Middle School Science notes from lulu

Question Answer
Biology branch of knowledge that deals with living organisms and vital processes
Physics a science that deals with matter and energy and their interactions
Chemistry a science that deals with the composition, structure, and properties of substances and with the transformations that they undergo
Geology a science that deals with the history of the earth and its life especially as recorded in rocks or a study of the solid matter of a celestial body (i.e. moon)
Astronomy study of objects and matter outside the earth's atmosphere and of their physical and chemical properties
Ecology a branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their environments
Oceanography a science that deals with the oceans and includes the delimitation of their extent and depth, the physics and chemistry of their waters, marine biology, and the exploitation of their resources
Aerodynamics study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created
anatomy study of the structure and organization of living things
Anthropology study of human cultures both past and present
Archaeology study of the material remains of cultures
Astrophysics study of the physics of the universe
Bacteriology study of bacteria in relation to disease
Biochemistry study of the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occurring in organisms
Biophysics application of theories and methods of the physical sciences to questions of biology
Botany scientific study of plant life
Chemical Engineering application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms
Chemistry science of matter and its interactions with energy and itself
Climatology study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes
Computer Science systematic study of computing systems and computation
Electronics science and technology of electronic phenomena
Engineering practical application of science to commerce or industry
Entomology study of insects
Environmental Science science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment
Forestry science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources
Genetics science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms
Geology the science of the Earth, its structure, and history
Marine Biology study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems
Mathematics science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
Medicine science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease
Meteorology study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting
Microbiology study of microorganisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and simple eukaryotes
Mineralogy study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals
Molecular Biology study of biology at a molecular level
Nuclear Physics branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom
Neurology branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system and its disorders
Oceanography study of the earth's oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes
Organic Chemistry branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds
Ornithology study of birds
Paleontology study of life-forms existing in former geological time periods
Petrology geological and chemical study of rocks
Physics study of the behavior and properties of matter
Physiology study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms
Radiology branch of medicine dealing with the applications of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes
Seismology study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the Earth
Taxonomy science of classification of animals and plants
Thermodynamics physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes
Zoology study of animals
Kilo 1,000 multiples
hecto 100 multiples
deca 10 multiples
deci 0.1 multiples
centi 0.01 multiples
milli 0.001 multiples
1 x 10^2 Scientific notation for 100 (1 times 2 tens)
5.7 x 10^6 Scientific notation for 5,700,000
6.5 x 10^-3 Scientific notation for 0.0065
One chain 22 yards
10 chains 1 furlong
8 furlongs 1 mile
9 square feet 1 square yard
4840 square yards 1 acre
640 acres 1 square mile
100 hectares 1 square kilometer
100 square meters 1 are
100 ares 1 hectare
10,000 square centimeters 1 square meter
100 square millimeters 1 square centimeter
One ton 1,000 kg
16 oz 1 pound
Rust Common chemical change where the reactants oxygen and ion combine to produce iron oxide
Isaac Newton The Newtonian Revolution
Albert Einstein Twentieth-Century Science
Neils Bohr the Atom
Charles Darwin Evolution
Louis Pasteur the Germ Theory of Disease
Sigmund Freud Psychology of the Unconscious, Freudian psychoanalysis (Freudianism)
Galileo Galilei the New Science
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier the Revolution in Chemistry
Johannes Kepler Motion of the planets
Nicolaus Copernicus the Heliocentric Universe
Michael Faraday the Classical Field Theory
James Clerk Maxwell the Electromagnetic Field
Claude Bernard the Founding of Modern Physiology
Franz Boas Modern Anthropology
Werner Heisenberg Quantum Theory
Linus Pauling Twentieth-Century Chemistry
Rudolf Virchow the Cell Doctrine
Ernest Rutherford the Structure of the Atom
Paul Dirac Quantum Electrodynamics
Andreas Vesalius the New Anatomy
Tycho Brahe the New Astronomy
Comte de Buffon l'Histoire Naturelle
Ludwig Boltzmann Thermodynamics
Max Planck the Quanta
Erwin Schrodinger Wave Mechanics
Marie Curie Radioactivity
William Herschel the Discovery of the Heavens
Charles Lyell Modern Geology
Pierre Simon de Laplace Newtonian Mechanics
Edwin Hubble Modern Telescope
Joseph J. Thomson Discovery of the Electron
Max Born Quantum Mechanics
Francis Crick Molecular Biology
Enrico Fermi Atomic Physics
Leonard Euler Eighteenth-Century Mathematics
Justus Liebig Nineteenth-Century Chemistry
Arthur Eddington Modern Astronomy
William Harvey Circulation of the Blood
Marcello Malpighi Microscopic Anatomy
Christiaan Huygens the Wave Theory of Light
Albrecht von Haller Eighteenth-Century Medicine
August Kekule Chemical Structure
Robert Koch Bacteriology
Murray Gell-Mann the Eightfold Way
Emil Fischer Organic Chemistry
Dmitri Mendeleev Periodic Table of Elements
Sheldon Glashow Discovery of Charm
James Watson Structure of DNA
John Bardeen Superconductivity
John von Neumann Modern Computer
Richard Feynman Quantum Electrodynamics
Alfred Wegener Continental Drift
Stephen Hawking Quantum Cosmology
Anton van Leeuwenhoek the Simple Microscope
Max von Laue X-ray Crystallography
Gustav Kirchhoff Spectroscopy
Hans Bethe the Energy of the Sun
Euclid the Foundations of Mathematics
Gregor Mendel the Laws of Inheritance
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Superconductivity
Thomas Hunt Morgan the Chromosomal Theory of Heredity
Hermann von Helmholtz the Rise of German Science
Paul Ehrlich Chemotherapy
Ernst Mayr Evolutionary Theory
Charles Sherrington Neurophysiology
Theodosius Dobzhansky the Modern Synthesis
Max Delbruck the Bacteriophage
Jean Lamarck the Foundations of Biology
William Bayliss Modern Physiology
Noam Chomsky Twentieth-Century Linguistics
Frederick Sanger the Genetic Code
Lucretius Scientific Thinking
John Dalton the Theory of the Atom
Louis Victor de Broglie Wave/Particle Duality
Carl Linnaeu the Binomial Nomenclature
Jean Piaget Child Development
George Gaylord Simpson the Tempo of Evolution
Claude Levi-Strauss Structural Anthropology
Lynn Margulis Symbiosis Theory
Karl Landsteiner the Blood Groups
Konrad Lorenz Ethology
Edward O. Wilson Sociobiology
Frederick Gowland Hopkins Vitamins
Gertrude Belle Elion Pharmacology
Hans Selye the Stress Concept  
J. Robert Oppenheimer the Atomic Era
Edward Teller the Bomb
Willard Libby Radioactive Dating
Ernst Haeckel the Biogenetic Principle
Jonas Salk Vaccination
Emil Kraepelin Twentieth-Century Psychiatry
Trofim Lysenko Soviet Genetics
Francis Galton Eugenics
Alfred Binet the I.Q. Test
Alfred Kinsey Human Sexuality
Alexander Fleming Penicillin
B. F. Skinner Behaviorism
Wilhelm Wundt the Founding of Psychology
Archimedes the Beginning of Science
Oxygen 46% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Silicon 28% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Aluminum 8% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Iron 5% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Calcium 4% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Sodium 2% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Magnesium 2% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Potassium 2% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Titanium .5% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Hydrogen .14% of abundance in the Earth's Crust
Nitrogen 78% of abundance in the Earth's Atmosphere
Oxygen 20% of abundance in the Earth's Atmosphere
Argon 1% of abundance in the Earth's Atmosphere
Carbon Dioxide .03% of abundance in the Earth's Atmosphere

Law of Conservation of Energy

states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change its form. The total quantity of matter and energy available in the universe is a constant fixed amount

Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about haskinetic energy.
Potential energy also called gravitational potential energy
Heat kinetic energy of random molecular motion
Temperature measure of the degree of hot or coldness of an object. NOT energy
Temperature is a number that is related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. If measured in Kelvin degrees, then this number is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
Heat measurement of the total energy in a substance. That total energy is made up of not only of the kinetic energies of the molecules of the substance, but total energy is also made up of the potential energies of the molecules
Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin Three measures of heat
Kelvin Measurement of temperature most often used in astronomy
Fahrenheit US measurement of temperature
Celsius Metric measurement of temperature used in US science research and areas using the metric system
conduction Process where an object touching another object becomes hot
Convection the transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion
thermal energy kinetic energy of the random movement of atoms and molecules.
Nuclear fusion This increases the sun's thermal energy
First law of thermodynamics Energy and matter are interchangable but cannot be created or destroyed. The total amount of energy in the whole universe remains constant, only changing from one form to another.
Second Law of thermodynamics states that any system always tends to move toward its probable state of energy. Most misunderstood law
Second law of the thermodynamics (example) For example, a spring watch will run until the potential energy in the spring is used up. If no new energy is input into it (in the form of winding the spring up) then it has returned to its most probable state, which is really not to run.
Third Law of Thermodynamics entropy of atoms and molecules at absolute zero is zero.
Temperature in Celsius (F-32)/1.8=
Temperature in Kelvin C+273.5=
Temperature in Farenheit (9/5)K-459.67=
Game rules of thermodynamics 1) You cannot earn winings 2) You cannot break even 3) You cannot quit
Deposition change from a gas directly to a solid
Sublimation change from a solid directly to a gas
entropy measure of the unavailable energy in a closed thermodynamic system that is also usually considered to be a measure of the system's disorder, that is a property of the system's state
entropy varies directly with any reversible change in heat in the system and inversely with the temperature of the system, the degree of disorder or uncertainty in a system

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