This chapter provides research purposes and aims of the research which is really of import in research method choice. As the research method is developed to determination devising procedure for informations aggregation methods and analyses consequently. Furthermore, in this subdivision besides provides research design diagram which illustrates the procedure of working measure by measure in order to happen the reply for each research objectives.
3.1 Research purposes
In a competitory environment of logistics services market, logistics service suppliers have been seeking to develop service procedure in order to accomplish clients ‘ satisfaction which leads to loyalty in the hereafter. This is taking at maximise their profitableness and keep competitory advantages in the market. In general, universe leader logistics companies have been developing their ICT systems, and it seems that ICT will be more normally use as it strongly impacts to logistics service procedure public presentation.
However, I am interesting in how little and average size logistics service suppliers in Thailand usage ICT systems and how it impacts their service procedure public presentation. Therefore, this thesis aims to look into the ICT systems which are presently used in order to service clients in one medium size logistics service suppliers in Thailand. In add-on, as promised to the pull offing manager of the company, happening clients ‘ outlook to logistics service is required in order to do a determination of future development consequently.
3.2 Research aims
Since Thailand has many agribusiness green goodss and merchandises, and handicrafts as chief merchandises to export, and besides there are many merchandises which are needed to import from abroad, logistics markets are being rather competitory. In order to derive more competitory advantage in the markets, logistics service suppliers have been seeking to increase their service processes to be more effectual. There is no uncertainty that ICT plays of import function in service procedure as many big companies still maintain developing their ICT systems. Therefore the aim of this survey is to carry on a instance survey in Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd ( Thailand ) ; A medium size company in Gateway Container Line Group, which adopted ICT systems in some portion of service procedure for old ages. This is in order to happen out: How ICT systems impact to logistics service processes in Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. ( Thailand ) ? In order to happen out this inquiry, the survey on what staffs behavior on utilizing ICT to service clients has to be conducted every bit good.
The 2nd inquiry will concentrate on what clients ‘ outlook to logistics service processes is. Therefore, the survey in clients ‘ outlook will non carry on in specific clients of Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd ( Thailand ) but will make in general. This is in order to study the market and to be able to propose the company about the country needs to develop in general position.
3.3 Research doctrine
Harmonizing to Crossan ( 2003 ) cited Practor ( 1998 ) , before doing any determination on research method, the apprehension of research doctrine demand to be explored and understood. “ The research doctrine which you adopted contains premises about the manner in which you view the universe ” ( Saunders et Al, 2009 ) . In add-on, Saunders et Al ( 2009 ) besides claimed that different doctrine is ‘better ‘ at making different things. Therefore, the research doctrine is ever depends on the research inquiry ( s ) you are happening to reply. Therefore in this subdivision, the characters of research doctrine ; ontology and epistemology will be discussed.
Ontology is concerned with nature of world. This raises inquiries about the manner the universe operates and the committedness held to peculiar positions ( Saunders et al, 2009 ) . Ontological premises are underpinned about what sort of entities can be.
An epistemic issue concerned about what is ( or should be ) acceptable cognition in a field of survey ( Saunders et Al, 2009 ) . There are sub contents of epistemology such as ; positivism ( quantitative research ) , interpretivism ( qualitative research ) and pragmatism ( Bryman and Bell, 2007 ; Saunders et Al, 2009 ) .
3.4 Research Methodology
With respect to the old subdivision, in this thesis, my field of survey is more similar epistemology as I have my specific country to analyze. However, in footings of research methodological analysis, I would wish to make both type of research method ; quantitative and qualitative research. As mentioned earlier that research method is depends on the research inquiries. And these two general research methods are used based on how informations will be collected and analyzed.
Quantitative research: informations comes from statistic informations. The aim of this research is in order to step, explain and reply research inquiry Begin with how many, how frequently and what.
Qualitative research: informations comes from in-depth replies and treatments. This in order to understand the phenomena by inquiring open-ened inquiries such as why, what, whom, where and how ( Maylor and Blackmon, 2005 )
In this survey, I have two different sorts of inquiry ; one is quantitative research and another one is qualitative research. Therefore the usage of assorted method will be considered. The figure 4 shows the difference of quantitative, assorted and qualitative research. It can be seen that assorted research takes good point of quantitative and qualitative research. ( Bryman and Bell, 2007 ) explained that the term ‘mixed methods research ‘ is used as a word to specify the usage of quantitative and qualitative research within a individual undertaking.
Hence in order to reply my two research inquiries, I decided to utilize quantitative research for appraising what clients ‘ outlook is and qualitative research for analyzing staffs ‘ behaviour of utilizing ICT in logistics service procedure in order to happen out how ICT impact to logistics service procedure.
Figure 4: Emphasiss of Quantitative, Mixed, and Qualitative Research
Beginning: Johnson and Christensen ( 2008 )
3.5 Research Design
Identify the replies for 2 research aims and place hereafter development for Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. ( Thailand ) based on clients ‘ outlook and current staffs ‘ working behaviour.
Datas analysis by Microsoft Excel
Data aggregation from on-line study
Semi-structured interview by phone
Choosing Samples ( Random )
Design online questionnaire
Secondary research from literature reappraisal
Secondary research from literature reappraisal
Objective2: Quantitative research
Objective1: Qualitative research
The diagram shows how I conducted the researches both qualitative and quantitative. First, I started from secondary research from reexamining literature in order to analyze theories which is necessary to plan the questionnaire. After that, I designed the questionnaire based on the theories from the literature reappraisal. I did both types of research in the same clip as the restriction of clip merely 3 months and I consumed 1 month for reexamining the literatures already. Furthermore, the questionnaire was set up based on the literatures and independent from each other.
For qualitative informations collection, the interviews with 3 staffs of Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. ( Thailand ) were conducted by telephone call and were recorded in order to transcribe for content analysis. In footings of quantitative informations, I created my on-line questionnaire on www.surveymonkey.com and used the statistics informations to analyse. The consequence of 2 methods research is used to place the replies for 2 research aims and hereafter development for Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. ( Thailand )
3.6 Data Collection and analyses
3.6.1 Secondary research
Apart from qualitative research and quantitative research, the usage of secondary research besides applied in this thesis. Johnson and Christensen ( 2008 ) described secondary informations as the informations that were collected or recorded in the earlier clip. Furthermore, Johnson and Christensen besides stated that the usage of secondary informations must be used by research workers in their survey. The secondary information in this thesis was collected from assorted beginnings included ; text editions, academic diaries, research documents and web sites. These informations were used in order to bring forth clear thought for organizing questionnaires for qualitative and quantitative research.
3.6.2 Qualitative informations aggregation
In qualitative research, there are many methods for informations aggregation. However, harmonizing to Naslund ( 2002 ) cited Silverman ( 1993 ) and Mack et Al ( 2005 ) , there are three most common informations aggregation for qualitative research which is suited for a specific type of informations aggregation. These are participant observation, in-depth interviews, and concentrate group.
In-depth interview – this method is good for roll uping informations in footings of histories, positions and experiences. This type of informations is non able to detect or detect in other methods.
Participant observation – in order to roll up informations on of course behaviours, research workers have to take portion in their day-to-day everyday activities of a group of people ( Dewalt and Dewalt, 2002 ) .
Focus groups – The informations aggregation in this method is base on group ‘s perceptual experiences, sentiments, and attitudes. Therefore, research worker can actuate group members to speak, inquire inquiries, exchange their sentiment and remark to each other ( Kitzinger, 1995 ) .
With respect to my research inquiries ( qualitative one ) ; I was able to conducted study with staffs every bit good but with the limited clip merely 1 month, hence, in-depth interviews and participant observation seem to be appropriate methods. However, as I am non able to travel back to Thailand to detect staffs ‘ behaviour and put up the interview in individual, the telephone interview is considered as the most proper method for this thesis.
Harmonizing to Saunders et Al ( 2003 ) , the degree of formality and construction of interview is categorized into three groups ;
Structured interviews: Sets of inquiries in this interview are structured based on anticipation and criterion.
Semi-structured interviews: Research workers list sets of inquiries in non-standardized footing which are considered that screen all subject.
Unstructured interviews: Lists of inquiries are performed without be aftering. This is informal and non-standardized interviews.
Consideration on semi-structured interviews, it is utile for detecting what is go oning in a procedure. Saunders et Al ( 2003 ) and Ian ( 2005 ) stated that valid and dependable informations which is related to research inquiries and aims can be collected through the semi-structured interviews.
In this thesis, I, hence, conducted the semi-structured interviews with a set of open-ended inquiries to the relevant staffs in Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. ( Thailand ) as I do non desire to take them by my structured sets of inquiries in order to obtain realistic informations and their sentiment. The interviews were arranged based on staffs ‘ available times which have made assignment with me earlier. The interviewees involved staffs that are participated in communicating in the service processes both import and export. The set of questionnaire was created based on ‘Measuring departmental service quality ‘ by Cook ( 2004 ) . Cook ( 2004 ) stated some questionnaires for look intoing staff behaviour and clients ‘ satisfaction. I used these questionnaires and analyzed the consequence in my position which respect to the impact of ICT to logistics service procedures. The questionnaire consisted of 6 inquiries aim to analyze the impact of ICT to inter-departmental working relationship and how it impact to logistics service procedure.
3.6.3 Quantitative Data aggregation
With respect to another one research inquiry ; what is clients ‘ outlook to logistics service procedure? In footings of clients ‘ outlook, the usage of quantitative research will be utilized in order to obtain statistic informations of clients ‘ demographic and their feelings to logistics service supplier. Therefore, the usage of study method is considered.
As pointed out by Grant et Al ( 2005 ) , studies method is a method which has been widely used for logistics and supply concatenation direction research. “ The study is the questionnaire, which is understood as a information aggregation technique where different individuals are asked to react to the same set of inquiries in a prearranged order ” ( Kotzab, 2005 cited de Vaus, 2002 or Zikmund, 2000 ) . In add-on, Lin and Jones ( 1997 ) pointed out that client studies is a great method in order to entree client satisfaction. Basically, the studies can carry through two demands of research ; to supply information which allows companies to mensurate their public presentation and to obtain beginning informations for building betterment program.
The usage of clients ‘ outlook study in this thesis is provided on web-based footing. In footings of trying choice, the usage of convenience sampling technique was applied in this research. Convenience Sampling is one of nonrandom trying techniques. Johnson and Christensen ( 2008 ) described that convenience sampling is used when research workers collect informations from their sample people who are ‘convenient ‘ to take part in the research survey. Furthermore, convenience sampling allows research workers to be more clip and cost effectual ( Curwin and Slater, 2004 ) . Therefore, I created my questionnaire on www.surveymonkey.com as it is the cheapest manner and it is easy to entree and reply for my sampling. The nexus is ;
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.surveymonkey.com/s.aspx? sm=OpsFDemNNf7y8EceyMaqGA_3d_3d
Furthermore, Centre for larning & A ; public presentation engineerings claimed that surveymonkey.com is one of the top 100 study tools in 2008 ( Centre for larning & A ; public presentation engineerings, 2010 ) . With the cooperated with Gateway Container Line Co. , Ltd. , staffs who involved in the interview helped to distribute the questionnaire to their clients as good. Therefore, the consequence of analysis is covered both Gateway ‘s clients and general clients in the market. This consequence would assist Gateway to scheme planning for betterment in the hereafter.
The study questionnaires was created based on mensurating quality graduated table by Slack et Al ( 2004 ) , Takala ( 2002 ) and Parasuraman et Al ( 1998 ) cited by Saura et Al ( 2008 ) . The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts. Part1 is the debut portion which aimed to roll up participant demographic included ; participants ‘ position and type of cargo. These informations might consequence to their outlook to logistics service procedure. Separate 2 is clients ‘ outlook study. In this portion, there is a inquiry appraising clients ‘ preferred ICT system for reaching logistics service suppliers and besides a inquiry respects to their outlook to quality, velocity, dependableness, flexibleness and cost in logistics service procedure. In contrast, there is a inquiry for appraising the factor which can lend to dissatisfactions in service every bit good.
3.6.4 Qualitative Data Analysiss
In order to analyse qualitative informations particularly the interview methods, Saunders et Al ( 2009 ) pointed that the interview must be audio-recorded and canned. Transcribed is the procedure that reassigning information from interview by utilizing the existent words in written or typing. Furthermore, Saunders besides stated that transcribing is known as ‘data cleaning ‘ because when the interview has been transcribed, some research workers send a transcript of transcript to the interviewees for concluding cheques. After that, the cryptography of interview transcripts will be processed. The cryptography procedure is to pull off pieces of informations into each represent codification ( Bryman and Bell, 2003 ) , for illustration ; demographic, behavior, satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The usage of CAQDAS package is widely used in order to analyse qualitative informations.
Therefore, the usage of transcribing and coding informations was conducted in order to analyse the qualitative information from the interviews in this thesis. I recorded the interviews over the phone and transcribe them into transcripts. In order to obtain the accurate informations, I sent transcripts of transcript to 3 participants and they proofed that the transcripts are right. Then, I started to make the content analysis. As mentioned earlier about CAQDAS package, nevertheless, in this thesis I analyzed the informations by utilizing DIY method by set up the standards which I would wish to analyse these are ; participant demographic, staffs ‘ behaviour, clients ‘ satisfaction clients ‘ dissatisfaction, clients ‘ feedback to service procedure and betterment country, in order to coding the interview contents and construe informations consequently.
3.6.5 Quantitative information analyses
SPSS plan is well-known and widely used for quantitative informations analyses ( Saunders et al, 2009 ; Bryman and Bell, 2003 ; Curwin and Slater, 2004 ) . The usage of statistics informations is analyzed by SPSS plan into to chart, diagrams or tabular arraies. However, with the limited of clip and my deficit of cognition in SPSS, I decided to utilize Microsoft Excel in order to analyse my quantitative informations from study methods in this thesis. The natural information from www.surveymonkey.com will be downloaded in signifier of Microsoft Excel in order to be analyzed in to tabular arraies and charts. The information in signifier of graphs, diagrams and table diagrams and tabular array will let me to analyse and compare numeral informations tangibly.
3.7 Research Restrictions
The information aggregations of this research are non without restriction. Qualitative information aggregation had to be interviewed in Thai which is participants ‘ female parent linguistic communication. As their English expertness is non in high degree, hence, in order to be more convenience to them, the interviewed had to carry on in Thai and was translated into English. Even though, the transcripts which were translated might non decidedly define conversation with participants but it is an chance to garner informations in deepness as participants are more comfy to reply the questionnaire in Thai.