Microbiology case

Disease-causing microorganisms are called
The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called
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The microorganisms that do not have a nucleus in their cells are called
genetic engineering.
When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms the process is called
Which of the following are not considered microorganisms?
are too small to be seen with the unaided eye
All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that
humans using yeast to make beer and wine
Which activity is an example of biotechnology?
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.
The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was
dust in air was a source of living microorganisms.
Pasteur used swan-neck flasks in his experiments to prove that
belief in a preconceived idea
Which of the following is not a process in the scientific method?
living things arise from nonliving matter.
Spontaneous generation is the belief that
a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease.
Koch’s postulates are criteria used to establish that
Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed?
Bacillus subtilis
Which of the following is a scientific name?
Koch’s postulates
Taxonomy does not involve
The smallest and most significant taxon is
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called
determining evolutionary relatedness
A scientist studying the sequence of nucleotides in the rRNA of a bacterial species is working on
A scientist discovers a new microbial species. It is a single-celled eukaryote without cell walls. In which kingdom will it likely be classified?
parasitic worms
Helminths are
it occurs only in members of the kingdom Plantae.
All of the following pertain to photosynthesis, except
always harmful to their host.
Organisms called parasites are
Joseph Lister
The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was
family, genus, species
Select the correct descending taxonomic hierarchy (left to right):
both genus and species names are italicized or underlined.
When assigning a scientific name to an organism
Which kingdom does not contain any eukaryotes
bacteria and fungi
Which of the following are the main decomposers of the earth?
The most common infectious cause of death worldwide is
Which of the following diseases is transmitted by mosquitoes?
they have organelles.
All of the following are correct about prokaryotes, except
Ferdinand Cohn
Which scientist discovered heat resistant bacterial spores?
in a hot spring
Where are you most likely to find bacteria belonging to the domain Archaea?
When microbes are introduced into the environment to restore stability, the process is called
Bacterial cells could have any of the following appendages, except
periplasmic flagella (axial filaments).
Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called
The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to surfaces are called
sex pili.
The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called
a chromosome.
All bacterial cells have
The term that refers to the presence of flagella all over the cell surface is
cell wall.
The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell’s
protein synthesis would stop
The most immediate result of destruction of a cell’s ribosomes would be
A bacterial cell exhibiting chemotaxis probably has
Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized?
cell walls
Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial
All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease, except
A prokaryotic cell wall that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid is
A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is
predominance of unique, waxy lipids
The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram-positive bacterial cell wall structure is
gram-negative bacteria.
Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of
unique hydrocarbon present – cyanobacteria
Which of the following, pertaining to prokaryotic cell membranes, is mismatched?
cell membrane.
The site/s for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is/are the
plasmids – genes essential for growth and metabolism
Which is mismatched?
for protection of genetic material during harsh conditions.
The function of bacterial endospores is
All of the choices are correct
Endospores are
Bacterial endospores are not produced by
Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes?
They involve bacteria only.
Which statement is not a characteristic of biofilms?
nitrogen base sequence of rRNA.
An important indicator of evolutionary relatedness is to determine
Cyanobacteria – filamentous, gliding, thermophilic bacteria
Which is (cyno) mismatched?
When a rod shaped bacteria is short and plump, it is called a:
Crystal Violet, Gram’s iodine, Alcohol, Safranin
What is the correct sequence for a Gram stain?
Bacteria with small bunches of flagella emerging from the same site are said to be
it plays a role in cell motility
All of the following are correct about a slime layer, except
hydrolyzing peptidoglycan in cell walls
Lysozyme, an enzyme found in tears, provides a natural defense against bacteria by
In the Gram stain, the mordant is
Which cell structure is an important agent in modern genetic engineering techniques?
Coxiella burnetti: Cow po
Which of the following is mismatched?
Archaea do not have the typical peptidoglycan structure found in bacterial cell walls.
Bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma and bacteria called L-forms lack cell walls.
Gram-negative bacteria do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
Hot Carbol Fuchsin is the primary dye in the acid fast stain.
The region between the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall is called the outer membrane.
The prokaryotic cell membrane is a site for many enzymes and metabolic reactions.
If during the Gram stain procedure, the bacterial cells were viewed immediately after crystal violet was applied, gram-positive cells would be purple but gram-negative cells would be colorless.
Iodine is the decolorizer in the Gram stain.
If you observe rod shaped, pink cells on a slide that had just been gram stained, you can assume that their cell walls contain endotoxin.
The term diplococci refers to an irregular cluster of spherical bacterial cells.
The _____ stain is used to stain and differentiate Mycobacterium and Nocardia from other bacteria
The prokaryotic flagellum has three parts: the _____, the hook, and the basal body.
The cell _____ is composed of three layers: the glycocalyx, the cell wall, and the cell membrane.
_____ is a macromolecule containing alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid cross-linked by short peptide fragments.
During the Gram stain, gram _____ cells decolorize when the alcohol is applied.
The enzyme _____, that is found in tears and saliva, can hydrolyze the bonds in the glycan chains of certain bacterial cell walls.
Ribosomal RNA
The chemical components of ribosomes are proteins and _____.
30S, 50S
A prokaryotic ribosome has a 70 S size composed of two smaller subunits of which the smaller subunit is ___ size and the larger one is ____ size.
algae and protozoa.
Protists include
The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembles a bacterial cell is the
contain microtubules
Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella
Cilia are found in certain
Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of
Cell walls are not found on typical cells of
The site for ribosomal RNA synthesis in eukaryotes is the
proteins associated with DNA in the nucleus.
Histones are
mostly polysaccharide.
The eukaryotic cell’s glycocalyx is
All of the choices are correct.
Which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells?
endoplasmic reticulum
The cell’s series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the
Golgi apparatus.
An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membranous sacs and functions to receive, modify, and package proteins for cell secretion is the
Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electron carriers for aerobic respiration are found?
Organelles found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi are the
use them to expel excess water from the cell.
Protists with contractile vacuoles
All of the choices are correct.
The cytoskeleton
The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is
Bread mold
Which of the following is not considered a microorganism?
All of the above
Which of the following are some of the vital roles that microorganisms play in balancing the Earth’s ecosystem?
Fixes carbon using light energy
A photoautotroph is an organism that
None of the above
Which of the following is true about prokaryotes?
Lives in another organism and feeds off its nutrients to the detriment of that organism
A parasite is an organism that
Genetic engineering
Which process involves the deliberate alternation of an organism’s genetic material?
The conversion of uranium into a less toxic form is an example of the use of microorganisms in
They are too small to be seen with the naked eye
Based on the definition of microbiology, viruses are classed as ‘microorganisms’ because
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
The father of microbiology is considered to be
Living things can arise from non-living things
The theory of Spontaneous Generation states that
Louis Pasteur is famous for inventing
All of the above
Which of the following scientists conducted experiments to try and refute the theory of spontaneous generation?
Mayan Indians
Edward Jenner was the 1st person to use vaccines in the Western world; which other culture had already been using this method to fight infectious disease?
Species, family, order, phylum, domain
Which is the correct order of taxonomic groups from most specific to most general or inclusive
A theory is supported by much experimental data and evidence
Scientists use the scientific theory to explain natural phenomena. Which of the following is true?
Cryptococcus neoformans
Which of the following is the correct way to write a scientific name following the rules of bionomial nomenclature?
rRNA analysis
The 3-domain phylogenetic tree is based on
when nutrients are limited
Bacterial organisms make endospores when
All of the above
The function of the glycocalyx in a prokaryotic cell is
I & II
Which of the following are prokaryotic?
The endosymbiotic theory helps scientists understand how eukaryotes developed
Which of the following are examples of prokaryotic obligate intracellular parasites?
The structure and composition of flagella in prokaryote and eukaryote cells is the same.
Mitotic cellular division results in exact clones of the parent cell
The formation of the chromosome tetrad in Meiosis I allows for genetic recombination
Meiosis is a necessary step in prokaryotic sexual reproduction.
Prokaryote cellular division is called binary fission
Eukaryote ribosomes have 2 subunits; their sizes are 50S (large subunit) and 30S (small subunit).
Volume 5 contains 9 phyla; they are all related
The Archaea are grouped with the phototrophic bacteria (Volume 1) because evolutionarily they are the oldest organisms.
Eukaryote cells have peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
The Archaea are extremophiles because they still have adaptations in their cells that were necessary during Early Earth which was a soup of heat and toxic gases.
Gram negative bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan and multiple layers in their cell wall.
Myxobacteria have unusual characteristics. They act like fungi or slime molds.
Viruses are cells.
Mycoplasma bacteria lack cell walls and exhibit pleomorphism.

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