Meat ingestion is mostly based on handiness ( both in production and economic footings ) , monetary value and tradition ( FAO, Bender, 1992. Harrington, 1994 ) . The production of meat is dependent, non merely on demand, as a consequence of monetary value and income. But on societal and economic influences such as official policy, monetary value support mechanisms, and interrelatednesss such as the interaction between beef and milk production, the handiness of carnal feedstuffs and competition for nutrient between adult male and animate beings ( FAO, Bender, 1992. Harrington, 1994 ) .
Meat is a major nutrient point and has traditionally held a high position in Western nutrient civilization ( Twigg, 1984 ; Holm and Mohl, 2000 ) . Most formulas and repasts utilizing meat are named after the meat utilised in the formula. And as such meat is seen to be a cardinal portion of the repast ( Douglas and Nicod, 1974 ; Gvion Rosenberg, 1990 ; Horowitz, 2006 ; Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
Figure 1.1 ; Source ; Consumer Insight Presentation, Produced for ABP, www.anglobeef.com/powerpoint/ConsumerWork.ppt
This importance of meat as portion of the repast construction has even translated to Western vegetarian repast construction. In vegetarian dishes, the chief constituent of the dish is frequently used as if it were meat or presented in such a manner as to resemble meat ( Gvion Rosenberg, 1990 ; Holm and Mohl, 2000 ) .
Since the in-between ages, eating meat has been seen as a mark of prosperity, and as prosperity in a community increases so does the sum of meat eaten ( Horowitz, 2006 ; Aaslyng, 2009 ) . Through the addition in prosperity, meat ingestion in both the US and Europe has been on the addition, by about 50 % from the 1950 ‘s to the 1990 ‘s, and has continued to turn within the last decennary ( Breadsworth et al. , 2004 ; Horowitz, 2006 ; Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
Meat has become an of import portion of Western diets, so much so, that in Southern Europe, meat has now overtaken fish as the chief protein beginning, and now, compared to the Northern portion of Europe, which was traditionally a big consumer of meat, Countries around the Mediterranean are larger consumers of meat than those in Northern Europe ( Marques-Vidal et Al, 2006 ; Naska et Al, 2006 ) .
There are many variables that influence the type of meat and the signifier in which that meat is consumed, either as whole pieces of meat such as thin beef joint, steak or minced meat ( Holm et al, 2000. Aaslyng, 2009 ) . Meat ingestion differs with age and type of meat ( ruddy or white ) ( Cosgrove et al, 2005. Guenther et Al, 2005 ) degree of instruction and gender ( Kubberod et al, 2002 ) .
The consequence age has on the type of meat consumed in Denmark is illustrated by research carried out by Fagt ( 2007 )
Popularity of five selected meals.JPG
Figure1.2 The popularity of five selected repasts in Denmark ( National Danish Dietary Survey, 2000-2002 ; Fagt, 2007 ) , ( Taken from ; Aaslyng, M.D ( 2009 ) . Tendencies in meat ingestion and the demand for fresh meat and meat merchandises of improved quality: Bettering the sensory and nutritionary quality of fresh meat, Woodhead publication, 1, 3-18. ) .
1.2 Eating meat for pleasance
Eating meat for pleasance is the enjoyment extracted from eating meat. For merchandises such as steaks, chops or joints, three sensory properties are of major importance when sing the value in pleasance through feeding meat are Tenderness, succulence and spirit ( Aaslyng et al, 2007. Bryhni et Al, 2003. Miller et al, 2001. Maltin et Al, 2003 ) . The ranking of importance of these factors to the consumer varies geographically ( Aaslyng et al, 2007 ) and on the degree of importance assigned to the other penchant linked properties ( Huffman et al, 1996. Killinger et Al, 2004 ) . When the meat is stamp, succulence and spirits have a larger impact on penchant and are more of import, and when the meat is less stamp increased tenderness is more of import ( Miller et al, 2001 ) . However, these three factors can merely be assessed by the consumer on cooked meat. When the consumer is purchasing meat, they have to gauge the eating quality from other properties such as visual aspect ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . The visual aspect of natural meat is hence, of class, really of import in the consumer ‘s pick and buying behavior ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
The visual aspect of meat at the point of purchase is really of import to the consumer ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . For porc, coloring material and hypodermic fat are the two chief drivers of acceptableness in visual aspect of the meat ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . The consumer associates the coloring material of the meat with freshness, while a thin bed of hypodermic fat is associated with wellness ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
In beef it has been seen that consumers prefer low marbling or intramuscular fat ( IMF ) in natural meat steaks at the minute of purchase, but when devouring cooked meat, consumers prefer steaks with a higher grade of marbling or IMF ( Jeremiah et al, 1992. Risvik, 1992 ) .
For the consumer tenderness is frequently described as the most of import factor for high eating quality, particularly in beef ( Aaslyng, 2009. Maltin et Al, 2003. Risvik, 1994 ) . Consumers are able to separate between stamp and tough musculuss, nevertheless the fluctuation of tenderness between these extremes are more hard to divide ( Aaslyng, 2009. Maltin et al 2003. Siversten, 2002 ) .
It has been shown that the degree of consumer acceptableness is important to the degree of tenderness ( Huffman et al, 1997 ) so much so that consumers are willing to pay more for increased degrees of tenderness ( Boleman et al, 1997 ) .
The tenderness of meat is due to many different factors, and there are different ways to accomplish or increase tenderness in meat, both in vivo and station mortem ( Aaslyng et al, 2004. Aaslyng, 2009 ) . Factors and procedures such as ageing ( Kristensen et al 2003, 2006. Therkilsden et Al, 2002 ) , the grade if intramuscular fat ( IMF ) , ( Aaslyng et al, 2004. Brewer et Al, 2001. Fortin et Al, 2005 ) . and in beef, a ‘window of acceptableness has been identified from 3 % IMF being the lower bound of palatableness, 5 % for medium palatableness and an IMF content of at least 7 % for high palatableness ( Savell et al, 1988 ) . Different eatages have besides been considered as a factor impacting the palatableness and tenderness of beef, nevertheless recent documents have found this non to be the instance ( Jiang et al, 2010 ) . Tenderness may be increased in meat utilizing techniques such as marinating, utilizing a solution with NaC1 or CaC12, frequently including other ingredients such as sugars and spices. Injecting the solution into the meat increases tenderness, succulence and spirit ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . In beef, a additive relationship has been demonstrated, with shear force decreasing as salt concentration additions ( Baublits et al, 2006 ) , it has besides been demonstrated that the marinating of a potentially non-tender musculus such as metacarpophalangeal joint ( M. rectur femur ) can increase the tenderness to the degree of a non-marinated loin ( Rosenvold et al, 2006 ) .
Other tenderizing techniques include mechanical tenderization, by blade or acerate leaf. And it has been shown that such tenderization techniques can cut down the shear value of reformed steaks from musculuss such as brisket ( M. pectoralis profundus ) from 80.8N for non-tenderised to 61.8N for blade tenderised, to 40.4N acerate leafs tenderised ( Kenny et al 2008 ) . And electrical stimulation ( ES ) which has been shown to speed up the tenderizing consequence on musculus under conditions of slow chilling ( George et al, 1980 ) . There has besides been a survey undertaken to measure the usage of high force per unit area heat intervention on whole carcases and musculuss to increase tenderness ( Sikes et al, 2010 ) .
Flavour is a really of import property in relation to eating quality in all meats ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . Preferred spirits in meat are really of import, but every bit so, it is of import to avoid off spirits in meat ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
There are literally 100s of compounds that contribute to the spirit and olfactory property of meat. Complex interactions between these compounds influence meat spirit ( Calkins and Hodgen, 2007 ) . The spirit of meat can be influenced by oxidization, lipid content, feeding/diet, myoglobin and pH ( Calkins and Hodgen, 2007 ) .
Fried spirit in meat is generated through the heat intervention of the meat during the cookery procedure.
The spirit and olfactory property compounds in meat are formed by several tracts, such as, lipid oxidization and Maillard reaction or non-enzymatic Browning. The reactions between compounds from these two systems consequences in a big figure of volatile compounds ( Mottram, 1994. Calks and Hodgen, 2007 ) . The thermic debasement of other compounds, such as vitamin B1, besides contributes to the spirit of meat ( Tai et al, 1999. Calks and Hodgen, 2007 ) .
It has been demonstrated that with increasing intra muscular fat ( IMF ) there is an addition in the acceptableness of fried spirit of beef and porc ( Brewer et Al, 2001. Killinger et Al, 2004 ) . The consequence of IMF on spirit in meat could be due to improved flavour release, non merely increased flavour development in the meat ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) which agrees with surveies demoing minor effects of fatty acerb composing on the olfactory property and spirit of beef and porc ( Elmore et Al, 1999. Tikk et Al, 2007. Wood et Al, 2003 ) even though it has been demonstrated that some fatty acids, such as omega-3 fatty acids, in high concentration can increase off spirits in meat ( Aaslyng et al 2007. Elmore et Al, 1999 ) .
As the Maillard reaction is indispensable for developing fried spirit during heat intervention of the meat ( Aaslyng, 2009. Mottram, 1998 ) the content of aminic acids and saccharides in the meat is important ( Aaslyng, 2009. Mottram, 1998 ) .
Meat has high protein content, and as a consequence, aminic acids should be present in big sums ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . This suggests that saccharides are more likely to be the confining factor in spirit development ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) . As a consequence, surveies have focussed more on the saccharide content in meat and the effects of saccharide degrees on spirit ( Koustidis et al, 2007 ) .
Off-flavours have been identified and reported in surveies affecting beef and veau. Spirits such as, metallic, cowy, grassy, painty, milky and rancid spirits in beef ( Calkins et Al, 2007 ) and bilious spirit in veau ( Yancy et al, 2006 ) .
Even though spirit is an of import factor in consumer penchant ( Aaslyng et al, 2007 ) , the consumers ‘ willingness to pay for improved spirit properties in meat has non been investigated every bit to the full as that of tenderness properties in meat ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
Succulence is seen as another of import factor in the eating quality of meat ( Aaslyng, 2009. Risvik, 1992. Troy and Kerry, 2010 ) . The importance of succulence in the eating quality of meat depends on the composing of the repast, and the cookery processes involved in the readying of the meat ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) , for illustration, a steak fried or grilled will necessitate to be juicier than smaller pieces of diced or chopped meat in a fret ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
The chief finding factor of the succulence of meat is the concluding temperature after cooking ( Aaslyng, 2009. Sheard et Al, 1998 ) . Increases in concluding nucleus temperature will see an addition in cooking loss and therefore a lessening in succulence of the meat ( Aaslyng et al, 2003. Aaslyng, 2009. Sheard et Al, 1998 ) .
Increased sums of intramuscular fat besides increased the succulence of the meat, when fried to a high concluding nucleus temperature. At lower concluding nucleus temperature, intramuscular fat had no consequence on succulence ( Aaslyng et al, 2004. Aaslyng, 2009 ) .
To increase succulence of cooked meat from the consumers point of position, the individual most of import factor must be the instruction of the consumers on cooking times and techniques ( Aaslyng, 2009 ) , or to learn the consumer to utilize a sauteing thermometer while cooking the meat to obtain the best consequences for succulence ( Edwards et al, 2005 ) .
1.3 Specifying meat quality – Consumer Perceptions/Supplier Perceptions
The properties of meat that determine the quality depend on the intended usage of the meat ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . Quality can be defined as ‘technological quality ‘ , depicting meat for farther processing, or as ‘fresh meat eating quality ‘ , depicting meat for fresh meat ingestion ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) which includes all traits registered with our senses ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) , such as visual aspect, spirit and texture ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . These quality indexs overlap to some grade for the two quality definitions, but some differences besides exist ( Aaslyng, 2002. Becker, 2002 ) .
Quality means different things, to different people, at different times, and is besides variable between providers and consumers, and different market groups ( Becker 2002. Oude Ophius and Van Trijp, 1995 ) .
Meat quality is a generic term which is used to depict the belongingss and perceptual experiences of meat ( Maltin et al, 2003 ) . The term includes such things as, carcase composing and conformation, the eating quality of the meat ( tenderness, texture, gustatory sensation ) , wellness issues associated with meat production and ingestion, such as, Escherichia coli 0157 ( Ecoli 0157 ) and bovid spongiform brain disorder ( BSE ) every bit good as issues such as animate being public assistance, and the environmental impact of production. ( Maltin et al, 2003 ) .
Monetary value is besides considered as a variable portion of the consumers perceptual experiences of quality ( Becker 2002 ) .
Quality is perceived otherwise across Europe, and alterations in meat ingestion are as a consequence of meagerness, marbling and color rank extremely in consumer perceptual experience of quality ( Glitsch 2000 ) .
The definition and apprehension of quality is complex, and considers many factors. At point of purchase factors both intrinsic and extrinsic, such as, visual aspect, coloring material, form, and presentation, monetary value, trade name name, quality confidence, state of beginning, production procedures and nutritionary information severally ( Steenkamp, 1989. Issanchou, 1996. Van Trijp et Al, 1995 ) . Then at the point of ingestion, experience quality properties are considered, such as, convenience, freshness ( Steenkamp, 1989. Issanchou, 1996 ) and centripetal features i.e. coloring material, visual aspect, texture, succulence, spirit and tenderness ( Risvik, 1994. Becker, 2002. Steenkamp, 1989. Issanchou, 1996 ) .
Equally good as consumer ‘s perceptual experience of quality, provider ‘s perceptual experience of quality is besides considered ( Becker, 2002 ) .Firms choose a assortment of possible quality properties, including a mixture of properties linked to both, industrial economic sciences and quality direction ( Becker, 2002 ) . The optimum pick of quality depends on client demands, the behavior of other houses and net income maximization ( Becker, 2002. Tirole, 1988 ) .
1.4 Quality indexs for natural meat
As mentioned antecedently there are supplier perceptual experiences of quality and consumer perceptual experiences of quality ( Becker 2002. Oude Ophius and Van Trijp, 1995 ) . In the processing of meat and in the eyes of the provider, the output is the chief quality parametric quantity as it determines the sum of salable meat and is of direct economic importance ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The centripetal quality of meat has an indirect economic importance, act uponing the degree of purchase, in the sum purchased, the sum paid at purchase and frequence of purchase ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The quality indexs in natural meat that can foretell the output of processed meat are indexs such as, pH and H2O keeping capacity in peculiar. The centripetal quality indexs can be influenced by coloring material, meat/fat distribution and fat quality ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
1.4.1 Eating Quality
When meat is used for fresh ingestion, the clip from carnal slaughter to retail counter can run from several hebdomads in the instance of beef and yearss in the instance of domestic fowl and porc ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
The visual aspect of the natural meat influences the consumers buying penchant and is regarded as an of import quality factor ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009. Jeremiah et Al, 1992. Risvik, 1992 ) . However, after cooking tenderness, spirit, succulence and visual aspect determine the eating quality ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009. Risvik, 1992. Troy and Kerry, 2010. Maltin et Al, 2003. Risvik, 1994 ) . The quality indexs of natural meat for these parametric quantities are the collagen content and solubility, the content of IMF, the sarcomere length, activity of proteolytic enzymes, pH and water-holding capacity and the coloring material ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
1.4.2 Connective Tissue
It is known that musculuss high in connective tissue content, such as biceps femoris, are less stamp than musculuss with lower connective tissue content, such as psoas major, hence associating the degree of connective tissue in the musculus to the stamina of the meat, and hence regarded as a natural meat quality index ( Honikel, 1992. Aaslyng, 2002 ) . Collagen is the chief component of the connective tissue and makes up approximately 2 % of the entire musculus protein in beef and can be divided into a heat indissoluble fraction and a heat soluble fraction which reflects the grade of cross linking of hydroxyprolin in the collagen ( Powell et al, 200. Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
The grade of cross associating additions along with an addition in shear force and lessening in tenderness, with the age of an animate being ( Aaslyng, 2002. Lebret et Al, 1998. Fang et Al, 1999 ) . Feeding government has besides been demonstrated to change the grade of cross associating and in beef, a high energy feed consumptions level up to slaughter additions heat soluble collagen and lessenings shear force ( Aaslyng, 2002. Miller & A ; Cross, 1987. Schnell et Al, 1997 ) . It has besides been demonstrated that ageing of meat alters the connective tissue marginally ( Nordyke et al, 2000 ) .
1.4.3 Intramuscular Fat
The grade of marbling or content of IMF has an influence on the eating quality ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009. Jeremiah et Al, 1992. Risvik, 1992 ) and besides influences the consumer at point of purchase ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009. Jeremiah et Al, 1992. Risvik, 1992 ) . Consumers will reject meat with a high or average sum of IMF at point of purchase, but find the same degree of IMF in meat during ingestion more toothsome ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009. Jeremiah et Al, 1992. Risvik, 1992. Grunert, 1997. Brewer et Al, 2001 ) . There are, nevertheless conflicting consequences on the influence that IMF has on tenderness in meat, degrees of IMF in beef has been demonstrated to increase tenderness ( Gwartney et al, 2001 ) . However, it has been demonstrated to hold a negative or no consequence in some surveies concerned with porc ( Goransson et al, 1992 ) . The slaughter weight and the age at slaughter have been seen to act upon the IMF content in beef ( Johnson et al, 1969 ) .
A high content of IMF in beef has been shown to better the hardiness of the musculus against non-optimal cookery. Beef meat with a low IMF content was found to worsen in tenderness when cooked to a nucleus temperature of 80oC, while meat with high degrees of IMF was still tender at this temperature ( Cummings et al, 1999 ) . The degree of IMF content is besides positively correlated to juiciness ( Savell & A ; Cross, 1988. Gwartney et Al, 1996. Cummingss et Al, 1999 ) .
1.4.4 Sarcomere Length
The sarcomere length depends on the cooling and the metamorphosis postmortem ( Smulders et al 1990. Aaslyng, 2002. Hwang et Al, 2004 ) If the temperature of a musculus is below about 10oC before rigor-mortis, cold shortening can happen ( Smulders et al 1990. Aaslyng, 2002. Hwang et Al, 2004 ) . Pelvic suspension of carcases compared to Achilless suspension has been shown to act upon sarcomere length in both beef and porc ( Moller et al, 1987. Ahnstrom et Al, 2006. Bayraktaroglu & A ; Kahraman, 2011 ) .
1.4.5 Enzymatic Activity
It is good known that ageing meat additions tenderness ( Aaslyng, 2002. Jeremiah & A ; Gibson, 2003 ) . During the ageing procedure the protein constructions are degraded. Two enzyme systems are involved in this tenderization, the calpains and the cathepsins ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The function each of these enzyme systems play in the tenderization of the meat is still under treatment ( O’Halloran, 1997. Aaslyng, 2002 ) . It has been suggested that the activity of the proteolytic enzymes at slaughter is dependent on the growing rate prior to butcher ( Therkilsden, 1999. Aaslyng, 2002 ) the high musculus protein synthesis pre-slaughter and high activity of proteolytic enzymes could ensue in a faster rate of enzymatic activity and protein debasement postmortem ( Therkilsden, 1999 ) .
1.4.6 pH and Water-holding Capacity
Short term emphasis in an carnal consequences in pale, soft and exudative meat ( PSE ) . PSE meat has a lower than normal pH that consequences in the meat being pale in coloring material and low H2O keeping capacity ( Miller, 2002 ) . During the cookery procedure, PSE meat will lose wet at an increased rate and the cooked meat will be drier, tougher than and non every bit flavorful as higher quality meat ( Miller, 2002 ) . The coloring material of the meat is a combination of contemplation due to protein denaturation as a consequence of the pH alteration and the oxidative position and concentration of myoglobin ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . A fast pH fall early post-mortem consequences in PSE, nevertheless a high ultimate pH consequences in a dark ruddy coloring material, or dark, house and dry ( DFD ) ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The connexion between pH and succulence and tenderness has been demonstrated to hold more of an impact at pH above 6.0, than that of pH below 6.0 ( Cummings et al, 1999 ) .
1.4.7 Coloring material
The coloring material of the meat is an of import quality property, act uponing the consumer pick at point of purchase ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009 ) excessively pale, or excessively dark in color consequences in the consumer rejecting the meat at the point of purchase ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . As mentioned in the old subdivision, the coloring material of meat is a combination of pH and the concentration and oxidative position of myoglobin ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The oxidization of myoglobin to oxymyoglobin gives a ruddy coloring material in the meat that consumers associate with freshness ( Aaslyng, 2002. Aaslyng, 2009 ) , nevertheless, oxymyoglobin can farther oxidize to metmyoglobin, doing brown discolouring of the meat ( Gutzke et al, 1997. Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
The coloring material of natural meat can be measured and determined visually or instrumentally, utilizing tintometer, spectrophotometer and besides computing machine vision, based on analysis of digital images ( Hunt, 1991. Mancini & A ; Hunt, 2005 ) . In Instrumental measuring the values a* , b* and L* are measured ( Aaslyng, 2002. Hunt, 1991. Mancini & A ; Hunt, 2005 ) this system developed harmonizing to human coloring material perceptual experience by the International Illumination Commission ( CIE ; Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage ) in 1976. The L* value is a measuring of brightness, runing from 0-black to 100-white. Therefore the higher the L* value the paler the meat ( Hartung, 2009 ) the value of L* is independent of blossoming clip but still dependent on pH and a good index of DFD/PSE ( Brewer et Al, 2001. Aslyng, 2002 ) . The a* value measures the coloring material scope from -150 – viridity to +100 – ruddy. A high positive a* value means an intensive ruddy coloring in the meat ( Hartung, 2009 ) the value of a* is really dependent on the blooming clip, or the clip necessary for the freshly cut surface of the meat to oxygenize and organize the ruddy bed of oxymyoglobin ( Hunt, 1991. Aaslyng, 2002 ) . This measuring is influenced by the pH because the decrease and oxidization procedures of myoglobin are pH dependant ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) . The b* value is a graduated table of measuring for the coloring material scope -100 – blue to +150 – yellow, and a high positive b* value indicates an intensive yellow coloring ( Hartung, 2009 ) . And from these measurings, other coloring material features can be calculated, such as, Hue angle, used to separate color households and saturation or the strength of a coloring material ( Aaslyng, 2002 ) .
1.5 Breed and Genetic Effectss on Meat Quality – Beef
Extensive research on the factors that contribute to the fluctuation in quality of beef have been conducted. One of the suggested beginnings of fluctuation in meat quality is the consequence strain type has on quality factors ( Miller, 2002 ) . Biological or breed type within Bos Taurus cowss, such as British strains including, Hereford, Angus and Shorthorn. Continental strains, such as Charolais, Chianina, Limousin, Simmental, Maine Anjou and Pinzgauer. And dairy strains such as Holstein, Fresian, Jersey and Brown Swiss has been shown to act upon tenderness ( Miller, 2002 ) nevertheless this is chiefly due to the differences in growing rate, weight at the clip of slaughter and blubber at slaughter ( Miller, 2002 ) . Equally long as cowss are managed in a similar manner, slaughtered at the same fat category the differences in meat quality will be minimum ( Miller, 2002 ) . While differences in tenderness and marbling in Continental strains and British strains have been demonstrated, the differences are minimum ( Fig1.3 ) ( Miller, 2002 ) .
Figure1.3 ; Summary of marbling and Warner-Bratzler shear force ( kilogram ) differences between beef cowss breed types evaluated in the Germ Plasm Evaluation plan at the USDASCAN0017.JPG
Beginning ; Miller, R.K ( 2002 ) Factors impacting the quality of natural meat: Meat processing ; Improving quality, Woodhead Publishing, Chapter 3, 27-63.
The chief differences in meat tenderness associated with strain consequence have been demonstrated between Bos indicus and Bos Taurus cowss and has been documented since 1960 that Bos indicus cowss have higher shear force values and a greater fluctuation in values ( Wheeler et al, 1990. Whipple et Al, 1990. Shackleford et al 1991. Miller, 2002 ) . The same research besides demonstrated that as the per centum of Bos indicus in strain type additions, tenderness lessenings and variableness in tenderness additions ( Wheeler et al, 1990. Whipple et Al, 1990. Shackleford et al 1991. Miller, 2002 ) .
Figure1.4 ; Warner-Bratzler shear force ( kilogram ) means from the Longissimus musculus of cowss differing in Bos indicus versus Bos Taurus heritage
Beginning ; Miller, R.K ( 2002 ) Factors impacting the quality of natural meat: Meat processing ; Improving quality, Woodhead Publishing, Chapter 3, 27-63.
1.6 Muscle Profiling and Seam Cutting
There has been several recent and current research on beef musculus profiling, with the possibility of developing fresh procedures and merchandises for the beef industry ( Polkinghorne, 2006. Von Seggern et Al, 2005. Kenny et Al, 2008. Hildrum et Al, 2009 ) .
Muscle profiling is the word picture of single musculuss or musculus groups by chemical and physical analysis ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) . The word picture or profiling of the musculuss will better the general apprehension of single musculuss technological and centripetal belongingss, so as to better use the whole carcase and single musculuss within the carcase ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) .
Surveies sing the word picture of single musculuss have been extended, in peculiar in the United States ( Rhee et al, 2004. Bratcher et Al, 2005. Molina et Al, 2005. Stelzleni et Al, 2007. Von Seggern et Al, 2005. Grimes & A ; Calkins, 2007 ) climaxing in the development of an extensively researched musculus profiling web site ( hypertext transfer protocol: //bovine.unl.edu ) and ensuing in commercial success in developing value in lower value musculuss ( Jones et al, 2005 ) .
Muscle profiling surveies have now been conducted in other states, such as Norway ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) , Australia ( Polkinghorne, 2006 ) lending to Meat Standards Australia ‘s ( MSA ) cuts-based tracts development work. Surveies have besides been undertaken in Ireland ( Kenny et al, 2008. Desmond et Al, 2004 ) and France ( Jurie et al, 2004 ) where cutting techniques such as seam film editing and pret a decoupe ( PAD ) paring have long been practiced ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) .
Seam film editing is the abattoir pattern where musculuss of potentially different eating quality are separated into single musculuss, the consequence being a unvarying piece of meat with respects to eating quality ( Hildrum, 2009 ) . This technique has even been applied to high value or traditional cuts such as M. Adductor ( Rump ) and M. Longissimus dorsi ( Rib ) , ensuing in multiple merchandises of changing eating quality and variant pricing ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) .
In Ireland and Australia surveies have besides focussed on grouping musculuss with respects to eating quality and coloring material stableness, motivating some invention in farther processing of single musculuss to increase value ( Polkinghorne, 2006. Kenny et Al, 2008 ) .
The assortment of beef production systems, butchering and treating techniques across states and continents, and besides sing the variable consumer penchants and precedences from state to state ( Aaslyng et al, 2007. Huffman et Al, 1996. Killinger et Al, 2004 ) means that survey consequences are non straight movable to other states, and as such, surveies require to be geographically specific ( Hildrum et al, 2009 ) .
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