Microbiology

Cilia
Bacterial cells could have any of the following appendages except:
Perisplasmic Flagella (axial filaments)
Spirochetes have a twisting and flexing locomotion due to appendages called:
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Fimbriae
The short, numerous appendages used by some bacterial cells for adhering to cell surfaces are called:
Sex pili
The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called
A chromosome
All bacterial cells have:
Peritrichous
The terms that refers to the presence of glagella all over the cell surface is:
Nitrogen base sequence of rRNA
An important indicator of evolutionary relatedness is to determine:
Tenericutes – waxy acid fast cell walls
Which is mismatched:
Green sulfur bacteria – photosynthetic anaerobes that use sulfur in metabolism
Which is Mismatched:
Cyanobacteria
The presence of thylakoids, phycocyanin, gas inclusions and cysts would be associated with
False
archaea do not have th etypical peptidoglycan structure found in bacteria cell walls:
True
Bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma and bacteria called L-forms lack cell walls:
False
Gram negative bacteria do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls:
Protection of genetic material during harsh conditions
The function of bacterial endospores is:
Endospore
Chemical analysis of a bacterial cell structure detects calcium dipicolinic acid. What is the identity of this structure:
All of the above
Endospores are
Tetrad
Which term is not used to describe bacterial cell shapes:
Specific antibodies to the bacterial cell antigens
Serological analysis for bacterial identification typically involves using:
An important reaction site for substances entering and leaving the cell
The periplasmic space is:
Glycocalyx – regulates transport of nutrients and waste
Which of the following, pertaining to prokaryotic cell membranes is mismatched:
Cell Membrane
The site for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is the:
Is part of the nucleoid
The bacterial chromosome:
Plasmids – genes essential for growth and metabolism
Which is mismatched:
Composed of magnetic iron oxide particles
Magnetosomes are:
Inclusions
All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to call disease except:
Gram positive
A prokaryotic cell wll that has primarily peptidoglycan with small amounts of teichoic acid and lipotiechoic acid is:
Mycobacterium
A bacterial genus that has a waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is:
Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls
All of the following pertain to endotoxins except:
Predominance of unique, waxy, lipids
The difference in cell wall structure of Mycobacterium and Nocardia compared to the typical gram positive bacterial cell structure is:
Gram Negative Bacteria
Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of:
Cell Wall
The outcome of the Gram stain is based on differences in the cell’s:
Protein synthesis would stop
The most immediate result of destruction of a cell’s ribosomes would be:
Flagella
A bacterial cell exhibiting chemotaxis probably has:
Capsule
Which structure protects bacteria from being phagocytized:
Cell Wall
If bacteria living in salty seawater were displaced to a freshwater environment, the cell structure that would prevent the cell from rupturing is:
Cell Walls
Peptidoglycan is a unique macromolecule found in bacterial:
True
Hot carbol fuchin is the primary dye in the acid fast stain:
True
The region between the bacterial cell membrane and the cell wall is called the outer membrane:
True
The prokaryotic cell membrane is a site for many enzymes and metabolic reactions:
False
If during the gram stain procedure, the bacterial cells were viewed immediately after crystal violet was applied, gram positive cells would be purple but gram negative cells would be colorless:
True
Endospores of certain bacterial species can enter tissue in the human body, germinate, and cause an infectious disease:
False
Iodine is the decolorizer in the Gram stain
False
If you observe rod shaped, pink cells on a slide that had just been gram stained, you can assume that their cell walls contain endotoxins:
False
The term diplococci refers to an irregular cluster of spherical bacterial cells:
Algea and protozoa
Protists include
Mitochondria
The eukaryotic cell organelle that most resembels a bacterial cell is the:
Contain microtubules
Eukaryotic flagella differ from prokaryotic flagella because only eukaryotic flagella:
Protozoa
Cilia are found in certain:
Fungi
Chitin is a chemical component of the cell walls of:
Protozoa
Cell walls are not found on typical cells of:
Nucleolus
the site for ribosomal RNA synthesis is the
Chromatin
When a eukaryotic cell is not undergoing mitosis, the DNA and its associated proteins appear as a visible thread-like mass called the:
Proteins associated with DNA in the nucleus
Histones are:
Mostly Polysaccharide
The Eukaryotic cell’s glycocalyx is:
All of the choices are correct
Which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells:
Spirochete, Cyanobacteria
The endosymbiotic theory says that precursor eukaryotic cells acquired flagella by endosymbiosis with a ______ ancestor, and others gained photosynthetic ability from endosymbiosis with a ________ ancestor:
Endoplasmic reticulum
The cell’s series of tunnel-like membranes functioning in transport and storage are the:
Golgi apparatus
An organelle that is a stack of flattened, membraneous sacs and functions to receive, modify and package proteins for cell secretion is the:
Mitochondria
Which organelle contains cristae where enzymes and electrons carries for aerobic respiration are found:
Chloroplasts
Organelles found in algae but not found in protozoa or fungi are the:
Use them to expel water from the cell
Protists with contractile vacuoles:
All of the choices are correct
The cytoskeleton:
80S
The size of a eukaryotic cell ribosome is
Molds
Filamentous fungi are called
Pseudohyphae
When buds remain attached, they form a chain of yeast cells called:
Diamorphic
Fungi that grow as yeast at one temperature but will grow as mold at another temperature is called:
Are only asexually produced
Fungal spores:
Photosynthetic
Which is not a characteristic of fungi
Euglenids
Blooms of certain dinoflagellates are associated with all of the following except:
Pyrrophyta-Euglenids
Which is mismatched
Cell wall
All of the following are found in some or all protozoa except:
Trophozoite
The motile, feeding stage of protozoa is called the
Mastigophora
the group of protozoa that have flagella are the
Plasmodium – causes Chagis Disease
Which is mismatched
Trypanosomes
All of the following are helminths except:
In kingdom Protista
Which of the following does not pertain to helminths:
Helminths
Larvae and eggs are developmental forms of:
False
The eukaryotic cell membrane is a bilayer of sterols:
True
Infections caused by fungi are called mycoses:
False
All fungi have hyphae
False
All algae have chloroplasts
False
Algae are classified into divisions based principally on their type of motility:
Metabolism
Viruses have the following except:
All of the above
Host cells of viruses include:
Either DNA or RNA
The core of every virus particle always contains:
Biochemical reactions
Classification of viruses into families involves determining all the following characteristics except:
Herpesviridae
Which of the following represents a virus family name:
Capsomeres
Virus capsids are made from subunits called:
Capsid
Helical and icosahedral are terms used to describe the shapes of a virus:
Cannot be seen in a light microscope
Viruses:
Located between the capsid and nucleic acid
all of the following pertain to virus envelopes except:
Envelope
Which of the following is not associated with every virus:
Tail fibers
These structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors:
Cause lysis of host cells
Which is incorrect about prophages:
infect Escherichia coli cells
T-even phages:
Adsorption, penetration, replication, assembly, maturation, release (C)
The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is:
Injection of the viral nucleic acid into the host cell
The even that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is:
Release
Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during
Blood Agar
Which of the following will not support viral cultivation
Nucleus, Cytoplasm
In general, most DNa viruses multiply in the host cell’s ____________, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cells ________.
Type of host cell receptors on cell membrane
Host range is limited by:
Plaques
The virus-induced, specific damage to the host cell that can be seen in a light microscope is called:
Plaques
Visible, clear, well-defined patches in a monolayer of virus-infected cells in a culture are called:
Pocks
Viral growth in bird embryos can cause discrete, opaque spots in the embryonic membranes called:
Latent
Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called:
Measles virus
Oncogenic viruses include all of the following except:
all of the choices are correct
Which of the following is a true type of cytopathic effect:
All of the choices are correct
Uncoating of viral nucleic acid:
Prions
Infectious protein particles are called
Viroids
Infectious naked strans of RNA are called
A spongiform encephalopathy of humans
Creutzfeld-Jacob disease is
True
A naked virus does not have an envelope
False
Viruses are multramicroscopic because they range in size from 2?M to 450?M
False
Spikes are glycoproteins of the virus capsid.
True
Prophages can be activated into viral replication and entering the lytic cycle
False
A specific animal virus has the ability to attach to and enter almost any animal host cell:
True
Each virus is assigned to a genus status based on its host, target tissue and type of disease it causes.
False
Bacteriophages to not undergo adsorption to specific host cell receptors prior to penetration.
True
When a virus enters a host cell, the viral genes, redirect the genetic and metabolic activities of the host cell:
False
Viral spikes are inserted into the host cell membrane before budding or exocytosis:
True
Viruses are used to produce vaccines for prevention of certain viral infections:
Icosahedral
One of the principal capsid shapes is a 20-sided figure with 12 evently spaced corners referred to as an __________ capsid.
Capsid
A _________ is the protein shell around the nucleic acid core of a virus.
Phages
Viruses that infect bacteria are specifically called _________.
Antibodies
Diagnosis of viral infections sometimes involve analyzing the patient’s blood for specific __________ that the immune system produced against the virus.
Prions, Viroids
Two noncellular agents, smaller than viruses, are the infectious proteins called _________, and the infectious RNA strands called _______.
Host chromosome
During lysogeny, an inactive prophage state occurs when the viral DNA is inserted into the bacterial _____ _________.
Cell
A common method for cultivating viruses in the lab is to use in vitro systems called __________ cultures.
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