Microbiology chapter2

The ocular graduation is a circular disk with lines a stage graduation is already engraved. Ocular is already calibrated and stage needs calibrated. Ocular is um and stage is mm.
How do the graduations differ between ocular and stage micrometers?
algae-eukarya, Protozoa-eukarya, cyanobacteria-bacteria
In which domains are algae, protozoa, and cyanobacteria classified?
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Both have organelles, and the number of membranes differ.
Name one similarity between algae and plants. Name one difference.
Cilia, flagella and pseudopods.
compare and contrast the three mechanisms of motility displayed by protozoa?
Cyanobacteria, they do not have organized nucleus/chloroplast or other organelles
What organisms were formerly known as “blue green algae”? Why are these organisms not algae?
Xanthrophil, di????
What makes red tides red?
Euglenozoans, trypanosomes
What is a kinetoplast? What pathogenic organisms contain this structure?
In the alveolates, what structure may control osmotic balance?
sexual reproduction
What function do the micronuclei play in the ciliates?
bacteria is shiny, mold is fuzy
In what ways do the macroscopic features of bacterial colonies differ from those of molds?
no, it is normal flora.
Should one be concerned to find bacteria on the skin? How about molds? Explain.
size: 10xsmaller
organization of genetic material: no nucelus, dna is naked
cell wall:peptidoglycan
respiration and photosynthesis: they both perform
motility mechanisms:cilia, flagella,pseudopods
Compare the following features of bacteria to those of eukaryotic microorganisms:
means to move freely throught hyphea
What does the term coenocyte mean? Cross walls are not present to form individual cells?
What distinguishes the cell walls of fungi from those of plants?
pathogenic fungi and histoplasma
What does the term “dimorphic” refer to? Give an example of an organism that is dimorphic and what diseases it causes?
cheese,milk and pickles
What foods are produced by fungi?
Toadstools are more colorful and poisonous.
What is considered to be the difference between mushrooms and toadstools?
ergot-tainted rye.
Why might fungi been theorized to be involved in the Salem witch trials?
zygospores produce asexually, condiospores produce sexually
How do zygospores differ from condiospores?
They are used to produce food
How are fungi important in the production of foods?
surface area for absorption in plant roots
What are the ectonmycorrhizae?
no cross contamination, microbiologist is not contaminated and isolate/purify microgoranisms
Provide three reasons why the use of aseptic technique is essential when handling microbial cultures in the laboratory?
vegetative cells and virus; not endospores:alcohol
Against which organisms are disinfectants effective? Against which type of organism may they not be effective? What disinfectants if used in your laboratory?
colony:division of single cells
In regard to bacterial growth on solid media, define “colony”
To sterilize the loop of any microbes on it
Why is the loop flamed before it is placed in a culture tube? Why is it flamed after completing the inoculation?
to prevent condensation and contamination
Explain why plates should be inverted during incubation.
Have to shake the liquid medium
How does smear preparation of cells from a liquid medium differ from preparation of cells from a solid medium?
So you can distinguish between cells.
Why is it important to limit the quantity of cells used to prepare a smear?
color bearing ionic groups
What are chromophores?
anionic chromophores is electrostatically repelled by negativelly charged bacterial cells
Why do acidic dyes not stain bacterial cells?
Basic is catatonic and acidic is anionic
What is the difference between basic and acidic dyes?
negatively charged
What type of chromosphere is associated with a negative stain?
india ink
What is an example of a negative stain? What external bacterial cell structures can be demonstrated by a negative stain?
protective structures attachment to soild surfaces
What are two functions of the capsule or glycocalyx in bacterial cells?
Becuase it helps differntate between postivie and negative bacteria based on struutres that have dissimilar staining reactions
Why is the Gram stain considered a differential stain?
cell wall strcuture and the chemical differences postive have thick peptiglucan and negative have an outer membrane that causes a thinner layer of peptiglycan
How do gram-positive and gram negative bacteria differ in cellular structures and how does this contribute to their differential staining properties?
decolorization can result in a false reading of the bacteria
Which step in the gram stain procedure is most prone to error? If done incorrectly how might that step affect the end result?
forms on insoulable complex in gram postive cells toidine
What is the function of a mordant, and which reagent serves this purpose serves this purpose in the Gram stain procedure?
Allow bacteria to survive environmental conditions that are unfavorable for growth
What are the functions of endospores in bacteria?
Compared to vegative cells, how much less water is present in an endospore?
What is the mordant in the spore stain?
What unique chemical composed is important in the heat resistance of endospores?
15-20 mins to steam under pressure that generates a temp of 121 c autoclave
What conditions are necessary to destroy endospores? In what device are these conditions achieved?
What is the color of the vegative cell after the spore stain?
What is the primary stain in the acid fast stain?
methylene blue
What is the secondary stain in the acid fast stain?

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