A brick has been a common building stuff used everyplace for more than 6000 old ages, and has been in assorted form, sizes and were made by blending many different type of stuffs, each of them holding their ain advantage and disadvantage ; and formed the basic construction and the “ back bone ” of many civilizations and was used in a broad scope of edifices in centuries from constructing castles, lodging mills, in tunnels building, H2O ways, Bridgess, doing it the oldest manufactured edifice stuff. For centuries, the brick devising procedure was done by manus, and involved clay being moulded and so dried in the Sun until the industrial revolution when the procedure turned to mechanisation. Today technological and mechanical promotion has helped to hold a more complete cognition of the natural stuff and its belongingss, and better control of fire, betterment in the kiln designs, all have contributed to the promotion of brick quality and has made modern-day bricks more efficient and has improved the overall quality of the merchandises.
Today, brick is found in assorted stuffs and made in assorted forms depending on the usage. There are concrete brick, Ca silicate brick, clay brick and Adobe brick. See Appendix 1
This study will be looking at the engineering associated with the fabricating procedure of automated and traditional dirt clay brick, “ adobe ” brick – field clay brick which are still use today in certain portion of the Earth or sometimes and “ slack brick ” – and the hereafter of brick.
Fabrication Procedure OF AUTOMATED BRICK
The first phase in the fabrication procedure of the dirt clay brick start with the choice of the natural stuff.
The chief natural stuff in brick devising is clay and it is one of the most abundant natural mineral stuffs on the planet. On Earth, there is a broad scope of clay which varies well in physical belongingss, coloring material, hardness and mineralogical content ; doing it hard to nail peculiar clay and state this is the best clay for brick devising but they do, nevertheless, have certain belongingss in common.
PROPERTIES and TYPES OF CLAYS
Clay is complex stuff as single, and their sedimentations is alone due to their specific manners of formation and physical features, and are seldom present as pure minerals but instead are mixtures of the different clay types of one group or type usually being dominant. But the Clay entrance in brick fabrication must possess and carry through some specific belongingss and characteristic such as the ability to be crushed and assorted with H2O to organize a plastic stuff which can be moulded into assorted forms ; shrinking or swelling per centum on fire, intending when capable to appropriate temperatures the clay particles must blend together ; the bloating features, intending the per centum of H2O soaking up ; firing coloring material, intending the coloring material of the brick after drying and per centum of mulcts produced upon oppressing and fire strength and these physical belongingss determine their commercial value.
The clays from which burnt bricks are made may be divided into three chief types, all of which have similar chemical composings but different physical features.
2. A Surface Clays besides called Alluvial and Drift Clays
Found near the surface of the Earth, may be the up pushs of older sedimentations or of more recent, sedimentary formation ; are readily worked and necessitate small readying.
2. B Shale clays or bouldery clays
Shale is sedimentary sedimentations clays that have been subjected to high force per unit areas until they have hardened about to the signifier of slate which are frequently hard to work and ask the usage of heavy machinery to pull out but, may be brought into fictile status by long weathering ( i.e. by exposure to rain, hoar and Sun ) or by oppressing and crunching in H2O, and they so resemble ordinary alluvial clays in every regard.
2. C Fire Clays
Fire clays are normally mined at deeper degrees of the Earth than other clays where they form the bed bed under seams of coal and have refractory qualities and a high grade of opposition to heat.
The procedure of doing clay brick is by and large unvarying, although industries tailor their production to suit their peculiar natural stuffs.
In general, the fabrication procedure consists of basically of six phases:
Mining and Gathering natural stuffs
Preparation of natural stuff ( oppressing, crunching, testing and blending the natural stuffs )
Making of the brick or Forming Process ( organizing, cutting and surfacing )
Curing ( firing and chilling )
Packaging and storing
Diagram of the industrial fabrication procedure of clay bricks
( www.gobrick.com/omnisam/common/getfile.cfm? file=/bia/technotes/t9… )
Mining and GATHERING RAW MATERIALS
The pick of the excavation method of clay will depend on the sort of clay, on the deepness, thickness, hardness and physical geology of the clay location under the land.
The general method of pull outing clay from the prey is one time or twice a twelvemonth utilizing heavy works machinery to stock heap big sums, so to guarantee uninterrupted brick production regardless of the conditions conditions and because clays are seldom present as pure minerals but instead mixtures of the different clay types ; research lab testing of the clays from different parts of prey will find the features of the beds and will be stock in separate different classs which will ease the blending of the natural stuffs.
PREPATION OF THE RAW MATERIAL
In the maker, the clay stone is crashed and reduced in smaller atoms, and so the stuff produced is screen through an inclined vibrating testing machine to command the atom sizes prior to H2O being added.
During the showing, manufactures adjust and counterbalance the different fluctuations in chemical composing and physical belongingss by intermixing clays from different locations and beginnings to suit their criterion of the terminal merchandise. Consequently, to carry through their demands of perfect clay for bricks doing, or for the composing of the natural stuff to carry through their criterion, the different mixes and proportions of clay and chemical are blended together, prior to add H2O, as which of them affect the working belongingss of clays doing them to change in their behavior impacting the belongingss of the concluding merchandise. At the same clip, industry has standardized their end merchandise and their fabrication processes to restrict fluctuations in the processing and the incompatibility in end merchandise.
For case, a clay brick that when remedy turn white may be developed commercially because, by adding assorted minerals like oxide of Fe will impact the properness of the brick in such a manner that when remedy it will bring forth a ruddy brick if besides there is consistence in the fabrication processes.
Example: Clay incorporating from 5 to 8 % of oxide of Fe will, under ordinary conditions of fire, produce a ruddy brick ; but if the clay contains 3 to 4 % of base, or the brick is fired excessively difficult, the coloring material will be darker and purple. An surplus of Alumina compound be givening to do the coloring material igniter and brighter.
( Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cmewa.com/eai_default.aspx? eai_general.aspx? itid=95 )
FORMING OF THE BRICK
The first measure in organizing procedure is to bring forth a homogenous plastic clay mass work up into proper consistence by adding H2O to clay in a mixing chamber with one or more revolving shafts with blade extensions. After the kneading, the plastic clay mass is ready for organizing.
There are three different methods of determining and organizing brick: the stiff-mud procedure or bulge procedure
6. A. The stiff-mud procedure or bulge procedure
In the stiff-mud procedure or bulge procedure, the clay is assorted with merely adequate H2O to bring forth clay fictile mass with H2O in the scope of 10 to 15 per centum of the clay mass. Following, the clay is extruded through a “ dice ” , bring forthing a horizontal column of clay which passes by conveyer belt through an automatic wire cutter to make the single brick. The cutter infinites and die size are exactly calculated to counterbalance for shrinking during drying and fire.
6. B. Soft-mud procedure
In the soft-mud procedure or moulded procedure, the clay contains excessively much H2O to be extruded. The fictile clay mass contain 20 to 30 per centum of H2O per mass is used to bring forth brick either by manus or machine. In the machine driven soft-mud procedure, standard brick are produce in mass measures as the machine retroflex the hand-making procedure much quicker.
6. C. Hand doing
In the simplest signifier which is done by manus, the craftsman will bring forth one brick at the clip by stuffing a ball of soft clay in a mold and the extra clay is stuff from the top of the mold and the brick is turned out. The mold is lubricated with either sand or H2O to forestall the brick from lodging in the mold.
6. D. The dry-press procedure
In this procedure hydraulic or compressed air random-access memory is used to press clay with really low malleability, incorporating no more than ten per centum of H2O by weight, into steel molds under force per unit areas from 500 to 1500 pounds per square inch making a really compact and heavy brick.
Prior to the brick to be fired in the kiln, after the brick is formed utilizing any of the method describes above, it incorporating 7 to 30 per centum of wet, depending upon the forming method. This wet must be removed prior to the brick can be fired in the kiln otherwise, there will be formation of trash and certain mechanical defects from happening or the brick will detonate when the brick is capable to the intense heat of the kiln. This drying procedure which last about 18 to 40 hours, is usually done by puting the green brick in enclosed drier which utilize surplus heat supplied from the exhaust heat of kiln to maximise thermic efficiency. To guarantee good consequence, devices are installed to mensurate and command humidness in the drying installations.
A. Open firing
After the drying, the brick are fired in furnace chamber called kiln for 10 to 40 hours, where there are capable to a temperature of runing between 100 to 1200 grades centigrade depending on clay type or stuff used and the type of finished brick required.
During the procedure, clay atoms and drosss will undergo alterations as the temperature in the kilns rises. The staying H2O in the brick will dry up or vaporize ; unlike the metal, clay softens easy and thaws or vitrifies bit by bit in lifting temperature. The clay molecules mass interruptions down becomes soft plenty to lodge together ; the mass becomes tight, solid and non absorbent giving the brick it texture and coloring material. To guarantee a good merchandise and avoid the brick to be deformed due to heat besides called syrupy merger, kiln is fitted with detectors to command the temperature in the different phase the fire procedure.
7.A.1. What is a Kiln
In brief, kilns are merely containers for heat ; fuelled by natural gas, coal, sawdust, and methane gas from landfills or a combination of these fuels.
There are many different types of kilns but the most common types are the uninterrupted kilns ( tunnel ) which are ever firing ; they ne’er cool and are capable of turning out big measures of bricks at steady changeless rate and the periodic ( intermittent ) kilns which are fired on an intermittent agenda.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.pottery-magic.com/pottery/history/bottle_kiln.htm
Following the firing procedure is the packaging but prior to that the bricks are bit by bit cool down, for 10 hours for tunnel kiln and signifier 5 to 24 hours in periodic kiln, as the rate of chilling affect straight the concluding coloring material of the bricks.
After the brick has cool downs, there are unload from the kiln ; sorted, graded, packaged and topographic point in a storage pace or loaded rail autos or truck of bringing.
Fabrication Procedure OF “ ADOBE ” CLAY BRICK
The adobe brick, this type of earthen edifice stuffs has been around since the beginning of civilization and has been the chief edifice stuff for most of the civilization. In our twenty-four hours, Adobe are largely used in hot and dry climes and go the feature of the 3rd universe.
Although this is a really old stuff, it fabricating procedure has n’t change since. As with the dirt clay brick the chief ingredient which enter in the fabrication procedure is clay and the fabrication procedure start with the pick of the natural stuff.
Choice OF RAW MATERIALS
Adobe brick are made from a mixture of clay or clay and little pieces of straw or reeds, and are formed by manus and left in the Sun to dry.
The secret of brand adobe bricks lays on the pick of the type of clay to utilize as it is made of surface clay dirt. Although the bricks are made in rural country where there is no sophisticated research lab for proving but anterior utilizing the clay it has to be tested.
The testing of the clay can be done by make fulling 2/3 of a ranked glass jar with the clay you plan to utilize, and so make full the jar with H2O and put a palpebra on. Shake the jar for about two proceedingss doing certain the clay is wholly mix up with the H2O so let the jar and the mix to sit overnight. After about 24 hours, examine the jar and its content ; the clay would hold broken up into two distinguishable sets of sand on the underside and clay on the top. There should non be more clay than sand on the ration of 30 per centum clay and 70 per centum sand for an ideal adobe brick devising clay.
Preparation OF BRICKS
After choosing the clay, an country must be clear anterior to get down doing bricks and a shed to protect the freshly made against the rain as it can take a twosome of yearss for them to dry.
In the nearby, delve a hole of approximately 3 to 4 pess long, 2 to 3 pess broad and 2 to 3 pess deep as a commixture cavity for the different ingredients. Then make full the hole with H2O and allow it run out out as this will beef up the wall of the hole for it non to crumple while blending the clay dirt. This will take at least a twenty-four hours to dry out.A Make mold of the bricks utilizing lumber. The traditional size is 4 by 10 by 14 inches and this is made with 2 by 4 he-mans nailed into a ladder like form.
hypertext transfer protocol: //adobe-homes.net/pages/aboutadobe.html
Devising ADOBE BRICKS
Once the H2O in the cavity has dry out, make full the cavity halfway with the clay dirt so add H2O bit by bit as blending with the pess our shovel until the mix is stiff. Straw can be added to reenforce the mix but it is non necessary.Fill the mold utilizing a shovel or manus thenlevel off the surplus with the shovel or with a consecutive border, makingsure there are no air pockets or gaps.A Let the bricks set and so gently take the mold from them go forthing the moisture adobe bricks to dry for several yearss ( at least three ) before managing. Wash the mold and reiterate the procedure in a different country.
Leave the adobe brick where they are while they dry in the Sun for several yearss before turning them on the border to wholly dry out and harden and put under the shed so that the drying clip can go on. When the borders turn white, they are ready to be moved, but non used. This procedure could take at least 3 hebdomads prior the brick is use.
THE FUTURE OF CLAY BRICK
As the universe population is turning particularly in developing states, there is a demand of urbanization to suit this public intending more bricks are needed to reply to this demand of substructure development. With the turning job of energy monetary value surging, with the universe running out of dodo fuel, with the decrease of deforestation which encourages the enlargement of the desert, the clay brick industry is now confronting an energy crisis and this crisis is impacting and will impact everyone. In the developed state, it is impacting the monetary value of the adjustment and the house monetary value while in the underdeveloped state it is taking to the poverty of many. This crisis resound as called for invention by funding a new manner of doing new type of clay brick or bettering the fire procedure by a new design of kiln taking to cut down energy ingestion by minimising the energy required by the procedure as firing clip and temperature in the kiln are the two key factors which contribute in the devising of solid brick.
In the developed state, electricity and dodo fuel are usage as the chief fuel beginning for brick fire as they are abundant. Establishing other alternate to these beginnings of energy could be the manner frontward. But puting in atomic power will raise an environmental issue of covering with the atomic waste ; puting in the renewable energy will be a gamble in the manner that, most of this engineering are still in embryologic province and will necessitate support a good topographic point to put in them and a large country to cover to be able to bring forth adequate energy necessary to power this industries such investing will impair on the monetary value of brick. It will intend besides to deviate energy which will be helpful to thousand family into industry.
UNFIRED CLAY BRICK
The manner frontward will be likely in cut downing the energy ingestion by planing better kiln and bettering our cognition of the minimal energy required by the procedure as unneeded prolonged firing clip and excessively high temperature will finally devour more energy but minimal firing temperature and shortening firing clip make non merely cut down energy but besides increase the productiveness.
In the underdeveloped state, this crisis reverberates as called for invention, happening an option for bring arounding clay brick as they are confronting desertification. Curing is done, depending on the country, by fire wood, rice chaff and maize hazelnut or residue as chief fuel beginnings for brick fire because they are abundant in developing state. Even though other agricultural waste such as proverb dust and oil thenar shell are used as replacement for wood, a new design of kiln is necessary to get by with the little size of fuel.
If thought in term of invention in happening a new manner of doing clay brick, the new brick should be energy efficient in fabricating procedure exceptional if remedy through a kiln. Although the adobe clay brick may look to be the reply but this brick nevertheless is non really strong or lasting and tend to check on drying.
But one of the modern add-ons is to counterbalance this failing by blending dirt clay with sand and stabilising it with 4 to 8 % of cement or gypsum and so compact these stuffs in a given mould organize, which consequences in strong and lasting bricks, which do non check. This is done with simple and yet advanced manually or engine-operated brick imperativenesss made from significant steel subdivisions with “ axle steel ” shaft with a top unit of ammunition shaft is instance hardened C steel with a palpebra and with a underside that moves up and down ; the compaction given by the machine compact the dirt particles together to do heavy habitue shaped brick, normally 300x300x 130 millimeter in size and it is useA to bring forth meshing dirt clay bricks without combustion.
Fabrication UNFIRED CLAY BRICKS
This procedure uses the same type of clay usage for the adobe brick. After the dirt clay has been selected, it must be properly mix with Portland cement or gypsum so add H2O to the content so that the concluding merchandise is a dry mixture incorporating about 15 % H2O by weight. The dry mixture is poured in the mold of the imperativeness machine which is compress by forcing the imperativeness lever from one side to the other after closing of the top with a steel palpebra, with a force of about12 to 14 dozenss mould force per unit area. After the compaction coating, the brick is eject from the machine and stack in the manner to forestall H2O loss. Water is added daily so that the cement can be hydrated decently. The bring arounding procedure will take about 28 yearss. Figure 1
hypertext transfer protocol: //opus.bath.ac.uk/16170/1/papers/Paper % 2031.pdf
This Environmentally-sound edifice procedure is practical, cheap andA environmentallyHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.html ” A HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.html ” friendly, every bit good as important in cost nest eggs and ongoing green benefits, constructing with unfired dirt clay bricks is one of the solution for the lodging crisis because it has a batch of environmental benefits. Figure 2
The environment is protected in several ways:
1.A It lessens the ecological impact of edifice building, thereby cut downing deforestation and the demand kiln. There is hence no demand to fire the bricks, which makes this procedure a really low-energy necessitating one.
2.A It saves money as the brick can be made On-site extinguishing transit, jobbers and breakage cost.
3. On the other manus, unfired clay brick provide a sustainable and healthy option as replacing to conventional masonry stuffs.
4. The constructions made with dirt bricks are as beautiful and lasting as lodging made from conventional bricks with the higher acoustical qualities that shut out exterior noise for less nerve-racking life and cut down the demand to heat or chill the inside. The dirt brick is suited particularly for usage in multi floor edifices, due to its lastingness and hardiness.
5. The bricks are already strong plenty to be handled for storage when they leave the machine.
hypertext transfer protocol: //board.pornsawan.com/ ? name=webboard & A ; category=2
6. Brick presses allow countryside people to construct independently their ain low-cost bricks to self-build their houses and non hold to trust on salesmen and production in towns, bad roads, conveyance jobs and fluctuating monetary values.
The deficiency of fossil fuels the universe will confront shortly will drive the universe in an economical crisis which we have n’t see before driving up the monetary value of adjustment. Though the thought of compress clay bricks from dirt is far from new in the underdeveloped state, but for some unknownA grounds this engineering does n’t look to hold made its brake through the developed universe. There is a demand to implement this new merchandise of a low C footmark in the edifice industry.
hypertext transfer protocol: //sleekfreak.ath.cx:81/3wdev/VITAHTML/SUBLEV/EN1/CLAYPROD.HTM
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.articlesfactory.com/articles/environment/soil-brick-making-machines-can-save-the-forests.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newdawnengineering.com/website/brickandtile/tbrick/
hypertext transfer protocol: //opus.bath.ac.uk/16170/1/papers/Paper % 2031.pdf
Fabrication of Bricks 9.12.2006
Publish: The Brick Industry Association
Careful humidness control
Publish: Vaisala intelligence 1998
ABCs of doing Adobe bricks
Publish: College of agribusiness and place economic sciences
New Mexico province university March 2003
Mineral information institute
University College London
How to do adobe bricks
How to do Adobe bricks