Microbiology Ch. 13, 14 & 15

pathogenic microbes penetrate the host defenses, enter the tissues & multiply
infection
caused by microbe or their products
infectious disease
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all microbes in/out body not causing us harm
normal flora (normal biota)
being used to identify the microbial profile inside & on humans
metagenomics
A project that the National Institutes of Health to identify microbial inhabitants of the human body and their role in health and disease
Human Microbiome Project
bacterial biota benefit the human host by preventing the overgrowth of harmful microbes
microbial antagonism
a toxic protein secreted by bacteria that kills other, related bacteria
bacteriocin
disease causing microorganism
pathogen
any characteristic or structure of the microbe that contributes to its virulence
virulence factor
a potent, extracellular toxin secreted by some bacteria
exotoxin
a toxin that occurs in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria and that is released when the bacterial cell breaks apart
endotoxin
increase in the number of white blood cells
leukocytosis
decrease of white blood cells
leukopenia
condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood
septicemia
presence of bacteria in blood
bacteremia
primary habitat in the natural world from which a pathogen originates
reservoir
live animal that transmits an infectious agent from one host to another
vector
an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans
zoonosis
when an infected host can transmit the infectious agent to another host and establish infection in the recipient
communicable disease
any disease easily transmitted by contact
contagious disease
A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another
noncommunicable disease
an inanimate object that can be the vehicle for transmission of an infectious agent (e.g., bedding, towels, or surgical instruments).
fomite
infectious diseases that are acquired or develop during a hospital stay
nosomial infection
practices used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from one person or place to another person or place; clean technique
medical asepsis
the branch of medicine that studies the causes, spread, and control of disease in populations
epidemiology
glands that secrete and drain tears from the eye
lacrimal apparatus
an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing bacterial cell walls
lysozyme
produces mucus, traps organsims, and moves upwards towards throat to expel
ciliary escalator
Fluid between cells
interstitial fluid
production, differentiation and development of blood cells
hemaopiesis
Don’t play a role in defense; Just CARRY O₂and CO₂
erythrocytes (RBCs)
defend the body against pathogens and remove toxins, wastes, and abnormal or damaged cells.
leukocytes (WBCs)
cells of the immune system which recognize and respond to foreign antigens via specific receptors. Natural Killer cells lymphocytes without specific receptors
lymphocytes (T & B cells)
a connective tissue that produces red and white blood cells
bone marrow
An immune organ located near the heart. THe thymus is the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.
thymus
Bean-shaped filters that cluster along the lymphatic vessels of the body. They function as a cleanser of lymph as wells as a site of T and B cell activation
lymph nodes
the largest lymphatic organ in the body; serves as a blood reservoir, disintegrates old red blood cells, and produces lymphocytes and plasmids
spleen
An irritation of a tissue caused by infection or injury characterized by 4 symptoms: redness (rubor), swelling (tumor), heat (calor), and pain (dolor).
Chief function is to mobilize & attract immune components, repair tissue damage, & destroy microbes.
inflammation
excessive fluid in intracellular tissues
edema
largest white blood cell that migrates into tissues and develops into a macrophage (from phagocyte)
monocyte
monotype that removes bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells
macrophage
bone-marrow-derived cells that descend through the myeloid and lymphoid lineages and are specialized for antigen presentation to helper T cells
dendritic cell (DC)
a granulocyte that is the chief phagocytic white blood cell, 1st on scene
neutrophil
Any substance that causes a rise in body temperature (e.g., bacterial toxins).
pyrogen
molecular patterns common to pathogens but not occurring in mammals. PAMPs are recognized by various receptors of the innate immune system.
pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a virus; helps other cells resist the virus
interferon
Nonspecific defensive cell that attacks tumor cells and destroys infected body cells
natural killer (NK) cell
versatile backup system, blood proteins work together to destroy bacteria & certain viruses (cascade reactions, triggers another, etc.)
complement
molecule that binds to microbes and recognized by receptors on phagocytes
opsonin
process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis
opsonization
1) Skin & conjunctiva (eyes)- through nicks, abrasians & punctures
2) Gastrointestinal tract- ingested substances ie food or drink w/pathogens; adapted to survive digestive enzymes & low pH (ie food poisoning/intoxication)
3) Respiratory- portal has the greatest number of pathogens**
4) Urogenital- STDs enter skin or external genitalia (penis, vagina, cervix, urethra)
4 portals of entry
minimum dose size needed to infect; microorganisms w/smaller IDs have greater virulence
infectious dose (ID)
fimbriae/slime layers, capsules, spikes
mechanisms in which microbes attach to host?
mechanisms in which microbes evade to host’s phagocytes?
EXOtoxins- G+/G-, by-products of growing cell, protein (chem), no fever, neutralized by antitoxin, small in lethal does
ENDOtoxins- G-, present in LPS of outer membran (not secreted), Lipid (chem), causes fever, large lethal dose
differences between exotoxins & endotoxins
CONTACT: direct- kissing or touching; droplets-even same class; vertical- mother to embryo; vector- ie hitting a fly
INDIRECT: fomite- nonliving conveyors(door handles, cart handle); food/H20/bio products- typhoid Mary; air- droplet nuclei, aerosole (exhaust)
mechanisms for disease transmission
1) urinary tract (mostly by catheters)
2) surgical sites
3) respiratory
3 major factors to most nosocomial disease
set of guidelines used to prevent the transmission of disease (ie: gloves, goggles, biohazard waste)
universal precautions
true pathogens- cause disease in healthy people
opportunistic pathogens- cause disease only in immune-compromised host or when introduced to an area of the body not normally found
true pathogens vs opportunistic pathogens
exogenous sources- environment or another host (ie chix pox)
endogenous sources- normal flora or latent infection (in body; ie lie dormant cause infection> shingles)
exogenous vs endogenous sources of infectious agents
infection- pathogenic microbes penetrate host defenses, enter tissues & multiply
intoxication- caused by ingestion of toxins (botulism)
infection vs intoxication
primary habitat in nat’l world from which a pathogen originates (continuous supply)
vector- live animal transmits infectious agent to another (majority fleas, ticks, mosquitos, flies)
reservoir vs vector
biological vector- infected & actively participates in pathogen’s life cycle
mechanical vector- transport infectious agent w/out being infected
biological vs mechanical vectors
vector- live animal transmits infectious agent from 1 host to another (majority fleas, ticks, mosquitos, flies)
fomite- inanimate objects that harbor/transmit disease
vector vs fomite
incidence of disease- # of new cases over a certan time period
prevelance of disease- total # of existing cases w/ respect to entire pop/ total # persons in pop x 100 = %
incidence vs prevelance of disease
total # of deaths in population due to a certain disease
# persons afflicted w/ infectious diseases
mortality rate vs morbidity rate
Clostridium difficile
Gram +,sporulating, opportunistic pathogen normally inhibited by microbial antagonism but may cause AAD durin antibiotic therapy (ie Clindamycin for a staph or strep infection)
Pseudomas aeruginosa (G-), Candida albicans, Clostridium difficle (G+)
3 opportunistic pathogens
1) Escherichia
2) Klebsiella
3) Pseudomonas
G- intestinal biota is cultured in more than 1/2 of all nosocomial infections?
signs- objective evidence of disease
symptoms- subjective evidence of disease
signs vs symptoms of disease
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