The layout of the fabrication works has a close relationship with the end product of merchandises, manner of production and the merchandises ‘ alterations. Production systems frequently is organized into job-shop production manner, blunt store production manner and fixed production theoretical account, etc. Consequently, fabricating layout signifier is divided into the procedure, layout, merchandise layout, fixed place layout [ 2 ] .
The layout job in fabrication workshop is a really of import and long-standing job in industrial technology research and pattern. Long-run since, fabricating layout has been regarded one of the most of import and the most hard design jobs in the fabrication industry, it requires to integrate processing equipment, stuff handling equipment, passageway and any other fabrication resources up moderately and placed them in a limited infinite, which can be regarded as the procedure of organisational procedure. The production of automotive fumes pipes is a sort of typical line operation procedure, so the pick of fabricating layout will greatly depend whether the occupation store can efficient run production.
Association of American modern layout puts frontward four sorts of layout scheme [ 11 ] :
Distributed layout: It requires big swift type unit be decomposed into smaller fractional monetary units. And administer them throughout the workshop. In a extremely dynamic environments, repetition constellation unit, this can assist the units be visited from different places of the workshop, therefore better logistics.
Modular layout: It means the machines which the working process subset in different procedure paths demands have to be grouped and arranged in a authoritative layout constellation, doing transit cost lower limit. This sort of layout needs a hypothesis as in the short term, the merchandise demand already known and stable.
( 3 ) Reconfigurable layout: This is really a multi-stage layout job, obtained logistics fee at each production phase and Reconstruction cost to make up one’s mind the workshop layout for recognizing cost lower limit. This layout ‘s realisation depends on resource can be managing dexterous and easy to adorn.
( 4 ) Agile layout: It is interrupting authoritative layout design, operated with public presentation as a design indexes, and analyze out any type of layout. The method based on simulation and application of simulation optimisation scheme.
This study is chief discuss functional applier in fabrication and cellular fabrication.
The functional fabrication layout of the company have served the company for many old ages, and made a good public presentation. The company ‘s automotive fumes pipes fabricating procedure includes lading stuff, baking and combustion, droping, separate H2O and oil, chilling, shooting blast, coppice, spraying, sintering, review and wadding, eleven chief stairss.
Functional layout is a sort of traditional layout which uses traditional occupation store processs, like portion household programming regulations, under a assortment of store runing conditions. Functional layout is used in fabrication, warehousing planning, constructing layout and many other facets. Functional fabrication layout used in occupation store is make up one’s minding the layout of the production installations by their maps through the production. In the production line, installations with similar maps will be placed near each other. Another focal point of functional fabrication layout is the coherence degree of production or managing procedure. Facilities with high coherence degree will be placed near each other. The mills use the functional layout in fabricating demands to put in all equipments with one peculiar type in one country as different types of equipments in different countries [ 10 ] .So in this status, workers can be easy trained as they ever use peculiar equipments and working in peculiar country and they can be easy managed.
The functional layout has been determined under the standard of stuffs managing cost minimisation [ 9 ] . The cut down of managing cost can be one of import intent of functional layout.As the installations be placed with the rule of “ set together when them have a similar map ” or “ set together when they have a similar handling method ” , workers can make the same sort of managing for different constituents and parts at the same clip or at one clip. As the workers ever work with similar installations, the efficiency of the production will lift with the growing of workers ‘ experience ; different types of installations installed in different countries, they can be easy controlled and taken production public presentation rating.
As there are 11 processs in the automotive fumes pipes fabrication, workers in the same occupation store will work with different conditions, some procedure conditions are even contrary ( like baking and combustion, chilling ) . In order to avoid working procedure common intervention, the conditions of the operation of processs should be considered. The functional fabrication layout can work out this job perfect ; when the occupation store take the functional fabrication layout, the public presentation of workers ( or squads ) can be easy efficaciously evaluated ; when the equipments installed by their types and applications, if new equipments need to be installed, they are simple to be classified and placed.
The work flow under functional fabrication layout production system in the company ‘s occupation store is as flow:
Loading stuffs is the first measure, so the loading topographic point should in the forepart of the conveyor and near the natural stuffs repertory, so workers can easy lade the stuffs ; Baking and combustion is done through dry combustion machine, which will direct out a batch of heat, so these dry combustion machines should be installed far off from the chilling machines to avoid premature chilling and they should put as near the lading topographic point as possible ; unloading machines are merely near the dry combustion machines ; H2O and oil centrifuges besides need a high working temperature ( normally it is about 80a„? ) , so they besides should be pay attending for the distance from the ice chests ; After dividing H2O and oil there should be a certain distance of conveyor between the stuffs come into ice chests ; changeable blasting machines are installed between ice chests and brushing machines ; bushing machines and spraying machines should put nearby, as their maps are similar and have a truly high coherence degree in production ; sintering machines as they have a similar working status with dry firing machines, so they should put near each other ; review and wadding should done in the same topographic point, at the terminal of the conveyor, as they are the last measure of the production of automotive fumes pipes. In order to complete all these stairss under functional fabrication layout, the conveyer belt should non be additive but be U-shaped or Byzantine.
As to pull off the work flow in functional fabrication layout production system efficaciously, these installations and worker should be divided into functional groups. These 11 production stairss can be divided into five groups: lading stuff, baking and combustion, droping, separate H2O and oil, chilling will be composed the first group ; shot blast will be the 2nd group ; shrub and spraying compose the 3rd group ; sintering is the 4th group ; review and wadding will be composed the last group. This sort of grouping ‘s chief consideration is the coherence degree of production procedure and production environmental factor ( like temperature ) . After grouping, a overseer should be chosen from workers in each group to take charge of installations and productions.
The stock list under the functional fabrication system is ever little. As under functional layout, the equipments have similar map are installed together, which provides a batch of flexibleness [ 14 ] , it does n’t requires immense sum of stock list to get by with the volatile market demand, particularly some cardinal constituents ‘ stock list ; the workers in each functional group take the charge of the natural stuffs they need, they decide the stock list and the outward measure of each clip ; the information system of stock list will take each functional group as a unit to keep the stock list information and give the orders to the providers ; When the market demand produced fluctuations, the stock list possibly merely needs a small alteration as the functional group can effectual header with fluctuations.
Cellular fabrication is an of import portion of Thin Production. Thin Production ( LP ) is a sort of efficient endeavor direction manner, which involves construct, organisation, procedure, environment, direction methods and direction end. [ 7 ]
Thin production is derived from Toyota Production System. During the 1990s, America did a batch of research and pattern of thin fabrication. Besides car industry, more American concern such as Boeing, Lockheed Martin, HP and many other large companies started to take thin production into usage. In this procedure, the Japanese provided the basic thought and method, with first-class pattern proved thin production powerful verve ; American bookmans ‘ surveies, the American endeavors, and even the U.S. authorities ‘s researches and pattern proved thin idea is scientific and effectual for modern production and sublimate it into a sort of fabrication doctrine, thin production grown from experience into theory, a new production method which gets a officially birth.
Thin Thinking ( LT ) refers to use a assortment of modern direction techniques and methods, take the client demand as the footing, so as to do full usage of adult male as a cardinal, in order to recognize effectual distribution and rational usage of endeavor ‘s resources and acquire the end of upper limit for endeavors strive for economic benefits. Its nucleus is making every bit much value as possible with the least investings. [ 8 ]
Competitive forces in both domestic and planetary markets are disputing batch processing houses to go more efficient and, at the same clip, to go more flexible ( De Meyer et 1989 ) [ 5 ] . Cellular fabrication is a layout organisation that has been used to run into this challenge. Cellular fabrication system is based on the group engineering, which is the key for apparatus decrease.
Mitrofanov founded the group engineering in 1959, it is a method to place and research similarities between a group of mark characteristic and its application Fieldss including categorization and cryptography, the processing program, constituents cultural group and machine fabrication unit design, grouping engineering layout and grouping program etc.
Cellular Manufacturing is utilizing the group engineering organisation machine unit to treat a group of constituents. Flexible fabrication, computer-integrated fabrication, just-in-time production are common illustrations of mechanization units. [ 13 ]
Cellular Manufacturing chiefly includes: ( 1 ) cell formation by grouping parts into portion households and machines into cells ( constituents coding ) , ( 2 ) layout of the cells within the store floor ( i.e. ( fabricating cell building ) [ 20 ] ( 3 ) the cell layout. Besides, it besides needs sensible work program for short-run production, the flow control and efficient organisation construction program and agreement. [ 12 ]
In the traditional functional production manner, machining parts need to be transmitted in the whole workshop, doing the stuff traffic volume increased ; Due to the diverseness of production, doing equipment adjust clip increased ; Because of the immense figure of assortments and resource sharing, doing troubles increased in production program ; Meanwhile, operation of precedence is hard to command, production supervisor hold a big stock of trim parts to guarantee workshop working usually and efficaciously. Cellular Manufacturing system put single parts fabricating in one unit of production, therefore material control and operation programs have become much more simple ; In Cellular Manufacturing system, runing worker have to be comprehensive trained, which makes even merely one worker can finish the whole operation procedure of production from start to complete ; In add-on, the similarity merchandise production reduced equipment adjust clip, therefore reduced the full merchandise production rhythm.
To sum up, the chief advantages of Cellular Manufacturing system includes:
( 1 ) Reduce entire production clip
( 2 ) Reduce the stock list of work -process production
( 3 ) Better the quality of constituents or the merchandises
( 4 ) Reduce client order response clip
( 5 ) Reduce the clip of transmittal of stuffs in occupation store
The advantage of Cellular Manufacturing system is obvious, but at the same clip, it besides brought some defects. On the one manus, Cellular Manufacturing system conveying a great of restriction to the production line of flexible, so inactive merchandise combination and the weight consequence from seeking to keep the balance between units lead to increased production rhythm ; On the other manus, one time the production which used to be produced changed, bing unit construction will neglect. Although there are many premises assume merchandises demand in a comparatively long period is fixed, but in fact in the dynamic environment of market economic system, the merchandise update rapidly.
Equally long as the merchandise demand became diversity twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, in machinery fabrication system, diversified, little batch production is going more and more of import and holds a large proportion. As such system has a greater flexibleness, but its production efficiency is low and is hard for direction. In order to better the production efficiency of production system, people put frontward several of new manner of modern fabrication, such as Thin Production Lean Production System, independent fabrication island, Cellular Manufacturing System, etc. These systems have the construction feature of distribution, by utilizing system production engineering, unusually raised the diversified, sheet little batch production flexibleness and efficiency.
Because of the application range of Cellular Manufacturing System is different, it besides has different categorization, from logistics perspective, it can be divided into four classs:
( 1 ) Virtual group cell: it means treating the similar constituents by group, but make the design by functional agreement, merely take the machine group matching to parts households as a logical unit, by utilizing this dynamic production direction construction, production flexibleness can be improved. This practical unit mistakes is logistics path does n’t shortened, direction is more complex, but the direction job will be easy solved as the computing machine direction techniques improves.
( 2 ) Quasi group cell: it refers to the relatively extended cell organisation, which includes two types: ( 1 ) when some mill merchandise type ever have to be transformed or market supply and selling state of affairs is hard to estimated, the cell can be plan a small bigger, constituents household similarity degree can be lower. On one manus, we can salvage design clip, cut down design trouble degree ; On the other manus made it more possible to be adapted to the development in the hereafter, ( 2 ) unfastened cell. Some parts can be fluxing from unit to unit, or let some machine be shared by some units. This can accomplish balance machine burden, work out some of the troubles in building cell and every bit far as possible obtain benefits created by group processing
( 3 ) Closed group cell: this is a sort of typical group cell. All machines a class of constituents need are concentrated in one working topographic point and complete the machining from clean to finished merchandises.
( 4 ) Pipelined group cell: this is besides a sort of closed group cell, it requires the merchandise constituents in treating hold a consistent flow way, but it does non necessitate the rigorous production pacing.
Cellular Manufacturing System differentiates by automatic degree includes the undermentioned five classs:
( 1 ) General machine ( including CNC machine ) : can non merely be formed by individual machine which can finish a individual procedure, but besides can group with some other machine as a constituent procedure cell.
( 2 ) Processing centre: it is a numerical control machine which can automatically alter the machine tool and work piece, can execute multiple procedures, and can finish about all of the processing for many parts by a fixture. In the parts households selected by machine characteristics, frequently needs to be divided into parts of tooling kin, so as to better production efficiency.
( 3 ) Flexible fabrication cell ( FMC ) : on the footing of machining centre adds automatic burden and unloading work pieces storage map, which can recognize library for a long clip without humanisation work.
( 4 ) Flexible production line ( FML ) : can be regarded as a extremely automatic pipelined group cell signifier, used for large-scale constituents production or on the constituents of the juncture that similarity between them is high.
( 5 ) Flexible fabricating systems ( FMS ) ; it is composed by multiple numerical control processing machine or machining centre equipped with automatic dwelling. It can set and command information flow and logistics by stuffs managing system and storage system, the whole cell system is extremely automatic, flexibleness, so it can accommodate to the sort of the bigger constituents treating. Required adjust clip is really short, but the whole system needs immense investing. FMS can be regarded as a group cell of mechanization signifier.
Cellular fabrication requires similar parts be classified into portion households and dissimilar machines are assigned into machine cells in order to work the cost-effectiveness of mass production and flexibleness of occupation store fabrication. As cellular fabrication can recognize decrease in apparatus clip [ 17 ] , decrease in throughput clip, decrease in work-in-process stock lists, decrease in stuff handling costs, better quality and production control, incrementing flexibleness etc. [ 6 ] With the matching cellular layout efficaciously simplifies the work flow, doing the stuff conveyance maintained in a little scope [ 3 ] .
But since the cells are designed for a specific group of parts household, which will greatly cut down the workshop of flexible. So when the cellular layout be designed, there is one hypothesis, the merchandise demand can be forecasted and it is stable [ 4 ] .
If the company takes the cellular industry system into usage, the work flow of the production of automotive fumes pipes need some alteration and the production units besides need to be reconstructed.
First of wholly, the constituents needed in the 11 production stairss should be coded and the codification information will be saved in the information system, this can do the production more systematic. Then the fabrication cell should be constructed. For car exhaust pipes production, there should be three sorts of fabricating cell: ( 1 ) basic fabrication cell, treating cell and assembly and review cell. Basic fabrication cell has five bomber cells ; they are responsible for the fabrication of four sorts of basic constituents of automotive exhaust pipes: fumes tubings former vent-pipe posterior vent-pipe, exhaust tail pipe and related trim constituents ( like silencer ) . Dry combustion machines, H2O and oil centrifuges, shooting blasting and chilling machines will be installed in this fabrication cell.
Processing cell responsible for separate H2O and oil, coppice, spraying and sintering of the constituents, the processing nexus have non finished by basic fabrication cell, this sort of cell will acquire brushing machines spraying machines ; assembly and review cell will done the assembly work and review work, after that a complete car fumes pipes come out.
The nucleus job that fabricating cells layout should take into history is how to busy as small infinite as possible, while cut downing the handling clip between the work piece. In contrast, the infinite allotment of consecutive line-shaped conveyers make the infinite which even without action besides become workspace, it is a waste of the limited infinite. Linear construction with equipment and transmittal equipments as the chief line besides needs a operator activity country and channels on either side of the line drive conveyers, these countries are separated and hardly able to be public. So the layout of these fabricating cells should be along the U-shaped conveyers ; each fabrication cell should hold a overseer to pull off the production and these still need several technicians to keep equipments and inspect equipments ; the whole occupation store will be controlled and managed through the computing machine system, in order to maintain the fabrication quality.
As cellular fabricating demand more accurate anticipation of market demand and need some stock list for the constituents of machines ( machine wear really rapidly when they ever manufacture twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours ) , so the stock list is ever kept at a high degree. But the powerful computing machine information system can assist workers pull off the stock list, which is connected with each fabrication cell.
From the treatment above shows, functional layout system and cellular fabrication both have its advantages and disadvantages. To sum up and complement, they are showed in the table1 and table 2:
( 1 ) worker can be easy trained and managed
( 2 ) has great trade of flexibleness
( 3 ) salvaging handling clip
( 4 ) salvage working infinite
( 5 ) Suitable for mass customization
( 1 ) Hard to run into the mutable market demand
( 2 ) hard to track down work-in-progress ( WIP )
( 3 ) hard to rectify fabricating misidentify [ 15 ]
( 4 ) high stock list cost
( 1 ) can wonderful combined with time-based fabrication [ 16 ]
( 2 ) can accommodate to the multi-species little batch demand
( 3 ) economy set up clip
( 4 ) efficaciously simplifies the work flow
( 5 ) short queue clip [ 18 ]
( 1 ) high degree stock list
( 2 ) easy to do the waste of infinite
( 3 ) may necessitate immense investing
Table 1 Table 2
Due to development of engineering and variegation of client requirementi??period of merchandise life-span become shorter and shorter and production development tends to be little measure and inordinate assortment. As cellular fabrication still hold some restrictions and disadvantages, the company choose is as the new fabrication system is the better manner. Because the fabrication environment depends which is the better 1. Cellular Manufacturing ( CM ) is an attack that can be used to heighten both flexibleness and efficiency in today ‘s most production environment. [ 19 ]
Today ‘s market demand for autos is really mutable, automobile companies ever take out scope of cars and different autos need different sorts of automotive fumes pipes, so the production system have to carry through the mutable market ; Just in Time ( JIT ) production is an of import demand for modern industry, by usage information techniques cellular fabrication can break carry through JIT than functional [ 16 ] .
What ‘s more, some restrictions of cellular fabrication system can be broken by modern direction: high degree of stock list can be solved by VMI ( Vendor Managed Inventory ) , which can great cut down the stock list emphasis of the company ; the development of the technology engineering have a certain grade of decrease on investing costs besides.
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