# Mastering Biology Chapter 20

B). income
In the ecosystem energy budget, primary productivity is like _____.

A). debt
B). income
C). the interest rate
D). spending

C). 10-15
A young, growing calf kept in ideal conditions consumes 100 pounds of grain. As a result, you would expect the calf to put on about _____ pounds of biomass.

A). 100
B). 50-75
C). 10-15
D).1-2

We will write a custom essay sample on
Mastering Biology Chapter 20
or any similar topic only for you
A). exclude consumers; periodically mow, collect, and weigh the plants; and calculate plant biomass production per unit time
To measure primary productivity in a grassland ecosystem, you should _____.

A). exclude consumers; periodically mow, collect, and weigh the plants; and calculate plant biomass production per unit time
B). measure the solar energy influx to the site
C). measure the growth of all of the consumers in the system
D). measure the total biomass of organisms per unit area

C). 100
You set up a wildlife park that is designed to simulate African grassland. You calculate that the park’s area will support 1,000 medium-sized grazing herbivores. You also want to be able to keep a lion population going without supplemental feeding. What is the approximate maximum population of lions that the herbivores might support, assuming that each lion’s biomass is equivalent to a single herbivore’s?

A). 1
B). 10
C). 100
D). 1,000

D). at most 10
One hundred vegetarian residents of a farming village raise various crops for their own consumption on a parcel of land. They satisfy all of their food needs from the land. An investor purchases the land, evicts the farmers, and converts the land to pasture. Assuming that the primary productivity of the pasture grass equals that of the crops that were previously grown, how many people might be supported on a diet of beef produced by the ranch?

A). more than 100, because beef is a higher quality food source than the crops it replaces
D). at most 10

C). water purification
An example of an “ecosystem service” that is vital to people is __________.

A). stream maintenance
B). slowing down of extinctions
C). water purification
D). development of new species within an ecosystem

C). ecosystem diversity
Biodiversity includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and _____.

A). community diversity
B). organismal diversity
C). ecosystem diversity
D). population diversity
E). biosphere diversity

C). habitat destruction
One of the major contributors to extinction of species today is __________.

A). the greenhouse effect
B). global warming
C). habitat destruction
D). thinning of the ozone layer
E). predation

E). the introduction of invasive species
Which of the following factors is most likely to lead to decreased biodiversity?

A). complex population interactions
B). a higher degree of habitat heterogeneity
C). increased energy availability
D). narrower niches
E). the introduction of invasive species

C). community
All the organisms in a particular area make up a(n) _____.

A). niche
B). population
C). community
D). food chain
E). ecosystem

E). ecological niche
According to the principle of interspecific competition, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.

A). range
B). environmental habitat
C). territory
D). biome
E). ecological niche

B). what it eats
An organism’s “trophic level” refers to __________.

A). whether it is early or late in ecological succession
B). what it eats
C). the rate at which it uses energy
D). the intensity of its competition with other species
E). where it lives

E). secondary and tertiary consumers
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The shrew occupies the trophic level(s) of __________.

A). a secondary consumer
B). a primary consumer
C). a tertiary consumer
D). primary and secondary consumers
E). secondary and tertiary consumers

A). species richness
Which of the following describes the number of different species in the community?

A). species richness
B). relative abundance
C). ecological succession
D). species diversity
E). keystone species

A). changes gradually because each species responds differently to changes in environmental factors
During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community __________.

A). changes gradually because each species responds differently to changes in environmental factors
B). repeats itself at periodic intervals
C). changes abruptly because environmental factors change abruptly
D). initially remains constant over long periods of time
E). decreases until all but one species goes extinct

B). colonization of a newly formed volcanic island
Which of the following is an example of primary succession?

A). growth of weeds and woody shrubs in a vegetable garden that is abandoned
B). colonization of a newly formed volcanic island
C). regrowth on prairies after a wildfire started by a lightning strike
D). forested areas that are logged and allowed to regrow
E). agricultural fields that are abandoned

C). competition
What type of population interaction benefits neither population?

A). predation
B). parasitism
C). competition
D). mutualism
E). herbivory

D). cryptic coloration
Flounder look like the sea floor. This is an example of _____.

A). warning coloration
B). predation
C). mimicry
D). cryptic coloration
E). character displacement

E). parasitic
A tick has what type of relationship with a dog?

A). agonistic
B). mutualistic
C). friendly
D). competitive
E). parasitic

D). mutualism
A lichen is actually composed of two organisms: a fungus and an alga. They depend on each other for survival. The most specific term that describes their relationship is _____.

A). parasitism
B). symbiosis
C). independence
D). mutualism
E). predation

E). Although the amount of organic material decreases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin remains the same.
Why does biological magnification occur?

A). As the amount of organic material increases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin also increases.
B). Because the amount of organic material of individual organisms increases with increasing trophic level, their bodies contain more of the toxin.
C). As the amount of organic material decreases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin also decreases.
D). Because the amount of organic material in individual organisms decreases with increasing trophic level, their bodies contain a higher concentration of the toxin.
E). Although the amount of organic material decreases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin remains the same.

B). producers
Herbivores are _____.

A). primary consumers
B). producers
C). decomposers
D). secondary consumers
E). detritivores

E). poison ivy
Which of the following is a producer?

A). humans
B). detritivores
C). lions
D). shrimp
E). poison ivy

B). Grass grows on a sand dune, then shrubs, and then trees.
Which of the following best illustrates ecological succession?

A). Overgrazing causes a loss of nutrients from soil.
B). Grass grows on a sand dune, then shrubs, and then trees.
C). Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can use.
D). A mouse eats seeds, and an owl eats the mouse.
E). Imported pheasants increase, while local quail disappear.

C). the sun
The energy for nearly every organism in almost every ecosystem ultimately comes from _____.

A). heat from Earth
B). respiration
C). the sun
D). minerals in the soil
E). decomposition

B). nutrients and other life-sustaining molecules are in limited supply and must be continually recycled
Biogeochemical cycles are crucial to ecosystem function because __________.

A). they prevent catastrophic extinctions
B). nutrients and other life-sustaining molecules are in limited supply and must be continually recycled
C). energy flows through ecosystems in one direction only and is eventually dissipated as heat
D). they remove poisons and keep them locked up in abiotic reservoirs
E). they keep the planet warm enough for living things to survive

C). nutrients are recycled, but energy is not
The biggest difference between the flow of energy and the flow of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem is that __________.

A). organisms always need energy, but they don’t always need nutrients
B). the amount of energy is much greater than the amount of nutrients
C). nutrients are recycled, but energy is not
D). energy is recycled, but nutrients are not
E). organisms always need nutrients, but they don’t always need energy

A). return of CO2 to the atmosphere by animal and plant respiration
Which of the following is a component of the carbon cycle?

A). return of CO2 to the atmosphere by animal and plant respiration
B). weathering of rocks to release mineral phosphate
C). the functioning of carbon-fixing bacteria in the soil
D). precipitation and transpiration
E). assimilation of nitrates by plants

C). conservation biology
The study and protection of biological diversity is a field called __________.

A). sustainable development
B). landscape ecology
C). conservation biology
D). ecology
E). a biodiversity hot spot

B). biodiversity hot spots
Regions with high concentrations of species, especially species that are endangered or threatened, are referred to as _____.

A). landscapes
B). biodiversity hot spots
C). zoned reserves
D). critical habitats
E). endemic areas

B). landscape
An assemblage of interacting ecosystems makes up a _____.

A). zoned reserve
B). landscape
C). sink
D). source
E). biome

#### New Essays

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out