleansing.

Repair Methods:

Timber floor can be sanded to an overall level surface

Replace with new lumber floor if it is excessively serious

Sufficient spreads between the strip should be allowed for enlargement

3.8.2 Plastic Floor Tiles


Bulging and impairment

Tiles are loose or borders lifted

Defects may be localized or a big country

Possible Causes:

Poor stuff and craft

The slab is non wholly dried out before puting tiles

Excess H2O used for cleaning intent ( from above )

Repair Methods:

Find out the wet beginning

Apply damp-proof membrane if necessary

Relay or replace the plastic tile with proper craft such as using sufficient adhesive to the exhaustively dried slab.

3.8.3 Floor tiles


Produce ‘hollow sound ‘ when tapped with a cock

Loose / lifting of tiles

Continuous cleft in tiles

Falsifying of tile coatings

Figure 65 – Crack and broken tiles due to deficient enlargement articulations

Figure 66 – Lifting of mosaic tiles

Figure 67 – Lifting of vinyl tiles

Possible Causes:

Poor stuff

Poor craft

Insufficient enlargement articulation

Repair Methods:

Replacement of faulty tiles


Addition of enlargement articulations

3.9 Plumbing and Drainage System

3.9.1 Defective Plumbing System ( fresh H2O supply pipe )


Insufficient H2O force per unit area or flows

Brown H2O and sedimentation

Arrest of H2O supply

Water escape

Dirty H2O ( soil and sedimentation ) or algae growing

Sudden rise in ingestion

Noisy H2O pumps

Possible Causes:

Obstruction or escape of constituents of H2O supply system

Rusty of galvanized Fe ( G.I. ) pipes or soiled supply armored combat vehicles

Pump failure or breakage of supply pipe

Defective H2O armored combat vehicles, pipe articulations or valves

Defective or missing H2O armored combat vehicle screen

Escape occur in the system after H2O metres

Defective H2O pumps, H2O force per unit area may be excessively high

Repair Methods:

Everyday review and care of plumbing system

Regular cleansing of H2O armored combat vehicle

Water armored combat vehicle should covered decently with locks

Replacement of faulty pipe and its accoutrements including connections and valves

Re-plumbing with Cu pipe or PVC lined G.I. pipes

3.9.2 Defective Drain System


Rusty of dramatis personae Fe pipes

Broken piping

Water ooze

Stinky smelt

Possible Causes:

Lack of proper care such as picture

Accidental harm

Obstruction of drains by rubbish collected in the system

Insufficient no. of brackets

Aging, ultra-violet ( UV ) onslaught to uPVC pipe

Figure 68 – Obstruction of drains by trash

Repair Methods:

Regular picture of shrieking

Regular cleansing and remotion of rubbish

Provide sufficient bracket to keep the down pipe steadfastly

Replacement of faulty drain pipes

Replacement of the whole system

3.10 Seepage

Water ooze usually occur at bottom of roofs, underside of light Wellss, fanlight, ceiling below bathroom, kitchen, balcony, window, external wall, cellar and buried piping.


Water staining

Skining off of pigment or wall paper

Water dripping

Growth of fungus

Defective concrete, plaster or tiles

Rust staining

Possible Causes:

Defective sealing membrane

Poor design

Failure of sealer

Hairline cleft in rendering

Honeycomb of concrete

Spalling concrete

Service pipe leaked or blocked

Damage of gasket

Repair Methods:

Re-roofing or spot fix

Better the design of floor drainage system

Reapplication sealer

Seal the cleft and use H2O repellent agent

Divert H2O to run out system

Replace faulty piping


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