Microbiology chapter 5 Eukaryotic cell structure--Protozoa and Fungi

is larger and more nuclear envelope, nuclear brain, contain internal membrane bound, organelles.
Eukaryotic cell
flagella and cilia
Eukaryotic cell Structures
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1.chitin cell wall in fungi
2.cellulose cell wall in plants.
Cell Wall
Plasma membrane
cytoskeleton–is what we as humans have
1. location of genetic material (DNA)
2. DNA is enclosed in a nuclear envelope
Eukaryotic Organelles –Nucleus
1. site of protein synthesis
2. 80S size in eukaryotes.
1. a series of membrane throughout the cell.
2. more concentrated around the nucleus
3.often dotted with 80S ribosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. a series of stacked membranes associated with the endoplasmic reticulum.
2. the suitcase for eukaryotic organelles –transfers what is going in and what is going out.
Eukaryotic Organelles– Golgi complex
organelle where animal cells manufacture energy in the form of ATP, the mitochondria is where ATP is produced.
stomach of the eukaryotic cell where molecules are broken down.
cell wall–chitin
plasma membrane–ergosterol
Fungi–eukaryotic organism
we as humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
1. ecologically, in the breakdown of organic material–saprophytes.
2.primary plant pathogens.
3.industry make antibiotics and (Saccharomyces) EtOH etc.
Primary importance of Fungi
is a fungal infection, 35 years ago fungi was rare.
study of mold and yeast
2.facultative anaerobes
3. yeast will form at 35 degrees–warm.
Yeast are
1. filamentous- hyphae–hair like
2.strict aerobes
3.includes rust, mildews
4.mold will form at 25 degrees –colder
5.single cell
Molds are
include mushroom, puffballs.
Fleshy fungi
some fungi can have two phases, a yeast phase and also a filamentous mold phase.
Oxygen requirements:
1. Molds-usually strict aerobes
2. Yeast-facultative anaerobes
Phylum are based on sexual spores
Also used for classification:
1. asexual spores
2. hyphae
3. both are identified by hyphae
Classification: there are 4 Phylum of fungi
Two types of hyphae:
1. septate 1 nucleus per cell (cross walls)
2. nonseptate–no cross walls
Molds are composed of hyphae;
intertwined hyphae
1. fission–hyphae
2. Budding–yeast
3. Asexual spores
Asexual reproduction can take 3 forms
have a nuclus which pinches off one cell and than the other called budding.
Yeast cell
form on the end of hyphae
Asexual spores
1. sporangiospores–within sac
2. conidia–not within sac
Two types of Asexual spores
sexual spores rarely seen and not used clinically
1.asexual spore structure
2. hyphal type
3.colony morphology
Fungal identification
Fungal infections are called mycoses
1. Primary–able to cause disease in normal “healthy” individuals.
2. Opportunistic–sicken individuals who are weakened, immunocompromised.
Fungal Diseases
1. Systemic mycoses
2. Superficial
Types of Mycoses
infections deep within the body
Histoplasmosis–histoplasma capsulatum—>disease of the lower respiratory tract. seen in patients with HIV or healthy individuals, can also cause TB.
Systemic mycoses
infect only the epidermis, hair and nails.
1. Microsporum–Tinea capitis–ringworm
2. Trichophyton–Tinea pedis–athletes foot
3. Epidemophyton–Tinea cruris–jock itch.
Candida albicans: superifical—thrush, vaginal infections, sepsis.
1. HIV patients or cancer and organ transplant patients.
2. seen in infants if normal bacteria is disrupted, can cause yeast infection.
Opportunistic infections
pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients. In 1981 three individuals had this rare infection, they aslo had HIV.
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii)
Because they are Eukaryotic.
Fungal infections are hard to treat why?
is mode of action against differences in the cell membrane; humans have cholesterol in their membranes, while fungi contain ergosterol
Anti Fungal Agents:
Is the target to get rid of fungal infections
these antifungal agents inhibit cell membrane function of Systemic infections.
Amphotericin B and Fluconazole
these antifungal agents stops that burning itching from tinea pedis of Superifical infections.
Nystatin and Imidazoles-miconazole ,Tolnaftate (Tinactin)
Kingdom Protista—single cell eukaryotic organisms found in aquatic environments few are pathogens for humans
Protozoa Characteristics
are classified according to form of locomotion for clinical purpose.
1. flagella
2.amoeboid motion
Classification for Protozoa
the free living state of protozoa
Trophic stage or trophozoites
that will be protective state of protozoa, also has eye spots.
Cyst stage
is not hard to kill
Vegetative bacteria
is the toughest to kill
Bacteria Stage
can alternate between sexual and asexual forms.
1.binary fission
2.Multiple fission (Schizogony)
also Sexual Reproduction.
EX–Protozoa –one cell splits into two or many (Schizogony).
Asexual Reproduction
Flagellated–Giardia Iamblia-
Trichomonas vaginalis-sexually transmitted disease (2nd most common) male asymptomatic
females become symptomatic when pH of the vagina goes above 5.
Disease causing Protozoa
causes Amoebic dysentery
Amoebas move by pseudopodia “false feet”
Entamoeba histolytica
not motile, obligate intercellular parasites,surface structures allow penetration
2. Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)–can affect an unborn child.
3.Plasmodium falciparum (malaria) complex Protozoa.
Phylum- Apicomplexa–causes Malaria
1.complex Protozoa
2. cause by the mosquito
3. only female mosquitoes bite call the voctor.
Plasmodium spp.
varied, no specific target
1. Chloroquine
2.Metronidazol–must common used drug to treat Protozoa.
Antiprotozoal drugs that treat the membrane

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