Microbiology: preventing food related illness Essay

  1. As meat merchandise, it is prone to incorporate bacteriums that we are non cognizant of, such asSalmonellaandEscherichia coli ( E. Coli O157 ) .They are bacteriums which are usually found in domestic fowl merchandise, normally in natural meat.

Below table contains information on bothSalmonellaandE.coli O157. ( Richard Lawley, 2013 ) , ( Food Safety.gov, 2015 )


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E. Coli O157

  • It is a bacteria which causes GI infection.
  • Gram negative bacteria.
  • Symptoms of this infection are diarrhoea, purging, febrility and abdominal hurting.
  • These symptoms can last for 4-7 yearss and it can be spread from individual to individual.
  • Normally found in domestic fowl meat, such as beef, porc, eggs and unpasteurized milk which are non handled or refrigerated in a safe manner.
  • It is a type of bacteriums which lives in homo and carnal enteric piece of land. Mostly which are non harmful but some can do you fall ailment.
  • Symptoms of these infections are diarrhea, purging, febrility and abdominal spasms.
  • These symptoms can last for 5-10 yearss.
  • Normally can be found is uncooked beef, natural milk, veggies ( such as sprouts ) .

The ways to protect from acquiring these bacteriums infecting is to pattern proper hygiene while managing the meat. The manner the meat is being cook is besides of import as natural meat which are non cooked good can do diarrhoea to happen in worlds. After cooking the meat, separate the cooked meat with the natural meat and veggies. Wash hands before eating and transport a sanitizer along.

As herbs and spices are being used for marinading the meat, it can besides convey extra microbiological jeopardies which contain bacteriums such asBacillusand spore forming beings which can do toxins to the organic structure while devouring the nutrient points.

There are 2 types of spore forming bacteriums which are normally found in meat.

  1. Bacillus

Bacillusis a spore forming bacteriums which can turn in either temperature of 35 ( mesophiles ) degree Celsius or 55 degree Celsius ( thermophiles ) . ( Dr. M.A Cousin, 1989 ) . It can defy heat and do it to go hydrous hence doing it can last from high temperature while cooking and stored at as dry merchandises. But once it reaches a certain temperature which is considered as the danger zone, the spores will get down to shoot that can do the bacteriums to turn, bring forth toxins that can harm people and do them fall ill. To forestall this to go on, nutrient has to be stored individually. For illustration, cooked nutrient is hot and natural nutrient is cold. Hence dividing them to different compartment of the electric refrigerator will forestall these bacteriums from turning in nutrient.

  1. Clostridium

Another common type of spore incorporating bacteriums is theClostridium.These bacteriums can normally turn in assorted temperatures and can be considered as both mesophiles and thermophiles. ( Natasha Gilani, 2004 ) It can establish in the bowel of animate beings and worlds. Food are being heated and cooked so that these bacteriums are meant to be inactive and wound them. It besides affects the procedure of activation, sprouting and branch of the spores due to the heat. The spores can merely be active once the hurt has recovered.

Another issue that she can take note of will be the demands of the nutrient safety system such as the HACCP ( Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point ) . This system helps to turn to the issue on how the nutrient is being controlled from physical, chemical and biological jeopardies while managing, preparing of the merchandise, fabrication, administering to assorted topographic points and guarantee that the nutrient is being safe to eat as a finished merchandise. ( NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE, 1997 )

  1. She would be required to give merchandise inside informations, as to where the meat was right from where the last procedure of distribution to assorted topographic points up till when it was given for human ingestion. She would besides be needed to supply information on how the cow was slaughtered, chilled, packaged and handled. This is to guarantee that the merchandise is safe for ingestion and could be sold. Detailss of safe hygiene processs would besides be noted. This information is needed to demo that safeguards were taken prior to further processing of the meat. Storage of natural meat has be kept in a control temperature and maintained at 4Oc. ( Darlene Christensen, 2009 ) This is done to forestall farther growing of bacteriums in the meat.

Marinading should ever be done in a cold environment, and this is done as a precautional step to forestall farther growing of bacteriums in room temperature. Marinating of steaks could be anyplace from 2 to 24 hours, and no longer than that. ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004-2014 ) After which the meat has to be packed in a certain bags to forestall farther growing of microbic beings. This is because O increases the opportunities of spoilage caused by bacteriums. Hence, vacuity wadding of nutrient merchandises helps get the better ofing the effects of O by taking O and replacing it with other gases such as N or C dioxide.

Gentle heat is used to dry the meat. The meat has to be heated up at 70Odegree Celsius before undergoing the hydrating procedure to do certain that it destroys any bacteria nowadays on the meat. ( United States Department of Agriculture, 2013 ) She has to besides see on the manner the meat is being packed before and distribution by the topographic point she has purchased the meat from. There are assorted ways of packing the meat. One of the ways to pack the meat will be vacuum packing. By vacuity packaging, the O that is found in the surrounding helps to avoid nutrient from acquiring spoiled. ( USDA Meat and Poultry, 1997 ) Vacuum packaging besides prevents nutrient from turning moldy. Packaging plays a large function in maintaining the nutrient safe for ingestion, and can be kept for a longer period of clip.

However, being hygiene will be the most of import first measure to be taken. These steps such as rinsing the knives used to cut the meat, utilizing clean chopping boards and manus rinsing often has to be taken during the clip where the meat is being cut boulder clay directing it for packaging. ( NATIONS, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED, 1990 )

Another factor that can be considered for this merchandise would be the H2O activity. It tells which microorganism will get down to shoot in nutrient. They have a certain sum of H2O degree which will assist the beings to turn in nutrient. It is an of import factor as it determines the wet degree in nutrient which causes nutrient spoilage. ( Decagon Devices, 2006 )

Table below shows some of the H2O activity of micro beings in nutrient. ( D. Yordanov & A ; G. Angelova, 2014 )

Micro beings

Water activity

Escherichia coli


Staphylococcus aureus


Last, traceability is really of import when it comes to any merchandise. Since she is meaning to sell beef merchandises, she has to cognize where the beef is from, how is it cut and packaged and besides how will she able to place that the cow is from that peculiar company and such.

Some of the illustrations of designation of cattles ;

  1. Number tickets on the ear cringles
  2. Database which is computerized
  3. Bar codifications that can be scanned which are normally paste on the packaging of the meat

Information on the strain, sex and age of the animate being should be given. This information should be given in order to forestall any spread of diseases, every bit good as for nutrient safety. ( Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, 2014 )

  1. There are assorted trials that can be done for when a nutrient sample is been sent for proving. Many microorganisms are easy found in nutrient which may be harmful and non harmful to our organic structure. Certain microorganisms are present low in the nutrients and when consumed, it does non harm the organic structure. Examples of such nutrient are cheese and yoghurt which contains good microorganisms. ( Food Standards Australia New Zealand, 2001 )

Below tabular array shows the trials done for nutrient which goes for proving in the nutrient research lab. ( NSW Food Authority, 2009 )



  1. Standard home base count

Gives general indicant of the quality of the nutrient. It can bespeak if the nutrient has been prepared in non hygiene mode or was non stored in a proper storage country. While making this trial, the ingredients and how the nutrient was processed have to be considered carefully. A series of consequences overtime will supply with a better apprehension and better consequences.

  1. Indicator beings (E.Coli)
  2. Pathogens (Salmonella)

E.coliandSalmonellaare found in enteric piece of land of worlds and animate beings. By this grounds found on ready to eat repasts, it will showcase on the hapless hygiene and non plenty of heat intervention given to the nutrient before administering it for sale. It can besides due to managing of the nutrient ill, cross taint and non cooking the natural meat good.

After proving out on the samples of nutrient, it has to run into the demands of microbiological safety for ready to eat nutrient points. The ready-to-eat nutrient are classs into 4 groups ; good, acceptable, unsatisfactory and potentially risky. Good and acceptable are considered within the good scope and doesn’t necessitate any farther testing or safety action taken. While for unsatisfactory and potentially risky is considered fail and action demands to be taken instantly as the micro beings are above the safety degree and will do injury for people whom consume the ready-to-eat nutrient. ( NSW Food Authority, 2009 )


  • Darlene Christensen. ( May, 2009 ) .Marinading Meat Safely.[ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/FN_FoodSafety_2009-01pr.pdf
  • Decagon Devices ( 2006 )Water activity for meat and domestic fowl jerked meat. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aqualab.com/assets/Uploads/AN-Water-Activity-for-Jerky-Meat.pdf
  • Dr. M.A. Cousin, ( 1989 )SPOREFORMING BACTERIA IN FOODS, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.math.unl.edu/~jump/Center1/Labs/Sporeforming % 20Bacteria % 20in % 20Foods.pdf
  • D. Yordanova & A ; G. Angelova ( April 15, 2014 )Designation and Traceability of Meat and Meat Products,[ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13102818.2006.10817295
  • FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration, ( November 26, 2014 )Hazard Analysis & A ; Critical Control Points ( HACCP ), [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/HACCP/
  • Food safety.gov, ( May 11, 2015 )E. coli, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/ecoli/
  • Food and agribusiness administration of the United Nations ( November 25, 2014 )Traceability,[ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org/ag/againfo/themes/en/meat/quality_trace.html,
  • Food Standards Australia New Zealand, ( 2001 )Guidelines for microbiological scrutiny of ready-to-eat nutrients, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.foodstandards.gov.au/publications/pages/guidelinesformicrobi1306.aspx
  • Jerky and Food Safety. ( 2015 ) . Jerky and Food Safety. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/meat-preparation/jerky-and-food-safety/ct_index.
  • Meat Packaging Materials. ( 2015 ) . Meat Boxing Materials. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //dwb.unl.edu/teacher/nsf/c10/c10links/www.fsis.usda.gov/oa/pubs/meatpack.htm
  • Manual on simple methods of meat saving. ( 2015 ) . Manual on simple methods of meat saving. [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6932e/x6932e04.htm
  • Natasha Gilani, ( 2004 )Types of Spore Forming Bacteria, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //classroom.synonym.com/types-spore-forming-bacteria-2504.html
  • NSW Food Authority, ( July, 2009 )Microbiological quality usher for ready-to-eat nutrients, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/_Documents/science/microbiological_quality_guide_for_RTE_food.pdf
  • Richard Lawley, ( February 2, 2013 )Salmonella, [ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.foodsafetywatch.org/factsheets/salmonella/
  • United States Food and Drug Administration. ( 2004 ) .Marinading Meat Guidelines – Marinading 101.[ ONLINE ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //whatscookingamerica.net/MarinatingSafely.htm

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