Managers Use Theories To Motivate Their Staff Essay

Motivation is a cardinal component of organizational behavior and is described by Robins ( 2008 ) as the procedure that accounts for an person ‘s strength, way and continuity of attempt towards achieving a end. Over the old ages at that place has been much research into the effectivity of motive in the workplace and whether happier workers are more productive workers ( Robins, 2008 ). Robins ( 2008 ) indicates that over 300 surveies have compared the worker satisfaction-performance relationship. When satisfaction and productiveness informations are gathered for administrations as a whole we find that administrations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effectual than administrations with fewer satisfied employees ( Robins, 2008 ). We can clearly see that satisfied employees make more effectual administrations and these surveies have highlighted the importance of motive in the workplace as presents most companies are looking into ways to better efficiency, productiveness and quality in the workplace ( Halepota, 2005 ).

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There are many motivational theories around today nevertheless they can all be divided into two classs termed content and procedure ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ). Fincham & A ; Rhodes ( 2005 ) explain that content theories assume that all persons possess the same set of demands, and procedure theories emphasise the function of an person ‘s cognitive procedures in finding their degree of motive. The two content theories of Abraham Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands and Frederick Herzberg ‘s two factor theory are the motivational theories that are traveling to be compared and contrasted and so seen how they can be put into pattern by directors to actuate their staff.

Abraham Maslow outlined what is possibly the most influential of the content theories, the hierarchy of demands ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ). Fincham & A ; Rhodes ( 2005 ) point out that Maslow believed human demands are natural in nature and have their footing in our biogenetic and evolutionary heritage, hence Maslow believed that motive was mostly an unconscious procedure.

Maslow did non originally mean this theory to be an geographic expedition of motive in the workplace nevertheless such its credence that it is frequently included on preparation and learning class as if it were true, instead than an interesting but debatable set of observations about what motivates us ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ).

The hierarchy is based on the theory that within every human being exists a theory of 5 demands, as each one of these demands become well satisfied the following becomes dominant ( Robins, 2008 ). Robins ( 2008 ) goes on to depict the degrees of the hierarchy in order get downing with the bottom degree of Physiological demands ; these include hungriness, thirst, shelter, sex and bodily maps. The following degree is safety demands included is security and protection from physical and emotional injury. The undermentioned measure up in the theoretical account are societal demands, such as ; fondness, belongingness and credence and friendly relationship. The following are esteem demands, these include internal factors such as ego regard, liberty and accomplishment and external 1s such as position, acknowledgment and attending. Finally the terminal degree of the theoretical account is self realization ; this is the thrust to go what one is capable of going, this includes ; growing, accomplishing one ‘s possible and self – fulfillment.

The 2nd theory that is traveling to be examined is Herzberg ‘s two factor theory. Herzberg believes that an person ‘s relation to work is basic and that one ‘s attitude toward work can really good find success or failure, Herzberg asked himself, what do people truly want organize their occupations? ( Robins, 2008 ). Herzberg ( 1968 ) when seeking to reply this inquiry observed that people work efficaciously when they are good treated physically.

Following his ain thoughts Herzberg initiated a survey on motive which became the footing of the two factor theory ; he did this by questioning 200 applied scientists and comptrollers. The interviewers began by inquiring the staff to remember a clip when they had felt exceptionally good about their occupations and so probed them for grounds why they felt as they did, this was so repeated for when the clip which they felt bad about their occupations and were once more asked to depict why ( Herzberg 1968 ).

The consequences of the interviews were recorded and so summarised ; five factors stood out as strong clinchers of occupation satisfaction, they were ; accomplishment, acknowledgment, work itself, duty and promotion. The major dissatisfying factors were ; company policy and disposal, supervising, salary, interpersonal dealingss and working conditions ( Herzberg, 1968 ).

Herzberg ( 1968 ) observed that the dissatisfying factors basically described the environment and served to forestall occupation dissatisfaction, while holding really small consequence on positive occupation attitudes, they were named the hygiene factors. Herzberg ( 1968 ) described the usage of the word being an analogy to the medical usage of the term significance ; preventative and environmental. The hearty factors were named the incentives, since the survey suggested that they are effectual in actuating the person to superior public presentation and attempt.

Herzberg ( 1968 ) reiterated the fact that the factors involved in bring forthing occupation satisfaction were separate and distinguishable from the factors that led to occupation satisfaction. He regarded these two sets of demands as holding wholly separate beginnings ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ).

The first of the many similarities between Maslow ‘s and Herzberg ‘s theories is that they are both content theories ; this means they both build on the premise that all persons ‘ posses the same set of demands ( Fincham and Rhodes, 2005 ).

Second both theories make general anticipations for illustration the order of the hierarchy, or the incentives in the two factor theory ; nevertheless both authors accept that single differences may be, for illustration in the manner a individual moves up the hierarchy or what motivates person may differ from individual to individual ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ).

The two theories have received much attending in both scientific diaries and the workplace as they represent a foundation from which modern-day theories have grown, and practicing directors still on a regular basis use the them and their nomenclature in explicating employee motive ( Robins, 2008 ).

Both Maslow ‘s and Herzberg ‘s theories have incentives and demands that can be broken up into two different groups. For illustration Maslow ‘s hierarchy can be differentiated between higher order demands such as regard and ego realization which are satisfied internally and lower order demands such as physiological, safety and societal demands which are preponderantly satisfied externally ( Robins, 2008 ).

Herzberg ‘s two factor theory is differentiated by the fact that the two groups of demands lead to different things. Hygiene factors led to occupation dissatisfaction because of a demand to avoid unpleasantness and the motivation factors led to occupation satisfaction because of a demand for growing or self – realization ( Herzberg, 1968 ).

The two authors of the theories both agree that one time lower order demands or hygiene factors are met they cease to further actuate the person. Harmonizing to Maslow as lower order demands are satisfied, they no longer drive behavior ( Ikwukananne & A ; Udechukwa 2009 ). While Herzberg ( 1974 ) explained that all hygiene factors are potentially of equal importance and one time met they will discontinue to actuate further.

Harmonizing to Ikwukananne & A ; Udechukwa ( 2009 ) both authors of the theories helped the development of psychological science and helped it develop further. In line with Maslow ‘s recreation of psychological science surveies from animate beings to worlds and Herzberg advocated the recreation of psychological science from insane to sane.

A similarity between the two theories is that they both have defects and are criticised because of them. Maslow ( 1943 ) in his original authorship on the hierarchy accepted these defects and explained that there is a really serious deficiency of sound informations in this country. He farther adds that the deficiency of sound facts is due to a deficiency of valid theory of motive and provinces that the hierarchy of demands must be considered to be a suggested plan or model for future mention and must stand or fall ( Maslow, 1943 ).

The chief defect of Herzberg ‘s theory is that it is limited by its methodological analysis, for illustration when things are traveling good, people tend to take recognition themselves. Conversely, they blame failure on the extrinsic environment ( Robins, 2008 ).

We can see there are many similarities between the two motivational theories nevertheless there are besides many differences.

One of the chief differences between them is that Herzberg ‘s is set out in a manner which it is readily testable nevertheless Maslow ‘s is non ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ).

Herzberg ‘s two facto theory is backed up by grounds which as we have already seen is readily testable ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ). The difference is that Maslow ‘s theory is non backed up by grounds, Maslow provided no empirical confirmation, and several surveies that sought to formalize the theory found no support for it ( Robins, 2008 ). Maslow ( 1943 ) recognised this issue in his original publication of the theory saying that it is far easier to comprehend and knock the facet in motive theory than to rectify them. Largely this is because of the really serious deficiency of sound informations in this country.

Unlike Maslow ‘s theory, Herzberg ‘s theory provinces that occupation satisfaction and dissatisfaction are non opposite and consequence from different causes ( Ikwukananne & A ; Udechukwa, 2009 ). Herzberg referred to this in his work as the double continuum: the antonym of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the antonym of dissatisfaction is no satisfaction ( Robins 2008 ). The double continuum explains that the things that make people satisfied and motivated on the occupation are different in sort signifier the things that make them dissatisfied ( Herzberg, 2003 ).

Herzberg ‘s work clearly describes satisfaction horizontally and creates the differentiation between types of satisfaction. Herzberg suggested that if an employee experiences a low degree of satisfaction it does non needfully connote that the employee is dissatisfied ( Ikwukananne & A ; Udechukwa, 2009 ). On the other manus Maslow ‘s theory describes satisfaction vertically and leads analysts to scale each demand as perfectly met or unmet, satisfied or unsated ( Ikwukananne & A ; Udechukwa, 2009 ).

There are many ways in which directors can utilize the two theories to actuate their staff. Maslow retorted that the top degree of the hierarchy is different to other demands as ego realization is ne’er to the full satisfied but operates to advance uninterrupted psychological growing and development. ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ). In respect to this directors could tackle this uninterrupted demand for growing and development and utilize it to actuate their staff. For illustration by passing duty of undertakings to certain employees in the workplace will let the growing and development of employees and will give them the possible to make their self realization demands.

One of the troubles in actuating workers is that they are all different and respond otherwise to the same sort of alteration or action ( Halepota, 2005 ). If direction were able to measure their work force and state what degree of the hierarchy of demands they were on so they would be able to put staff personal ends. For illustration by inquiring them to finish a questionnaire so they would be able to choose motivational schemes appropriate to persons. Using this cognition, a director or supervisor can put meaningful ends for good public presentation that would let employees to travel up the hierarchy ( Halepota, 2009 ).

Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands can be evaluated my direction to measure how to maintain workers satisfied and motivated. To make this direction must detect it in two parts the higher and lower order demands. First direction must look to turn to the lower order demands as these can be satisfied externally by things such as wage, brotherhood contracts and the conditions of the working environment ( Robins, 2008 ).

Once the lower order demands are satisfied so direction can concentrate on trying to carry through the higher order demands as they provide the psychological stimulation by which the person can be activated toward his ego realization demands ( Herzberg, 1968 ). These demands can be stimulated in the workplace by relaying duty and puting undertakings for employees which pose a challenge for them.

In the same manner the lower and higher order demands can be used to excite employee motive so can Herzberg ‘s hygiene and motive factors. From Herzberg ‘s original findings the hygiene factors were: company policy and disposal, supervising, salary, interpersonal dealingss and working status ( Herzberg, 1968 ). In the same manner the lower order demands can be controlled by direction so can the hygiene factors to give the employees a more hearty topographic point to work. Similarly to the application of the higher order demands of Maslow ‘s hierarchy in the workplace the incentives in the two factor theory could be used by direction to actuate employees ; to make this direction could redesign peoples occupations to integrate more incentives ( Fincham & A ; Rhodes, 2005 ).

One alternate illustration of how some directors are utilizing these theories is the usage of the two factor theory in the hotel industry. Some hotel directors have applied the theory in respect to guest satisfaction, as opposed to its normal application within the employee motive country ( Balmer & A ; Baum, 1993 ).

There are many similarities and differences between both Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands and Herzberg ‘s two factor theory moreover, although it is accepted by both the authors and other faculty members that they both have defects and are no manner perfect we can see that they can be applied both in similar ways by direction in the workplace to increase degrees of motive in staff, hence potentially as stated by Halepota ( 2009 ) taking to increased productiveness, efficiency and quality for the administration.


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