Management by Objective Motivation and Work Performance Essay

Motivation as defined0 by the WordWeb is the psychological characteristic that arouses an being to action towards a coveted end ; the ground for the action ; that which gives intent and way to behaviour.

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In the olden yearss, it was assumed that a good and successful Manager is the 1 who stood over his workers and give order on them to obey. But a Manager who thinks and decides for his work forces non merely what to make but how it should be done more particularly in the working environment might non win. This is consequence would heighten how productivity attack might hold worked in past when administration were in little graduated table and the relationships were more personal than they are today. Therefore, to acquire people to work efficaciously and expeditiously, in this changed state of affairs, a entire different attack is needed.

That is to state, people have to be organised in order to accomplish the set aims and to be able to make this, a Manager must understand the motivation of workers and thereby mot1ivate them consequently. This type of attack is an facet of modern direction maps of taking which is concerned with encouraging workers to set in their best towards the attainment of organizational ends and aims. Harmonizing to Donnelly Gibson and Ivancevich ( 1984 ) “ Motivation is defined as the force within an person that shows or novices direct behavioral form. On the other manus, it can be seem as a province of being induced by making certain things ( plants ) which is a tool frequently applied to an employee/workers or staff in an administration in order to do them execute expeditiously towards the accomplishment of the organizational ends and aims.


1. The purpose and aim of this survey is to place the different types of motive and their effectivity on workers.

2. To cognize whether motive to an employee is of necessity in order to achieve maximal productiveness in administrations.

3. To ask about things related to employee efficiency, satisfaction, productiveness, the motive they received and general working environment of the employee work.

4. To analyze the different types of motivational tools used for single workers.

What is Motivation?

“ Motivation is a decision-making procedure, through which the person chooses the coveted results and sets in gesture the behavior appropriate to them ” .

How does motive differ from “ motivations ”

Buchanan defines motivations as:

“ learned Buchanan defines motive as follows:

influences on human behavior that lead us to prosecute peculiar ends because they are valued ” .

Motivation can hence be thought of as the grade to which an person wants AND chooses to prosecute in certain behaviors.

For illustration: are you motivated to analyze? The reply lies in whether you

( 1 ) Want to analyze – what are the grounds, if so?

( 2 ) Choose to analyze? – Why are you reading these alteration notes? What factors mean that you have taken the determination to analyze? How much attempt do you set in?

Individual behavior is at the bosom of human motive

Why is single behaviors so of import in seeking to understand and so act upon motive?

– Every person has a set of demands and a different set of ends

– Persons behave in a manner as to fulfill their demands and carry through their ends

– Therefore, persons behave otherwise!

– Businesss, as administrations, are in a place to offer some of the satisfactions that persons seek:

E.g. – Relationships ; sense of belonging ; rational stimulation ; mental & A ; physical challenge ; self-development.

Why is motive of import for concerns?

– More employee feedback and suggestions made for betterments ( It is frequently said that the best concerns have the best motivated workers. Why might this be of import? Because well-motivated employees are normally characterised by:

– Higher productiveness ( i.e. they produce more for a given degree of resources than poorly-motivated workers )

– Better quality work with less wastage

– Angstrom greater sense of urgency ( things happen quicker – when they need to )

motivated workers take more “ ownership ” of their work ” )

– More feedback demanded from higher-ups and direction

– Working at 80-95 % of their ability

motive in theory – maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands


Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs is a “ content theory ” of motive ” ( the other chief one is Herzberg ‘s Two Factor Theory ) .

Maslow ‘s theory consisted of two parts:

( 1 ) The categorization of human demands, and

( 2 ) Consideration of how the categories are related to each other

The categories of demands were summarised by Maslow as follows:

How does the Hierarchy Work?

– A individual starts at the underside of the hierarchy ( pyramid ) and will ab initio seek to fulfill basic demands ( e.g. nutrient, shelter )

– Once these physiological demands have been satisfied, they are no longer a incentive. the person moves up to the following degree

– Safety demands at work could include physical safety ( e.g. protective vesture ) every bit good as protection against unemployment, loss of income through sickness etc )

– Sociable demands recognise that most people want to belong to a group. These would include the demand for love and belonging ( e.g. working with co-worker who support you at work, teamwork, communicating )

– Esteem demands are about being given acknowledgment for a occupation good done. They reflect the fact that many people seek the regard and regard of others. A publicity at work might accomplish this

– Self-actualisation is about how people think about themselves – this is frequently measured by the extent of success and/or challenge at work

Maslow ‘s theoretical account has great possible entreaty in the concern universe. The message is clear – if direction can happen out which level each employee has reached, so they can make up one’s mind on suited wagess.

Problems with the Maslow Model

There are several jobs with the Maslow theoretical account when real-life working pattern is considered:

– Person behavior seems to react to several demands – non merely one

– The same demand ( e.g. the demand to interact socially at work ) may do rather different behavior in different persons

– There is a job in make up one’s minding when a degree has really been “ satisfied ”

– The theoretical account ignores the often-observed behavior of persons who tolerate low-pay for the promise of future benefits

– There is small empirical grounds to back up the theoretical account. Some critics suggest that Maslow ‘s theoretical account is merely truly relevant to understanding the behavior of middle-class workers in the UK and the USA ( where Maslow set about his research ) .

motive in theory – mcgregor – theory ten and theory Y


McGregor developed two theories of human behavior at work: Theory and X and Theory Y.

He did non connote that workers would be one type or the other. Rather, he saw the two theories as two extremes – with a whole spectrum of possible behaviors in between.

Theory X workers could be described as follows:

– Persons who dislike work and avoid it where possible

– Persons who lack aspiration, dislike duty and prefer to be led

– Persons who desire security

The direction deductions for Theory X workers were that, to accomplish organizational aims, a concern would necessitate to enforce a direction system of coercion, control and penalty.

Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as:

– Consider attempt at work every bit merely like remainder or play

– Ordinary people who do non dislike work. Depending on the on the job conditions, work could be considered a beginning of satisfaction or penalty

– Persons who seek duty ( if they are motivated0

The direction deductions for Theory X workers are that, to accomplish organizational aims, wagess of changing sorts are likely to be the most popular incentive. The challenge for direction with Theory Y workers is to make a on the job environment ( or civilization ) where workers can demo and develop their creativeness.

motive in theory – Taylor -scientific ementmanag


Taylor developed his theory of “ scientific direction ” as he worked his manner up from a laborer to a plant director in a US steel mill.

From his observations, Taylor made three cardinal premises about human behavior at work:

( 1 ) Man is a rational economic animate being concerned with maximizing his economic addition ;

( 2 ) Peoples respond as persons, non as groups

( 3 ) Peoples can be treated in a standardized manner, like machines

Taylor had a simple position about what motivated people at work – money. He felt that workers should acquire a just twenty-four hours ‘s wage for a just twenty-four hours ‘s work, and that wage should be linked to the sum produced ( e.g. piece-rates ) . Workers who did non present a just twenty-four hours ‘s work would be paid less ( or nil ) . Workers who did more than a just twenty-four hours ‘s work ( e.g. exceeded the mark ) would be paid more.

The deductions of Taylor ‘s theory for pull offing behavior at work were:

– The chief signifier of motive is high rewards, linked to end product

– Angstrom director ‘s occupation is to state employees what to make

The Role of Motivation:

Why do we necessitate motivated employees? The reply is survival ( Smith, 1994 ). Motivatedemployees are needed in our quickly altering workplaces. Motivated employees helporganisations survive. Motivated employees are more productive. To be effectual, directors demand to understand what motivates employees within the context of the functions they perform.

Of all the maps a director performs, actuating employees is arguably the most complex. This is due, in portion, to the fact that what motivates employees alterations invariably ( Bowen & A ; Radhakrishna, 1991 ) . For illustration, research suggests that as employees ‘ income additions, money becomes less of a incentive ( Kovach, 1987 ) . Besides, as employees get older, interesting work becomes more of a incentive.


The model of motive indicates that motive is a simple procedure. But in world, the undertaking is more daunting.

One ground why motive is a hard undertaking is that the work force is altering. Employees articulation organisations with different demands and outlooks. Their values, beliefs, background, life styles, perceptual experiences and attitudes are different. Not many organisations have understood these and non many HR experts are clear about the ways of actuating such diverse work force.

Motivating employees is besides more ambitious at a clip when houses have dramatically changed the occupations that employees perform, reduced beds of hierarchy, and jettisoned big

Numberss of employees in the name of right-sizing or down-sizing.These actions have well damaged the degree of trust and committedness necessary for employee to set in attempts above lower limit demands some organisation have resorted to engage and fire and pay – for- public presentation schemes about giving up motivational attempts.

Such schemes may hold some effects ( both positive and negative ) but fail to do and single overreach him or her.

Third, motivations can merely be inferred, but non seen. The dynamic nature of demands offend airss challenge to any director in actuating his or her subsidiary. An employee, at any given clip, has a assorted demands, desire, and outlooks. Employees who put in excess hours at work to carry through their demands or achievement may happen that these excess hours conflict straight with demands for association and their desire to be with their households

However, there is no deficit of theoretical accounts, schemes, and tactics for actuating employees. As a consequence, houses constantly experiment with following motivational programmed and pattern.

Work Motivation

Craig Pinder “ repeating the basic definition of motive, specify it as follows:

“ Work motive is a set of energetic force that originate both within every bit good as beyond and persons being, to originate work – related behavior, and to find its signifier, way, strength, and continuance. ”

While general motive is concerned with attempt towards any end, Stephen Robbins narrow the focal point to organisational ends in order to reflect remarkable involvement in work related behaviors the attempt component is a step of strength. The demand means some internal province that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. And unsated demand creates tenseness that stimulates thrusts within the person. This drives general a hunt behavior to happen peculiar ends, if attend, will fulfill the demands and lead to the decrease of tenseness.

Need: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological instability

For illustration: A demand exists when cells in the organic structure are deprived of nutrient and H2O or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or comrades. Although psychological may be based on a lack, sometimes they are non. For blink of an eye, and persons with a strong demand to acquire in front may hold a history of consistent success

Drive: “ Drives ( Or motivations ) are set up to relieve demands. Psychological demands can be merely defined as a lack with way. Physiological or psychological thrusts are action – oriented and supply stimulating thrust towards making an inducement or ends. They are at the very bosom of the motivational procedure. The demands for nutrient and H2O are translated into hungriness and push thrusts, and the demand for friend becomes a thrusts association. Therefore, a thrust is a psychological province which moves an person ‘s satisfying demands

Goal: At the terminal of the motivational rhythm is the end or inducement. It is anything that volitions that will relieve a demand and cut down a thrust. Therefore, achieving a end will be given to reconstruct physiological or psychological balance and will cut down or cut off the thrust. Eating nutrient, imbibing H2O and obtaining friends will be given to reconstruct the balance and cut down the correspondin


The term ‘quality of work life ‘ ( QWL ) has different intensions to different individual.

For illustration, to a worker in an assembly line, it may merely intend a just twenty-four hours ‘s wage, safe working conditions, and a supervisor who treats himher with self-respect. To a immature new entrant, it may average chances for promotion, originative undertakings and a successful calling. To academics it means the grade to which members of work organisation are able to fulfill of import personal demands through their experiences in the organisation. There are many factors which can lend to QWL. They are:

1. Adequate and just compensation, adequateness to the extent to which the income from a full- clip work meets the demands of the socially determined criterion of life.

2. Safety and healthy working status, including sensible hours of work and remainder intermissions, physical working conditions that guarantee safety, minimise hazard of unwellness and occupational diseases and particular steps for protection of adult females and kids.

3. Security and growing chance, including factors like security of employment, and chance for promotion and self-reformation.

4. Opportunity to utilize and develop creativeness, such as work liberty, nature of supervising, usage of multiple accomplishments, workers ‘ function in the entire work procedure and hisher grasp of the result of hisher ain attempts and self-regulation.

5. Respect for the person ‘s personal rights, such as application of the rules of natural justness and equity, credence of the right to liberate address, and right to personal privateness in regard of the worker ‘s off the occupation behavior.

6. Work and household life, including transportations, agenda of hours of work, travel demand, overtime demand, and so 4th.

It is deserving observing that frequently the conditions that contribute to motivation [ just

Wages fiscal inducements, effectual employee choice, etc ] will besides lend to QWL some of these activities [ like occupation enrichment ] might lend indirectly to QWL by tappingthe worker ‘s higher.order demands and actuating them. Still, other activities may lend straight to QWL supplying for a safer workplace, less favoritism on the occupation, and so forth g thrusts foo




It ‘s of import to assist your employees set ends for themselves. These can include both long- term and short-run ends and they can be both work-related and personal in nature. Often, ends are set on a hebdomadal, monthly, quarterly, or even annual footing. Many companies use “ public presentation direction systems, ” which get every employee on the same page, irrespective of his or her place. If they understand the relationship between their specific occupation and the company ‘s success, they ‘ll frequently near their work with a sense of belonging. Frequently, that sense is all it takes to acquire that person to complete a given undertaking. And, of class, honoring your employees for accomplishing their ends goes a long manner toward making a systematically motivated work force.


Successful companies promote an environment in which originative thought by the employees is allowed, if non encouraged. If you ‘ve been successful in explicating your company ‘s overall aims in item, employees will frequently come up with their ain originative schemes for accomplishing these ends. In the instance of the gross revenues force that I help pull off, I normally tell them the successful tactics that I used while doing gross revenues but I besides add that there ‘s no 1 correct manner. Everyone has a alone personality that might interpret into an effectual method of doing gross revenues. The challenge of calculating out an effectual method on their ain can be emancipating and much more fulfilling. Plus, employees are more disposed to listen to future advice if

you let them calculate out that you are right on their ain.


Employees are ne’er traveling to bring forth the manner you expect them to if they think you do n’t care about them. Get down off by larning about your employees ‘ personal lives. This will give you penetrations into how to cover with them in certain state of affairss. Your relationship with your workers should look like one between spouses as opposed to one between employee and foreman. Besides, spread specific assignments around among your workers. By giving employees particular undertakings, you make them experience more of import. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added duties, they are motivated to work even harder so they

wo n’t allow the company down.


Surveies have shown that employees are more reliable and productive when they think their workplace is a fun topographic point to come to every twenty-four hours. I ‘ve found that one of the most effectual methods of making this is merely prosecuting my gross revenues reps in conversations about subjects that we both find interesting. It ‘s non necessary to speak to them all twenty-four hours long, but a few proceedingss here and there throughout the twenty-four hours can work admirations. Small negotiations like these allow the employee to see you as a regular individual, and when your employees like you as a individual, they are more probably to listen to you when you need them to acquire something done.


Peoples join organisations anticipating wagess. Firms distribute money and other benefit in exchange for the employee ‘s handiness, competency and behavior.

The undermentioned identifies four types of wagess: rank and senior status, occupation position, competence and public presentation.

Membership and Seniority-based Wagess

Profit an employee receives depends on the house which he or she joins. An Master in business taking up a occupation in Wipro or Infosys gets more benefits than male child or miss who joins a province authorities project. In the same house, a senior employee receives more benefits than employee.

Advancement, wage rises, retirement benefits and fringe benefits depend on senior status of an employee.

Membership & A ; Seniority



Job Status


Organizational Wagess

Types of organisational wagess

There are advantages and restrictions associated with rank and senior status based wages

Membership based wages attract occupation appliers but the job is such wages may non straight motivate occupation public presentation.Seniority based wagess tend to cut down turnover but may fail to actuate winners to execute better. Another job with is that they discourage hapless performing artists form go forthing the movie voluntarily because alternate occupations are merely non available to them.

Job Status-based Wagess

Every house rewards employees for the position of the occupations they are keeping houses use occupation rating system which helps set up derived functions in position of occupations. Status derived functions are used as the footing for set uping salary / pay derived functions. Jobs that require more accomplishment and attempt, have more duty and have hard on the job conditions would hold more value and accordingly would be placed in higher wage classs. Firms that do non utilize occupation rating system still honor occupation position based on wage study information about the labor market.

A supervisor will have higher wagess than buying helper as the occupation of the former enjoys better position than the latter. It has more value to the organisation ( calculated by occupation rating system or pay study ) and hence employees in that occupation have more status- based wagess in the organisation. High position occupation holders are besides rewarded with more fringe benefits.

One advantage of status-based wage is that it helps maintain feelings of equity. Job rating system seek to keep internal equity, that is, to guarantee that employees feel their wage is just when compared to how much other occupations in the house are paid. Pay study helps keep external equity, that is, guarantee that employees feel their wage is just when compared to how much people I other houses are paid. Job-based wagess besides motivate employees to vie for places higher up the organisational hierarchy.

Job-based wagess are criticized by adult male. For one thing, such benefit fails to actuate winners to execute better. Just because an employee holds a high priced occupation, he or she is rewarded better, non with standing the degree of public presentation attained by the person.

Further, employees tend to overstate their occupation descriptions and occupation specifications to earn higher rating for their occupation through occupation rating systems. Higher classs confer higher wagess on the occupations.

Competency-based Wagess

Increasingly organisations are associating wagess to competences of employees. Competences are reflected through accomplishments, cognition and traits that lead to desirable behaviors.

Employees are expected to hold several competences and these competences are evaluated by detecting specific behavior forms.

Competency-based wagess have virtues. They have been praised for developing a better- skilled and flexible work force. Customer demands are met more rapidly. Employees can manage any occupation with felicitousness, merchandise or service quality tends to better because employees who have work experiences in several occupations are more likely to cognize where jobs originate.

Furthermore, employees find it easier to detect ways to better the work procedure as they learn more accomplishments and undertakings in the procedure. Rather than paying for occupations, skill-based wage wagess accomplishments, underlying the rule that employees are hired for their accomplishments and non merely to clasp occupations.

Performance-based Wagess

The tendency that is emerging late is to associate wage to public presentation instead than to senior status or rank. Firms in N.America, Europe and Asia are paying their employees more for public presentation than of all time before. For case, in a recent study of 210 big houses in Tokyo, Japan, 24 per cent awarded wage additions on the footing of public presentation than senior status vitamin D, tungsten


Motivation is an of import construct that has been having considerable attending from academicians, research workers and practising HR directors. In its kernel, motive comprises of import elements such as the demand or content, hunt and pick of schemes, purposive behavior, societal comparing of wagess support, and performance-satisfaction.

The increasing attending paid towards motive is justified because of several grounds.

Motivated employees come out with new ways of making occupations. They are choice oriented. They are more productive. Any engineering demands motivated employees to follow it successfully.

Several attacks to motive are available. Early theories are excessively simplistic in their attack towards motive. For illustration, advocators of scientific Management believe that money is the actuating factor. The Human Relations Movement posits that societal contacts will actuate workers.

Mere cognition about the theories of motive will non assist director their subsidiaries.

They need to hold certain techniques that help them alter the behavior of employees.

One such technique is reward. Reward, peculiarly money, is a incentive harmonizing to need- based and process theories of motive. For the behavioral scientists, nevertheless, money is non of import as a incentive. Whatever may be the statements, it can be stated that money can act upon some people in certain circumstance.

Bing an branch of Herzberg ‘s, two factor theory of motive, occupation enrichment is considered to be a powerful incentive. An enriched occupation has added duties. The makes the occupation interesting and honoring. Job enlargement refers to adding a few more undertaking elements horizontally. Task assortment helps actuate occupation holders. Job rotary motion involves switching an officeholder from one occupation to another. This reduces ennui and neutrality.

OB Mod uses the reinforcement rule of B.F. Skinner to give the direction a powerful technique to alter employee behavior. Several reputed organisations in a America have used OB Mod programmes successfully to accomplish positive consequences ter and friends are the inducement are the ends in this illustration


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