Middle school science

Question Answer
Scientist who grew 30,000 pea plants to study inherited traits Gregor Mendel
Number of chromosomes a goldfish has 94
Number of chromosomes a human has 46
In 1665, he used a microscope to observe box-like structures in cork – named these structures cells Robert Hooke
Cells are the basic building blocks of all living things; All life activities take place in cells; New cells are produced by existing cells Main parts of the cell theory
Amount of cells in a human body 50 billion
Number of kinds of cells in the human body 200
Is flat and tough to protect the tissue beneath it cheek cell
Long, thin, wirelike extensions along which nerve signals can travel Nerve Cell
Number of cells that die in your body every second millions
thin layer that covers the cell and holds the cell material inside; controls what enters and leaves the cell cell membrane
Remains long after the rest of the cell died Cell wall
Holds the cells organells cytoplasm
Tiny structures that carry out cells activities organelles
Each cell in your body contains between 10 and several hundred mitochondria
Type of organelle that most cells have Nucleus
Allow chemical instructions to move from the nucleus to the rest of the cell and vice-versa pores
perform all the activities of a living organism cell
Most living things begin life as a single cell
Starts as a single cell embryo
Typically starts slowly, speeds up, then slows down or stops growth
Age by which humans typically stop growing 21
Controls the entire development of an organism DNA
Number of genes a human has 50,000
Found in all cells, but only used when they are needed DNA code
Process that produces new body cells with complete sets of chromosomes mitosis
how you grow and how dead cells in your body are replaced mitosis
Process that forms reproductive cells meiosis
Amount of an organisms chromosomes that each new cell which has underwent meiosis contains half
Number of cell divisions meiosis involves two
Fibers that form across the cell spindles
Part of each double stranded chromosome that lines up with the others along the center of the spindle middle
Variation of an organisms traits in a species is mostly due to cells that have undergone meiosis
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk
Years Gregor Mendel studied pea plants before publishing results in 1865 8
Contains male reproductive cells Pollen
Plants that have homogeneous chromosome traits (ie TT or tt) Truebreeding
Year Mendel's work stopped being ignored 1900
Genes are located on chromosomes Chromosome theory
Many traits are controlled by more than one gene pair such as Skin color and height
Year that role of DNA in inheritance is first demonstrated 1943
Year double helix is discovered 1953
Beginning of the era of genetic engineering 1970s
Decade the genes of E coli and fruit flies are mapped 1980s
Year that Chinese clone the first animal – a golden carp fish 1981
Year that a gene for human cancer is discovered 1985
First year gene therapy is used 1990
Year Dolly the cloned sheep is born 1996
father of genetics Gregor Mendel
Structure of DNA double-helix
Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, James Watson, and Francis Crick work led to the discovery of the structure of DNA
Process of identifying the precise sites on chromosomes where specific genes occur Gene mapping
Cooperative scientific effort to map all the genes on a human chromosome, established in 1988 Human Genome Project
Year scientists completed an entire genetic blueprint for a bacterium 1995
Number of genetic instructions contained in a bacterium genetic blueprint 1.8 million
Free-floating DNA molecules in bacteria plasmids
Discovery of these enabled scientist to engineer or alter genes plasmids
Put into bacteria to produce useful products such as vaccines and resistant crops plasmids
One of the greatest geneticists of the 20th century; Researched hereditary Barbara McClintock
Make up the largest group of known species insects
Number of species of butterflies and moths 120,000
Make up more than 1/4 of all animal species beetles
Hardiest of all living things bacteria
some fungi are predators
Number of possible living things estimated by scientists 10 million
Number of living things classified and named by scientists less than 2 million
Developed one of the first systems for classifying things about 350 BC Aristotle
Developed Linnaean system in the 1700s Carl von Linne
Groups organisms by whether they are plants or animals,then groups animals by how they move, and plants by their size Aristotle's classification system
1700 English naturalist who classified organisms by behavior, appearance, and internal structure. First to realize that a whale is not a fish John Ray
two characteristics used by scientists to place organisms into kingdoms cell structure and ways of getting food
Most protists are one celled
Cell contains one or more nuclei, and most of the structures found in plant and animal cells. May make its own food, take it from the environment, or both protists
Number of divisions of all living plants 12
1. Ask a Question
2. Do Background Research
3. Construct a Hypothesis
4. Test Your Hypothesis by Doing an Experiment
5. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion
6. Communicate Your Results
Steps of the scientific method
concerned with the assumptions, foundations, methods and implications of science Philosophy of Science
an educated guess, based on observations. Can be disproved, but not proven to be true Hypothesis
summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing.is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it; Accepted Hypothesis. "why" Theory
generalizes a body of observations. At the time it is made, no exceptions have been found; explain things, but they do not describe them law
“testable idea… created by the human mind that tells a story about what happens in nature.” Another definition is “a description of nature that can predict things about many similar situations; based on a certain set of observations Scientific Model
observation, communication, classification, measurement, inference, and prediction Science Process Skills
If X, then Y; If not X, then not Y Experimental Design
Father of science; first to postulate non-supernatural explanations for natural phenomena such as lightning and earthquakes Thales
first to postulate that the Earth is spherical in shape Pythagoras of Samos
Their development of deductive reasoning was of particular importance and usefulness to later scientific inquiry. Plato and Aristotle
first known person to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system Aristarchus of Samos
geographer who accurately calculated the circumference of the Earth Eratosthenes
(ca. 190 – ca. 120 BC) produced the first systematic star catalog Hipparchus
335 – 280 BC) was the first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body and to describe the nervous system Herophilos
ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions Hippocrates
(129 – ca. 200 AD) performed many audacious operations—including brain and eye surgeries— that were not tried again for almost two millennia. Galen
laid down the foundations of mathematical rigor and introduced the concepts of definition, axiom, theorem and proof still in use today in his Elements, considered the most influential textbook ever written Euclid
redited with using the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of Pi; Archimedes
wrote some of the earliest descriptions of plants and animals, establishing the first taxonomy and looking at minerals in terms of their properties such as hardness. Theophrastus
also known for laying the foundations of hydrostatics and the explanation of the principle of the lever Archimedes
produced what is one of the largest encyclopedias of the natural world in 77 AD Pliny the Elder
Often regarded as the father of germ theory and bacteriology, together with Robert Koch. Louis Pasteur
approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load added to it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit Hooke's Law of elasticity
Father of evolutionary biology Charles Darwin
Laid the groundwork for classical mechanics; described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, Removed doubt about heliocentrism Newton
In the absence of a net force, a body either is at rest or moves in a straight line with constant speed. Newton's First law of Motion
A body experiencing a force F experiences an acceleration a related to F by F = ma, where m is the mass of the body. Alternatively, force is equal to the time derivative of momentum. Newton's Second law of Motion
Whenever a first body exerts a force F on a second body, the second body exerts a force ?F on the first body. F and ?F are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Newton's Third law of Motion
The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the Sun at a focus. Kepler's laws of planetary motion 1
A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time Kepler's laws of planetary motion 2
The square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. Kepler's laws of planetary motion 3
best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion; assistant to Brahe Johannes Kepler
worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into his own model of the universe, the Tychonic system Tycho Brahe

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