Management Role Essay

The Ten Management Roles The ten roles explored in this theory have extensive explanations which are briefly developed here: * Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority. * Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness. * Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager.

One must network and engage in information exchange to gain access to knowledge bases. * Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a department’s success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained. * Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organisation and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. * Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organisation. Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work to delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process. * Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisation is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support. * Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources. * Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles.

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As a secondary filtering, Mintzberg distinguishes these roles by their responsibilities towards information. Interpersonal roles, categorised as the figurehead, leader and liason, provide information. Informational roles link all managerial work together by processing information. These roles include the monitor, the disseminator and the spokesperson. All the remaining roles are decisional, in that they use information and make decisions on how information is delivered to secondary parties. Generalist and specialist management The core of Mitzberg’s Ten Managerial Roles is that managers need to be both rganisational generalists and specialists. This is due to three reasons: * External frustrations including operational imperfections and environmental pressures. * Authority disputes which upset even basic routines. * The expected fallibility of the individual and human, manager. Mintzberg’s summary statement may be that the role of a manager is quite varied and contradictory in its demands, and that it is therefore not always the lack of managerial prowess, but the complexity of individual situations demanding a variety of roles, which troubles today’s manager.

The ten roles, therefore, can be applied to any managerial situation where an examination of the levels to which a manager uses each of the ten ‘roles’ at his or her disposal is required Written by: Monica Kenney We also suggest this relevant article if you have time: Functions of Management in Business Organizations A manager in an organisation is not always a leader. Management and leadership are two different concepts, though often appear to overlap. Modern organisations tend to be complex and operate in a global business environment.

Therefore, there is renewed focus on the importance of management and leadership and their distinctive roles in promoting and advancing the interests of the organisation. Hard competition and continuous pressures for change demand that managers and leaders work closely together for achieving business goals. On the practical level, a manager is called upon to evince the quality of leadership and a leader the knack for managing difficult situations in their respective roles in any organisation. Pragmatically speaking, then, the distinction between a manager and leader is not problematic. A manager is often portrayed as a procedural administrator/supervisor—an individual in an organisation with recognized formal authority who plans, coordinates and implements the existing directions of the organisation (Koontz et al, 1986). ” A leader, on the other hand, is defined as someone who occupies a position of influence within a group that “extends beyond supervisory responsibility and formal authority” (Vecchio et al. 1994: 504) and is involved in devising new directions and leading followers “to attain group, organisational and societal goals” (Avery 1990: 453).

This distinction between the supervisory manager and visionary leader has to be understood in terms of their respective tasks and functions. Dunsford, a management guru, believes that management is concerned with ‘efficiency’—with tasks such as coordinating resources and implementing policy, while leadership has to concern itself with ‘effectiveness’ of making decisions, setting directions and principles, formulating issues and grappling with problems. Katz (1974: 90-102), however, has identified three critical managerial skills and the last two happen to be attributes of competent leadership.

These are: technical skills (the ability to perform particular tasks or activities); interpersonal skills (the ability to work well with other people); and conceptual skills (the ability to see the ‘big picture’). Modern leadership theory supports an integrated approach to management and leadership. Early work on leadership identified the various styles of leadership based on personal traits and behaviour of an effective leader, such as drive, desire to lead, decisiveness, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job relevant knowledge (Kirkpatrick and Locke 1991: 48-60).

The behaviourist models focused on the relationship between a leader’s actions and their impact on the attitudes and performance of employees. These studies compared various styles of leadership, such as authoritarian and democratic styles. They studied if an effective leader was more prone to efficient accomplishment of a task rather than being inclined to the welfare of employees and subordinates. The ideal style, as proposed by Stogdill in 1974, combined the best of both approaches. In later work we find considerations of leadership theory as part of a wider approach to modern management.

The traditional distinctions between a manager and leader is disappearing. Modern business operates in the midst of uncertainties as the current global slowdown and enveloping financial crisis show. Accordingly, the role of a manager demands flexibility, dynamism, management skills as well as leadership quality. Read more: http://www. bench3. com/2009/04/role-of-manager-in-organisation. html#ixzz0xxXo42nW LEADER IS A REPRESENTATIVE OF SUBORDINATES He is intermediary between the work groups and top management. They are called linking pins by rensis likert.

As linking pins they serve to integrate the entire organization and the effectiveness depends on the strength of these linking pins. Leader shows personal consideration for the employees. As representatives they carry the voice of the subordinates to the to management. LEADER IS AN APPROPRIATE COUNSELLOR Quite often people in the work place need counseling to eliminate the emotional disequilibrium that is created sometimes in them. Leader removes barriers and stumbling block to effective performance. For instance, frustration that results from blocked need drive keeps an employee derailed or the working track.

It is here the leader comes in, renders wise counsel, releases the employee of the emotional tension and restores equilibrium. USES POWER PROPERLY If a leader is to effectively achieve the goal expected of him, he must have power and authority to act in a way that will stimulate a positive response from the workers. A leader , depending on the situation , exercises different types of power , viz reward power and expert power. Besides the formal basis , the informal basis of power also have a more powerful impact on organizational effectiveness. No leader is effective unless the subordinates obey his orders.

There fore, the leader uses appropriate power so that subordinates willingly obey the orders and come forward with commitment. LEADER MANAGES THE TIME WELL Times is precious and vital but often overlooked in management. There are three dimensions of time – boss – imposed – time , system- imposed –time and self – imposed time . That are prominent in literature. Because the leader has through knowledge of the principle of time management such as preparing time charts, scheduling techniques, etc. , he is in a position to utilize the time productively in the organization.

STRIVES FOR EFFECTIVENESS Quite frequently the manager are work – abolic and too busy with petty things to address to major details of effectiveness. To fill the gap, sometimes leaders throws his concerted efforts to bring effectiveness by encouraging and nurturing team work, by better time management and by the proper use of power. Further, leader provides and adequate reward structure to encourage performance of employees. Leader delegates authority where needed and invites participation where possible to achieve the better result. He also provides the workers with necessary resources.

By communicating to workers what is expected of them, leader brings effectiveness to organization. The above functions of the leader are by no means comprehensive but they do suggest as to what leaders do generally. MANAGING AND LEADING Leading and managing are not synonymous. One popular way of distinguishing between managing and leading is brought out by the French terms dux and Rex. Dex is a leader and an activist, innovators and often an inspirational type and rex is a stabilizer or broker of manager. But more realistically, effective management required good leadership.

Bennis had once commented, there are many institutions I know are very well managed but very poorly led”. This statement crystal – clearly demonstrates that the difference between managing, and leading is indeed a lot. Though a layman considers managing as a broad terms including leading function a behaviorist advances the following points to marshall the difference between these two leading and managing. RELEATIONSHIPS Managerial behavior implies the existence of a manager managed relationship. This relationship arises with in organizational context.

Where as leadership can occur why where, it does not have to originate in the organization context. for example , a mob can have a leader but cannot have a manager. Further, is an organization, informal. Group have leader not managers. SOURCES OF INFLUENCE Another potential difference between leader and manager lies in their sources of influence. Authority is attached to the managerial position in the case of a manager: where as a leader may not have authority but can receive power directly from his followers. In other words, managers obtain authority from his followers.

In rather pure terms, this is the difference between the formal authority theory and the acceptance theory of authority. SANCTIONS A Manger has command over all allocation and distributions of sanctions. For Example, manager has control over the positive sanctions such as promotion and awards for his task performance and the contribution to organizational objectives. Manager is also in a position to exercises the negative sanctions such as with holding promotions, or mistakes, etc. In a sharp contrast, a leader has altogether different type of sanctions to exercises and grant.

He cans gerent or with hold access to satisfying the very purpose of joining the group’s social satisfactions and related task rewards. These informal sanctions are relevant to the individual with belongingness or ego needs: where as the organizational sanctions granted or exercised by the managers are geared to the physiological and security needs of individual. ROLE CONTINUANCE Another fundamental difference between managing and leading is the role continuance. A manager may continue in office as long as his performance is satisfactory and acceptable to the organization.

In sharp contrast, a leader maintains his position only through the day to day wish to the followers. REASONS FOR FOLLOWING Though in both managing and leading followers become involved, the reasons may be different. People follow managers because their job description, supported by a system of rewards and sanctions, requires them to follow. Where as people follow leader on voluntary basis. Further, it there are no followers, leader no more exists. But, even if there are no followers, a manager may be there. Performance management is a process on performance measurement approaches, such as the balanced scorecard.

While the balanced scorecard offers a framework for the collection of strategic information, performance management ensures that results are used to influence the selection of planned actions and to foster the renewal of dynamic, competitive strategy. Unlike most tools and techniques, performance management is a continuous, enterprise-wide process, rather than a one-time, isolated event. Six Performance Management imperatives are Compliance Management, Profitability Management, Cost Management, Performance Improvement, and Business Innovation.

Performance management is a set of functions that evaluate and report the behavior of telecommunications equipment and the effectiveness of the network or network element and a set of various sub functions, such as gathering statistical information, maintaining and examining historical logs, determining system performance under natural and artificial conditions, and altering system modes of operation. Performance Management Challenges Present in Many Ways: Shareholders have demanded that you provide more accountability and transparency in your organization.

You have business units in many different regions, each working towards their own goals and purpose. Welsh Health Estates manages and maintains the (EFPMS) Estates and Facilities Performance Management System. This provides comprehensive data and information: Operator training including support and guidance to Trusts on the completion of the annual EFPMS returns. Categories of performance management are performance management subsystems are responsible for analyzing and controlling network performance, including network throughput and error rates.

And also accounting management, configuration management, fault management, and security management. Business Performance Management and Predictability defines predictable as, “to state, tell about or make known in advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge. ” The last part of the definition is advance, especially on the basis of special knowledge’ sums up a main business benefit of a business performance management solution. BPM is about enabling decision makers to gain a better understanding of how the business is performing by individual activities to the overall corporate strategy.

Principles of performance management standards: Serve as an objective basis for communicating about performance and Enable the employee to differentiate between unacceptable and acceptable results. Increasing job, inform new expectations about job performance and encouraging the open and trusting relationship with employees. Performance expectations are the foundation for appraising employee performance. Standards recognize is a baseline for measuring performance. From performance standards, supervisors can provide specific feedback relating the gap between expected and actual performance.

Characteristics of Performance describe the conditions that must exist before the performance can be rated satisfactory. Be attainable by any qualified, competent, and fully trained person who has the authority and resources to achieve the desired result. Be expressed in terms of quantity, quality, time, cost, effect, and manner of performance. Coaching is a procedure of strengthening communication between you and the employees and it helps to shape performance and increase the likelihood that the employee’s results will meet your expectations.

Coaching sessions provide you and the employee the opportunity to discuss her progress toward meeting mutually established standards and goals in a performance evaluation. Management roles and skills. Managerial Roles According to Mintzberg (1973), managerial roles are as follows: 1. Informational roles 2. Decisional roles 3. Interpersonal roles 1. Informational roles: This involves the role of assimilating and disseminating information as and when required. Following are the main sub-roles, which managers often perform: a. Monitor-collecting information from organizations, both from inside and outside of the organization. . Disseminator-communicating information to organizational members c. Spokesperson-representing the organization to outsiders 2. Decisional roles: It involves decision making. Again, this role can be subdivided in to the following: a. Entrepreneur-initiating new ideas to improve organizational performance b. Disturbance handlers-taking corrective action to cope with adverse situation c. Resource allocators-allocating human, physical, and monetary resources d. Negotiator – negotiating with trade unions, or any other stakeholders 3. Interpersonal roles : This role involves activities with people working in the organization.

This is supportive role for informational and decisional roles. Interpersonal roles can be categorized under three subheadings: a. Figurehead-Ceremonial and symbolic role b. Leadership-leading organization in terms of recruiting, motivating etc. c. Liaison-liasoning with external bodies and public relations activities. Management Skills Katz (1974) has identified three essential management skills: 1. Technical 2. Human 3. Conceptual Technical skills: The ability is to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. All jobs require some specialized expertise, and many people develop their technical skills on the job.

Vocational and on the job training programs can be used to develop this type of skill. Human Skill : This is the ability to work with, understand and motivate other people (both individually and a group). This requires sensitivity towards others issues and concerns. People, who are proficient in technical skill, but not with interpersonal skills, may face difficulty to manage their subordinates. To acquire the Human Skill, it is pertinent to recognize the feelings and sentiments of others, ability to motivate others even in adverse situation, and communicate own feelings to others in a positive and inspiring way.

Conceptual Skill : This is an ability to critically analyze, diagnose a situation and forward a feasible solution. It requires creative thinking, generating options and choosing the best available option. A mark of a good leader is to be able to provide consistent motivation to his team encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. A good leader is always looking for ways to improve production and standards. Here are six management skills you can develop as a leader in working to create a quality effective team. 1. Observation

This is an important aspect that often gets neglected due the demands on a leader’s time and schedule. Observation and regular visits to the work environment are a priority and should be scheduled into the calendar. Observing employees at work, the procedures, interaction and work flow is foundational to implementing adjustments to improve results. To have credibility, a leader needs to be seen and be known to be up to date with what is happening in the work place. 2. Monitor Employee Performance Employee performance needs to be monitored in mutually accepted ways.

Policies and procedures need to be clear. Conferencing should be on a regular basis and not just when there is a problem. Assessments and evaluations should not be merely all formality or viewed a necessary paperwork to be done and filed away. Individual and group conferencing should be undertaken not only to monitor performance, but with the expectation of on going professional development and support. There should be frequent encouragement and clear criteria for on going goals both for the group and individual. 3. Implementation of Professional Development Programs

A good leader evaluates weaknesses and provides training and development strategies to strengthen the weaker skills in the team. 4. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise Good leadership comes from a place of strong knowledge and experience of the production and process leading to results. If a leader does not possess all the expertise and knowledge personally, then regular consultations with experts involved in the departments should be held. This is important in order to maintain an accurate and informed overall picture. 5. Good Decision Making Good leadership is characterized by the ability to make good decisions.

A leader considers all the different factors before making a decision. Clear firm decisions, combined with the willingness and flexibility to adapt and adjust decisions when necessary, create confidence in the leadership. 6. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research On going review and research is vital in order to keep on the cutting edge in business. While managing the present to ensure on going excellence in product and performance, a good leader is also able to look towards the future. Conducting and evaluating research is an important way of planning and being prepared for the future.

Excellent leadership is always pro active rather than reactive. By developing these six managerial skills builds a solid foundation for success. Basic functions of management Management operates through various functions, often classified as planning, organizing, leading/directing, and controlling/monitoring. ?Planning: Deciding what needs to happen in the future (today, next week, next month, next year, over the next 5 years, etc. ) and generating plans for action. ?Organizing: (Implementation) making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful carrying out of plans. Staffing: Job Analyzing, recruitment, and hiring individuals for appropriate jobs. ?Leading/Directing: Determining what needs to be done in a situation and getting people to do it. ?Controlling/Monitoring: Checking progress against plans. ?Motivation : Motivation is also a kind of basic function of management, because without motivation, employees cannot work effectively. If motivation doesn’t takes place in an organization, then employees may not contribute to the other functions (which are usually set by top level management). edit]Formation of the business policy ?The mission of the business is the most obvious purpose—which may be, for example, to make soap. ?The vision of the business reflects its aspirations and specifies its intended direction or future destination. ?The objectives of the business refers to the ends or activity at which a certain task is aimed. ?The business’s policy is a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the managers’ decision-making. It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees. The business’s strategy refers to the coordinated plan of action that it is going to take, as well as the resources that it will use, to realize its vision and long-term objectives. It is a guideline to managers, stipulating how they ought to allocate and utilize the factors of production to the business’s advantage. Initially, it could help the managers decide on what type of business they want to form. [edit]How to implement policies and strategies ?All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff. ?Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and strategies. A plan of action must be devised for each department. ?Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly. ?Contingency plans must be devised in case the environment changes. ?Assessments of progress ought to be carried out regularly by top-level managers. ?A good environment and team spirit is required within the business. ?The missions, objectives, strengths and weaknesses of each department must be analysed to determine their roles in achieving the business’s mission. ?The forecasting method develops a reliable picture of the business’s future environment. A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives. All policies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff that is required in the execution of any departmental policy. ?Organizational change is strategically achieved through the implementation of the eight-step plan of action established by John P. Kotter: Increase urgency, get the vision right, communicate the buy-in, empower action, create short-term wins, don’t let up, and make change stick. [7] edit]Where policies and strategies fit into the planning process ? They give mid- and lower-level managers a good idea of the future plans for each department in an organization. ?A framework is created whereby plans and decisions are made. ?Mid- and lower-level management may add their own plans to the business’s strategic ones A Realistic Description of Managerial Work? Minzberg concluded that •Senior management jobs are open-ended, managers feel compelled to tackle a large workload at demanding pace. there is little free time. Breaks are rare. Escaping from work after hours is physically/mentally difficult. The work is fragmented, full of brevity & variety with a lack of pattern. Managers confront the law of the trivial many and the important few (80/20 principle). Behaviours must change quickly and frequently; interruptions are common. •Managers seem to prefer this and become conditioned by workload. Opportunity-costs of time (urgencies) are keenly felt and superficiality in relationships is a hazard. •There is an activity-trap – managers tend towards current, specific, well-defined, non-routine activities. Processing mail is a pain; ‘non-active’ mail gets little attention. Current information chat, speculation) is preferred – routine reports are not. Use of time reflects close, immediate pressures rather than future, broader issues. Fire-fighting (reacting to immediate stimulus) is a problem. Live action pushes the manager away from thinking and planning. •Verbal contacts and media are preferred over written. written. Written communications get cursory treatment, but must be processed regularly. Less goes out than comes in. It moves slowly. There are long feedback delays. (How does E-Mail fit in? ) Subordinates outside spoken lines of contact may feel uninformed.

Informal media (telephone and unscheduled meetings) are used for brief contacts if people know each other well and when quick information exchange is called for. •Scheduled meetings eat up managerial time – long formal duration, large groups and often away from the organisation. The agendas cover ceremonials, strategy-making and negotiation. Chatting at start/end of meetings contributes significantly to information flow. •Managers seldom ‘tour’ yet WTJ (walking the job) enhances ‘visibility’ & understanding of the actuality of work and production/service methods, standards and problems. Managers as boundary managers, link his/her own organisation with outside networks. External contacts (clients, suppliers, associates, peers, informer networks) can consume 30-50% of a senior manager’s time. Non-line relationships are also important. Subordinates (line-relationships) consume 30-50% of contact time dealing with requests, information exchanges, making strategy. Open access with subordinates by-passes formal channels. Yet a subordinate spends relatively little time with his/her own superior (10%). This blend suggested to Mintzberg that managers control little of what they do.

Self-control over their initial commitments enables them to unlock the activity trap and orientate themselves to •extracting information •exercising leadership Mintzberg: The Managerial Roles Mintzberg (1973) groups managerial activities and roles as involving: Managerial activitiesAssociated roles interpersonal roles – arising from formal authority and status and supporting the information and decision activities. •figurehead •liaison •leader information processing roles•monitor •disseminator •spokesman decision roles: making significant decisions•improver/changer •disturbance handler resource allocator •negotiator The broad proposition is that, as a senior manager enacts his/her role, these will come together as a gestalt (integrated whole) reflecting the manager’s competencies associated with the roles. In a sense therefore they act as evaluation criteria for assessing the performance of a manager in his/her role. •Figurehead. Social, inspirational, legal and ceremonial duties must be carried out. The manager is a symbol and must be on-hand for people/agencies that will only deal with him/her because of status and authority. •The leader role

This is at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and managerial power and pervasive where subordinates are involved even where perhaps the relationship is not directly interpersonal. The manager •defines the structures and environments within which sub-ordinates work and are motivated. •oversees and questions activities to keep them alert. •selects, encourages, promotes and disciplines. •tries to balance subordinate and organisational needs for efficient operations. •Liaison: This is the manager as an information and communication centre. It is vital to build up favours.

Networking skills to shape maintain internal and external contacts for information exchange are essential. These ontacts give access to “databases”- facts, requirements, probabilities. •As ‘monitor’ – the manager seeks/receives information from many sources to evaluate the organisation’s performance, well-being and situation. Monitoring of internal operations, external events, ideas, trends, analysis and pressures is vital. Information to detect changes, problems & opportunities and to construct decision-making scenarios can be current/historic, tangible (hard) or soft, documented or non-documented.

This role is about building and using an intelligence system. The manager must install and maintain this information system; by building contacts & training staff to deliver “information”. •As disseminator – the manager brings external views into his/her organisation and facilitiates internal information flows between subordinates (factual or value-based). The preferences of significant people are received and assimilated. The manager interprets/disseminates information to subordinates e. g. policies, rules, regulations.

Values are also desseminated via conversations laced with imperatives and signs/icons about what is regarded as imprtant or what ‘we believe in’. There is a dilemma of delegation. Only the manager has the data for many decisions and often in the wrong form (verbal/memory vs. paper). Sharing is time-consuming and difficult. He/she and staff may be already overloaded. Communication consumes time. The adage ‘if you want to get things done, (it is best to do it yourself’ comes to mind. Why might this be a driver of managerial behaviour (reluctance or constraints on the ability to delegate)? As spokesman (P. R. capacity) – the manager informs and lobbies others (external to his/her own organisational group). Key influencers and stakeholders are kept informed of performances, plans & policies. For outsiders, the manager is an expert in the field in which his/her organisation operates. •A senior manager is responsible for his/her organisation’s strategy-making system – generating and linking important decisions. He/she has the authority, information and capacity for control and integration over important decisions. As initiator/changer he/she designs and initiates much of the controlled change in the organisation. Gaps are identified, improvement programmes defined. The manager initiates a series of related decisions/activities to achieve actual improvement. Improvement projects may be involved at various levels. The manager can •delegate all design responsibility selecting and even replace subordinates. •empower subordinates with responsbility for the design of the improvement programme but e. g. define the parameters/limits and veto or give the go-ahead on options. supervise design directly. Senior managers may have many projects at various development stages (emergent/dormant/nearly-ready) working on each periodically interspersed by waiting periods for information feedback or progress etc. Projects roll-on and roll-off, •the disturbance handler – is a generalist role i. e. taking charge when the organisation hits an iceberg unexpectedly and where there is no clear programmed response. Disturbances may arise from staff, resources, threats or because others make mistakes or innovation has unexpected consequences.

The role involves stepping in to calm matters, evaluate, re-allocate, support – removing the thorn – buying time. The metaphors here are If you are up to your backside in alligators it is no use talking about draining the swamp. and Stop the bleeding as only then can you take care of the long term health of the patient. (not Mintzberg’s anecdote) •As resource allocator – the manager oversees allocation of all resources (? , staff, reputation). This involves: •scheduling own time •programming work •authorising actions With an eye to the diary (scheduling) the manager implicitly sets organisational priorities.

Time and access involve opportunity costs. What fails to reach him/her, fails to get support. The managerial task is to ensure the basic work system is in place and to programme staff overloads – what to do, by whom, what processing structures will be used. Authorising major decisions before implementation is a control over resource allocation. This enables coordinative interventions e. g. authorisation within a policy or budgeting process in comparison to ad-hoc interventions. With limited time, complex issues and staff proposals that cannot be dismissed lightly, the manager may decide on the proposer rather than proposal.

To help evaluation processes, managers develop models and plans in their heads (they construe the relationships and signifiers in the situation). These models/constructions encompass rules, imperatives, criteria and preferences to evaluate proposals against. Loose, flexible and implicit plans are up-dated with new information. •The negotiator – takes charge over important negotiating activities with other organisations. The spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles demand this. ________________________________________ Conclusions?

The roles point to managers needing to be organisational generalists and specialists because of •system imperfections and environmental pressures. •their formal authority is needed even for certain basic routines. •in all of this they are still fallible and human The ten roles offer a richer account of managerial tasks than the learnership models of Blake or Bersey and Blanchard etc. They explanation (and justify/legitimise) managerial purposes (contingency theory) in terms of •designing and maintaining stable and reliable systems for efficient operations. n a changing environment. •ensuring that the organisation satisfies those that own/control it. •boundary management = maintaining information links between the organisation and players in the environment. ________________________________________ Seminar Questions •How do these role propositions compare with your current role behaviour and your need to change your role capabilities in the future? •How do such descriptions contribute to •an ideology of management? •manager training and development? •management recruitment and selection? Taking a stakeholder perspective on organisational management and the role of various managers – how would these views on managerial roles be modified? •What do these role descriptions offer practicing managers – anything. •How robust is this type of theorising? Henry Mintzberg: Five Organisational Coordinating Mechanisms What basic devices do organisations adopt for the co-ordination and control of work? According to Mintzberg, the glue holding organisational structure together involves: 1. MUTUAL ADJUSTMENT co-ordination of work by process of informal communication.

Control of work rests in the hands of the ‘doers’. From the simplest organisations to the most complex – it works in extremely difficult circumstances. NB Space shuttle project: elaborate divisions of labour – thousands of specialists. At the outset exactly sure what needed to be done. Success depends groups/teams of specialists adapting to each other along an uncharted route – rather like a group of people rafting down a turbulent river. 2. DIRECT SUPERVISION. – organisation outgrows its simplest state. Co-ordination by someone taking responsibility for the work of others – •planning scheduling, •allocating •instructing •monitoring actions. NB In a rugby team players are distinguished by their work role and even physical requirements; wing-three-quarter, scrum-half, stand-off half, etc. Mutual adjustments do not fully suffice to co-ordinate their play so a captain is named to co-ordinate tactics on the field. 3. STANDARDISATION OF WORK PROCESSES. When the content of work is specified and programmed as a “system”. NB the assembly instructions provided with easy-build kitchen units. The manufacturer is standardising the work process of the assembler. Take the 2-inch screw and insert into LX while holding AD with your tight foot and at the same time balancing … ) Routinisation of processes is commonplace. Witness •a pre-flight check •the MOT test in the UK – sets the standard requirements for annual testing of all UK cars. Authorised garages must carry out the test as specified. Behaviour is controlled. •specification for a production process – as might be found in an ISO 9000 quality system – illustrates the significance of documentation and conformity to a standard process •how a sale (trolley load of groceries) is processed in a supermarket. a tutorial of “modularised” distance-learning materials with computer-marked assessment presented in a glossy plastic box. Standard processes facilitate machine control and systems which demand little direct supervision. Automation is possible. A worker on a TV assembly line requires but little supervision or even informal communication with peers (except to be sociable). Work co-ordination is “system” achieved. Some work standards have discretion built in, e. g. a retail buyer may be permitted to buy up to ? 0,000 worth of goods each month, but otherwise left free to decide the range of goods to buy. A manager of a fast-food hamburger joint may hacve some discretion over staff rotas but none in terms of changing the menus or the decor and displays within the restaurant. Are you ever disparaging about routinisation (bureaucratisation)? You may be failing to recognise the value gained. •More goods and services are offered, •more reliably, •with better price and delivery, •at higher quality, •with guarantees over the content and processes.

Routinisation and bureaucratisation may reduce opportunities for independent action and creative expression but for those delivering and those receiving the results of routinisation the benefits are substantial in every aspect of life. The problem for the business person and the consumer is to safeguard against the dulling, conformist, mediocrity that routinisation thrusts upon us particularly when the routinised system is doggedly followed to serve the operators purpose. The fact of the matter may be that we continue to produce as routine our goods and services – but the world has moved on – no-one wants these goods and services any more.

The goal-posts too will have been shifted by competitors who have an eye for a chance. 4. STANDARDISATION OF SKILLS. Some work or processes cannot be standardised. e. g. in social work or teaching. How could a Monarch control and co-ordinate the activities of colonial governors with such slow lines of communication? Control here comes through education and training and the sharing of values and ethical standards which inspire loyalty. Note that with the introduction of a national curriculum – that the discretion of teachers in what they teach decomes regulated (by standardisation of systems and procedures).

A similar case applies to a hospital administrator. It is very difficult for a high level general administrator to supervise and give directions to a doctor or surgeon. A manager of architects or social workers is in a similar position when it comes to many aspects of diagnosis, design and decision-making. Skills and knowledge are standardised through education and training before or after joining the firm. Where an organisation invests in systematic training not only policies, rules and values are being conveyed but also standard ways in which skill should be applied.

The NVQ competences movement in the UK is an illustration of social engineering with a view to standardising skill attainment and accreditation nationally. Where diversity and laissez-faire sloppiness prevails – lets instill commonality! (… bit dubious and contentious… ). Professionalisation The rigorous training that a doctor, solicitor, accountant or indeed a social worker receives provides admission into the club of the profession with its rules of behaviour and ethical values.

Workers may appear to be wholly autonomous when working, but “lines have been learned” and the organisation can expect the highest levels of professional conduct and behaviour – externally regulated and espoused by “chartered members”. Such members of the organisation are trusted and given more scope to act. When the anaesthetist and surgeon meet to remove an appendix, they might communicate more frequently through a nod and a wink than more complex explanations and discussions. Through training they know what to expect of each other.

If a doctor is seen by colleagues to be performing badly – colleagues are expected to give feedback and advise even to the extent of limiting the scope of the person’s work. Above all “members of the professions” are supposed to be self-evaluative and committed to keeping their knowledge and skills up-to-date (continuing professional development). Most importantly they must uphold the highest ethical values and to be critical of the way in which they carry out their duties. The top professional bodies are permitted (privilege given by society) to be self-regulating.

They set standards for admittance into the profession. They define their own educational curriculums and assess the performance of student candidates. They have established structures which meet to make judgments about and even discipline errant members. Society – allegedly – can be confident that these organisational members are reliable. In organisations wanting to improve product and service design and deliver more complex operations – the value of employee know-how and problem-solving ability is generally recognised.

Improving skill levels enables staff to undertake more complex work – guided by policies and (groomed) committment to the quality standards that are being sought – rather than direct and constant supervisory intervention. Here standardisation of processes and skills are conjoined. 5. STANDARDISATION OF OUTPUTS/RESULTS With outputs defined, the fit between tasks is pre-determined and can be performance monitored. Work results can be specified by performance dimensions, conversion ratios, profitability and cost indicators, time. Quality standards will be determined and implemented in a firm that is accreditted for ISO 9000.

Taxi-drivers are not told how to drive or what route to take – only the address. They can be appraised on the basis that they do not get lost. We arrive at our correct destination on time and the rules on cab charges are applied correctly. A project manager’s performance outcomes are discussed with him/her. The plans and budgets are agreed, progress is monitored with a particular eye on the deliverables from each phase. Unrealistic project targets contribute to disappointment and disorganisation. They seldom motivate or secure committment – they breed disaffection.

A management by objectives approach was defined by Peter Drucker and John Humble in the late 1960’s (see Humble, J, Improving Business Results, Pan and also Humble J, Management by Objectives in Action, McGraw Hill). The application of MbO/R approach can be seen for example in relation to the role of a sales person. Corporate Management by Results A conglomerate of subsidiaries controlled by a corporate parent company is typically managed by standardisation of outputs. The corporate HQ managers agree strategic objectives and plans/programmes with each subsidiary/division. This agreement is based on •analysis of the division’s performance the demands of its competitive environment •opportunities for growth and profitability •benchmarking – how our operations and standards and methods compare with our rivals or other firms with whom we share benchmarking data. •how it compares with other divisions/subsidiaries •how it is funded and how it is using up funds •expectations and values shared between corporate board members and the senior managers of the subsidiary company. These may for example cover matters relating to social responsibility, public relations, internaltionalisation, down-sizing and community orientation.

The detail agreed in coporate divisional plans will determine the funding of specific strategic programmes and targets will be specified using a range of performance ratios: •profitability •return on capital employed •specific targets for cost reduction and funding •sales per employee •profit per employee •market share (sales turnover) by product group and •many other benchmark indicators. Divisional Managers in a division interact with HQ managers over such performance standards. Management information systemws are installed to monitor divisional performances. There will be reviews of projects, quality, profits and growth levels each year.

Heads of Department in a college are required to achieve targets within agreed budgets. However divisional managers will be left to get on and manage their operation in a largely autonomous way. Summary Mintzberg’s five elements fall into a rough order. As organisational work becomes more complicated co-ordination seems to shift from mutual adjustment to direct supervision, to standardisation (preferably of work processes, otherwise of outputs or else of skills), finally reverting back to mutual adjustment. Large groups are less able to co-ordinate informally. With further complexity, supervision becomes necessary.

Mintzberg suggests that an optimum stage can be reached and passed in terms of how managerial roles are differentiated. If there is a delay in reviewing and realigning roles – once they have evolved beyond an optimum stage, then decline in efficiency may be apparent. We may see group members, instead of applying their energy to key tasks, becoming diverted and spending too much time trying to work through the morass of interactions within a disparate group . This hints at reasons for the practice of down-sizing in organisations and the adoption of matrix/project teams.


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