Mike Myers Network+

The format and procedure that governs the transmitting and receiving of data.
Which protocol is found on Layer 2, is used in many physical network environments, and includes authentication, compression, error detection, & multilink
Point-to-Point; PPP
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The software installed on a system that enables a specific protocol suite to function.
Protocol stack / IP stack
TCP/IP Internet protocol top to bottom
Application -> Transport -> Internet -> Link
What Layer of the TCP/IP model does the IP work?
Internet Layer 2
Asks the question, “Is there a computer with this IP address and used at Internet Layer 2 of the TCIP/IP model?
Internet Control Message Protocol; ICMP
Round Trip Time / Real Transfer Time
Most users rarely start a program that uses ICMP, but which command utility does?
Which three protocols are found on the Internet layer?
IPv4, IPv6, ICMP
What field in the IP address packet header defines the IP address type?
Version: 4 for IPv4 & 6 for IPv6
What field in the IP address packet header indicates the total size of the IP portion of the packet in words (32 bits)?
Header Length
What field of the IP address packet header contains data used by bandwidth-sensitive applications like VoIP?
DSCP; Differentiated Service Code Point
Which field of the IP address packet header prevents an IP packet from indefinitely spinning through the Internet by using a counter that decrements by one every time a packet goes through a router. This number cannot start higher than 255, and many start at 128.
TTL; Time to Live
Which field of the IP address packet header identifies what’s encapsulated inside the packet. Typically it is TCP or UDP
The connection oriented protocol which assures data is moving between two systems gets there in good order.
TCP; Transmission Control Protocol
The connectionless oriented protocol which is the “fire and forget” missile of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
UDP; User Datagram Protocol
Communication rules that require both the sending and receiving machines to acknowledge the other’s presence and readiness to send and receive data.
TCP chops data into these, giving them a sequence number, and then verifying all sent data was received.
Port number for HTTP
Port number for receiving e-mail messages from e-mail servers (POP3)
These numbers enable the sending and receiving computers to keep track of the various pieces of data flowing back and forth
Sequence and ACK numbers
These individual bits give both sides detailed information about the state of the connection
This checks the TCP header for errors
Name two networking protocols that used UDP
What is the universal MAC address for broadcast?
How many bits is an IPv4 IP address?
32 bits
What is a shorthand way for people to discuss and configure the binary IP addresses computers use?
Dotted decimal notation
What command do you use win Windows to get a computer’s system IP address and MAC address?
ipconfig (/all gives more information)
A portion of the TCP/IP address that is used to identify individuals or devices on a network such as a local area network or the Internet.
Network ID
A portion of an IP address used to identify any device requiring a Network Interface Card, such as a PC or networked printer on the network.
host ID
Every TCP/IP LAN that wants to connect to another TCP/IP LAN must have this type of physical connector.
The router interface is known as this, and when configuring a client to access the network beyond the router, you must use this IP address.
Default gateway
This is the number usually assigned by network administrators on the LAN-side NIC on the default gateway.
Built into the router is this actual set of instructions which tell the router what to do with incoming packets and where to send them
routing table
How a TCP/IP network figures out the MAC address based on the destination IP address.
ARP; Address Resolution Protocol
What is an internet address for a MAC lookup service?
CompTIA is referring to the Source Address Table (SAT) that switches use to map MAC addresses to port when using this term
MAC address lookup table
All computers on the same network have these two things in common
Subnet mask and network ID
This is also called Fast Ethernet.
Which organization was formed to track and disperse IP addresses to those who need them.
IANA; Internet Assigned Number Authority
The North American Regional Internet Registeries (RIR) is named?
American Registry for Internet Numbers
IANA passes out IP addresses in contiguous chunks called?
network blocks (blocks)
What class is an IP if the first decimal value is between 1 and 126 with a subnet mask of
Class A
What class is an IP if the first decimal value is between 128 and 191 with a subnet mask of
Class B
What class is an IP if the first decimal value is between 192 and 223 with a subnet mask of
Class C
What class is an IP if the first decimal value is between 224 and 239?
Class D
What class is an IP if the first decimal value is between 240 and 254?
Class E
When every computer on a LAN hears a message, you have sent a _____?
Where one computer sends a message directly to another user
Where a single computer sends a packet to a group of internet computers. Often used when routers talk to each other.
This takes a single class of IP addresses and chops it up into multiple smaller groups. Also called subnetting.
CIDR; Classless Inter-Domain Routing
A Windows command that gives you a system’s IP address & MAC address
A UNIX/Linux/OS command that gives you the system’s IP address & MAC address
Subnet mask formula
32-x; 2^x-2
How many subnets do you need?
2^y where y is the number of bits you add to the subnet mask.
Typing all of the IP information in for each network node so it does not change.
static addressing
Having a server program running on a system that automatically passes out all IP information to systems as they boot up on or connect to a network
dynamic addressing
The tab where you specify your static IP information
Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) Properties
Older and mostly obsolete method of dynamic IP addressing
Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
What type of address is assigned if a computer is using DHCP and there is no DHCP server found on a network?
APIPA; Automatic Private IP Addressing
An IP is set for a fixed amount of time, usually 5-8 days, and assigned by a server.
DHCP; Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Linux/Unix command to release the DHCP address
sudo ifconfig eth0 down
Linux/Unix command to renew the DHCP address
sudo ifconfig eth0 up
What is the Loopback IP address?
One of the downsides of subnetting is that you will waste subnets. T or F
The part of the IP that is the same for all the computers on a network is called the Host ID. T or F
Four parts of a UDP header
Source port, destination port, length, checksum
At which layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack do HTTP, DNS, and FTP reside?
Application Layer
Formula you would use to determine the number of hosts on a subnet
2^(number of zeroes in the subnet mask) – 2
At what layer of the OSI model does the Internet protocol reside?
This is done by an organization when it takes a block of IP addresses received from an ISP and breaks the single block of numbers into multiple subnetworks
What is the de facto protocol suite of the Internet?
What are two names for dynamic IP addressing?
What is the default subnet mask for a class C network?
What is the IP Range for Class A Private IP?
What is the IP range for Class B private IP?
What is the IP range for a Class C private IP. –
What are the signs of APIPA
Default IP of 169.254.XX.XX with a subnet of 255.255. Everything works except for the internet
ST Connector - Straight Tip
ST Connector – Straight Tip
FC Connector - Field Assembly Connector
FC Connector – Field Assembly Connector
LC Connector - Lucent Connector
LC Connector – Lucent Connector
SC Connector - Subscriber Connector
SC Connector – Subscriber Connector
MT-RJ - Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack
MT-RJ – Mechanical Transfer Registered Jack
What converts Ethernet to Fiber Optic and vice versa
The layer of the OSI model which includes signaling, cabling, connectors, hubs
Layer 1 – Physical
Which layer of the OSI model is considered the switching layer (Frame, MAC address, EUI-48, EUI-64, Switch)
Layer 2 – Data Link
Which layer of the OSI model does the ping command work?
Layer 3 – Network
Which layer of the OSI model is considered the routing layer? (Ip Address, router, packet, IP in TCP/IP)
Layer 3 – Network
Which layer of the OSI model is considered the “post office” layer (TCP segment, UDP datagram)
Layer 4 – Transport
Two protocols at the Transport Layer 4 of the OSI and TCP/IP models.
What is one advantage of the UDP protocol?
Little overhead
TCP’s protocol data units are called _____.
Ports associated with applications falling between numbers 0 and 1023
system ports
Which delivery system is connectionless and does not worry about sychronization or error correction. “Best effort”. It is a shout rather than a conversation.
Connection based delivery system with error checking.
Which layer of the OSI model contain HTTP, FTP, DNS, DHCP, and so on.
Layer 7 – Application
Which layer of the OSI model contains encryption such as SSL/TLS
Layer 6 – Presentation
Which layer of the OSI model contains Control protocols, tunneling protocols?
Layer 5 – Session
What is disastrous to a large network and solved by IP addressing so LANs can communicate with other LANs?
Continuous broadcasting
What overcomes limits of Ethernet MAC addresses?
IP addressing
Which layer of the TCP/IP model includes FTP, BOOTP, DNS, HTTP(S), TLS/SSL, VoIP, SSH, POP3, IMAP4, NTP, Telnet, SMTP, SNMP
Which layer of the TCP/IP model includes TCP, UDP
Which layer of the TCP/IP model includes IPv4, IPv6, ICMP, IGMP
Which part of the TCP/IP model includes Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
An OSI Layer 1 device which is a multi-port repeater, everything is half-duplex, and becomes less efficient as speeds increase
Control traffic based on network data, filters e-mail to avoid malicious software, phishing, and viruses. Filters URLs by web site category
Content Filters
OSI Layer 2 device hardware bridging ASICs and is very fast. Forwards traffic based on MAC address, the core of an enterprise network, high bandwidth with many simultaneous packets.
OSI Layer 3 device which routes traffic between IP subnets and often connects diverse network types – LAN, WAN, copper, fiber
Routers inside of switches are sometimes called?
Layer 3 Switches; Layer 2 Switch, Layer 3 Router
OSI Layer 4 (TCP/UDP), some filter all the way through Layer 7; filters traffic by port number; can encrypt traffic into/out of network and between sites; Can proxy traffic, a common security technique; call also be Layer 3 devices inside of the router
OSI Layer 2 device; not a wireless router; It is a bridge to make forwarding decisions based on MAC addresses
Wireless Access Point – WAP
Protects against OS and application exploits; Network based high-speed appliance
Intrusion detection/prevention system
Alerts but does not stop an attack
Blocks the attack
Distributes the load over many physical servers; adds fault-tolerance; can cache and prioritize traffic; very common in large environments
Load balancer
Control by bandwidth usage or data rates; Set important applications to have higher priorities than other apps; Manage the Quality of Service
Packet shaper, traffic shaper
The connection point for remote users; traffic is encrypted across the Internet and decrypted on the internal private network
VPN concentrator
Coaxial cabling to do short-distance video
Coaxial cabling to do television, digital cable Internet
When calculating a network ID, you can use this technique, this is done by when you see 1 and 1, it’s a 1; 1 and 0; or 0 and 0,
First 6 digits of a MAC address that represent the manufacturer of the NIC.
Organizationally Unique Identifier; OUI
The last 6 digits of a MAC address, unique to each NIC.
Device ID
ipconfig calls the MAC address what?
physical address
The use of the MAC address to get frames to the proper computer or node. (Really only used on Network+ exam)
MAC addressing
Use of binary math called Cyclic Redundancy Check that the receiving NIC uses to verify the data has arrived correctly
FCS – Frame Check Sequence
Most networks hold at most, this many bytes in a frame
1500 bytes
The aspect of the NIC that talks to the system’s operating system.
Logical Link Control – LLC
What creates and addresses the frame?
Which layer of the OSI model is the only one which has sublayers?
Data Link
An ancient printing protocol with the same name; might show up as an incorrect answer on the exam
Data Link Control (DLC)
Application Integrated Circuit
Number of computers/hosts in the subnet
block size
Website to calculate subnetting
In terms of actual numbers, network ID’s are always ______?
In terms of actual numbers, all broadcast IP’s are always _____?
Like a postal code or telephone numbering scheme, it ignores the hardware and enables you to break up the entire large network into smaller subnets
logical addressing
Created and addressed at the OSI Network Layer, so they can go from one network to another
What information is stored in a packet
Destination IP address, Source IP address, Data
What information is included in a frame?
Frame header, Packet header, Data, FCS
The transport protocol breaks up the data into chunks called _____?
Command prompt command that allows you to see network output sessions
netstat -a
Provides a standard way for programmers to enhance or extend an application’s capability
Application Programming Interfaces; APIs
Information in a TCP segment
Destination Port| Source Port | Sequence Number | Checksum | Flags | Acknowledgement | Data
Two ways in which a computer gets a logical IP address
Static or Dynamic
Server program automatically passes out the information to computers on the network
Dynamic addressing
An IP address is determined by manually typing in the IP address information.
Static addressing
What is the name of the data packaged at the Transport layer 4 of the OSI model?
What is the name of the data packaged at the Network layer 3 of the OSI model?
What is the name of the data packaged at the Data Link layer 2 of the OSI model?
Line command that will show you your default gateway, and all DNS information in Windows.
ipconfig /all
Steps to testing network connectivity as well as troubleshooting the network
* Check the layer 1 issues such as NIC cards, cables
* ping the loopback address.
* Look at the default gateway by pinging it
* Ping outside the network
Items configured in the DHCP server
* Scope – Range of available IP addresses
* Subnet mask for the scope
* Default gateway for scope
* DNS service
A DHCP client accepts a DHCP assigned IP address for a specific amount of time assigned by a network administrator.
DHCP lease
Number of bits of a MAC address
48 bits
Two names MAC addresses may be referred
MAC-48 or EUI-48; EUI stands for Extended Unique Identifier
What is the APIPA address range?
169.254/16 ; First and last 256 addresses are reserved.
What is the first troubleshooting thing you should do if you see a computer with an APIPA address?
Check the switch to see if it’s functioning. Reboot the switch.
Command to refresh a DHCP lease on a computer.
ipconfig /release is a good first step, and then
ipconfig /renew
Class A private IP address range
Class B private IP address range
Class C private IP address range
Which layer of the OSI model is the only one to have any sublayers?
Data Link
What makes logical addressing powerful is this tool that connect each of the subnets, uses the IP addresses not the MAC addresses.
What type of frame do cable modems use?
What is another name for segment?
What layer of the OSI Model is the assembler/disassembler software?
Transport Layer 4
What must bus topologies have to prevent the system from going down.
If one of the cables breaks, all of the computers can still communicate because of ______.
fault tolerance
Most popular network topology used today.
Star bus hybrid
Also known as logical topology, this is how the signal travels electronically
signaling topology
Any form of network technology that combines physical topology with a signaling topology is called a ______.
hybrid topology
Which type of network topology would have at least 2 machines with redundant connections?
partially meshed
Which type of network topology would have every computer connected to every other computer?
fully meshed
Two computers connect directly together with no need for a central device of any kind.
Point to point
A single computer system acts as a common source through which all members of the network converse.
Point to multipoint
coaxial cable
Popular with satellite dishes, over-the-air antennas, some home video devices, and cable
coaxial cable
F-type connector
Screws on, making a more secure connection
F-type connector
BNC connector
BNC connector
All coax cables have this type of rating as a quick reference for the different types of coax cables.
Radio Grade (RG) rating
The only important measure of a coax cable is its ______.
Ohm rating
RG-6 cable
Has an Ohm rating of 75
RG-6 cable
barrel connector
barrel connector
RG-59 cable
Has an Ohm rating of 75
RG-59 cable
Coaxial splitter
Coaxial splitter
The Ohm rating of a particular piece of cable describes the ______ of that cable which describes the characteristics that define how much a cable resists the flow of electricity. This is not simple resistance though. It is also a factor in such things as how long it takes the wire to get a full charge.
How long it takes the wire to get a full charge.
Shielded Twisted Pair
Rather rare, and prevents EMI interface.
Shielded Twisted Pair
Unshielded twisted pair; UTP
No protection from EMI
Unshielded twisted pair; UTP
Cable that has frequency of 16MHz, 16 Mbps, Still recognized with with TIA/EIA
Cable that has frequency of 100 MHz, 100 Mbps, No longer recognized with TIA/EIA
Cable that has frequency of 100 MHz, 1000 Mbps, Recognized with TIA/EIA
CAT 5e
Cable that has frequency of 250 MHz, 10000 Mbps, Recognized with TIA/EIA
Cable that has frequency of 500 MHz, 10000 Mbps, Recognized with TIA/EIA
CAT 6a
Maximum amount of data that goes through the cable per second
* Glass fiber aka core
* Cladding which makes the light reflect down the fiber
* Buffer material to give strength
* Insulating Jacket
A fiber-optic cable that uses LEDs
MMF; Multimode fiber
A fiber-optic cable that uses lasers
SMF; Singlemode fiber
What problem does single-mode fiber prevent which is unique to multimode fiber?
modal distortion; signals sent at the same time don’t arrive at the same time because the paths differ slightly in length
Speed of almost all multimode cables
850 nm
Speed of almost all single-mode fibers
1310 or 1550 nm depending on the laser
Defines industry wide standards that promote the use and implementation of technology.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; IEEE
A cabling you would use for vertical runs between floors of a building, but since it is not fire rated, more people opt for plenum rated cable.
Subcommittee that deals with standards for Ethernet. It has many subcommittees under it.
IEEE 802.3
Subcommittee that deals with standards for LAN specifications such as WiFi.
IEEE 802.11
Each NIC on a network is also referred to as a ____.
A 7 byte series of alternating ones and zeroes followed by a 1-byte Start Frame. This gives the receiving NIC time to realize a frame is coming and to know exactly where the frame starts. It is added by the sending NIC.
This network diagnosis program can order a NIC to run in promiscuous mode which causes the NIC to process all frames it sees on the cable regardless of their MAC address.
This is used to determine which computer should use a shared cable at a given moment.
CSMA/CD; carrier sense multiple access/collision detection
What is the minimum cable type specified for 100BaseTX?
Category 5 UTP
802.11a networks use which topology type?
Any piece of hardware or software that forwards packets based on their destination IP address.
One of the most popular routers ever made, on the older side, but built to last.
Cisco 2600 series device; Cisco 2811 and 1841
What are four items listed in a routing table entry list?
Destination LAN IP
Subnet Mask
What two things does a router use in combination to see if a packet matches that route?
Destination LAN IP & Subnet Mask
An IP address entry in a router’s routing table, which specifies the next closest/most optimal router in its routing path. Every single router maintains its routing table with this address, which is calculated based on the routing protocol used and its associated metric.
next hop
If the network ID is directly connected to the router, what number is the IP address of the gateway configured to show in the router table?
The external routing protocol used on the Internet is __________.
Border Gateway Protocol; BGP-4
If you want to see the routing tables, you will have to open a Command Prompt window and then enter the _____ command.
route print
A relative value that defines the “cost” of using this route. When determining the route a packet should take, it will always take the smallest of these.
A methodology of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in Internet Protocol (IP) datagram packet headers while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
Network Address Translation; NAT
Uses port numbers to map traffic from specific machines in the network. It’s translation table swaps the private IP address to it’s public IP address on each packet.
Port Address Translation; PAT
Many computers can share a pool of routable IP addresses that number fewer than the computers. This is also called pooled NAT.
dynamic NAT; DNAT
Maps a single routable that is not private IP address to a single machine enabling you to access that machine from outside the network. The NAT keeps track of the IP address or addresses and applies them permanently on a one-to-one basis with computers on the network.
SNAT; Static NAT
You can designate a specific local address for various network services. Computers outside of the network can then request a service using the public IP address of the router and the port number of the desired service.
port forwarding
What are the most common criteria for determining a metric?
Hop; hop count
Cost (lower bandwidth “costs” more)
Administrative distance – number assigned to a route/protocol combination
Determines the largest frame a particular technology can handle. Ethernet uses 1500 byte frames, but some use smaller. In the event an IP packet is too big for a particular technology, that packet is broken into pieces to fit into the network protocol in what is called fragmentation. This allows you to set the optimal size before IP packets are sent to avoid or reduce fragmentation.
MTU; Maximum Transmission Unit
A routing metric standard to provide true shortest-path forwarding within an Ethernet mesh topology.
Shortest Path Bridging; SPB
This routing protocol calculates the total cost to get to a particular network ID and compare that cost to the total cost of all the other routes to get to that same network ID. Not as efficient for large networks.
Distance vector
The updating of the routing tables for all the routers has completed and nothing changes in terms of connections, the routing tables will not change.
This protocol has a maximum hop count of 15, so your router will not talk to another router more than 15 routers away.
RIP; Routing Information Protocol
This routing protocol sent out an update very 30 seconds, and caused huge network overloads. It did not know how to use variable length subnet masking; VLSM. It also had no authentication leaving them open to hackers sending false routing table information.
Adopted in 1994, this is the current version of RIP. It added VLSM support and authentication protocol is built-in. Used only in small, private networks, it’s time to convergence caused problems, but is easy to configure in small networks. Most routers have the ability to use this routing protocol.
This is the glue of the Internet, connecting all of the Autonomous Systems. It is considered a hybrid routing protocol, but it’s more technically a path vector routing protocol. These types of routers are manually configured, and will not go down very often.
BGP-4; Border Gateway Protocol
Instead of sending an entire routing table every 30 seconds, this simply announces and forwards individual route changes as they appear.
link state dynamic routing protocol
A router is to network IP’s what a switch is to __________.
MAC addresses
Connects two networks together; forwards packet based on IP address; Layer 3 Network layer; Classically dedicated boxes; has two NIC cards by default.
The inside NIC on a router is also referred to as the ______.
Default Gateway
When the router is forwarding outside of the network, it uses what is referred to as the _______.
outside NIC
This has both “outside” and “inside” NICs built in.
home router
Every node on the network has one of these ____.
routing table
Three problems resolved by using the Network Address Translation; NAT
* Malicious programmers target IP address
* IPv4 available address pool has run out
* Leasing an IPv4 address is becoming more expensive.
An arbitrary number generated by a sending computer, most common in range of 1024-5000, receiving computer uses this as a destination address
Ephemeral port
One device can handle multiple devices with port translation’ changes the source IP address and port number to something usable on the internet
PAT; port address table
Routers can have this type of addressing routes which is manually entered, detected by the setup router
static routes
Routers communicated among themselves with change information, update each other on changes about direct connections and distant routers, a passage of a packet through a single router is called a hop
dynamic routing protocol
Counts the number of routers between a network
hop count
Most common used Interior Gateway Protocol; requires a great deal of computational power, so not found in inexpensive home routers; An interiror gateway protocol; sends hello packets when changes are made
OSPF; Open Shortest Path First
On a TCP/IP network, what information within a packet does a router use to determine where an incoming packet should go?
destination IP address
Which version of Gigabit Ethernet uses a unique cable known as twinaxial?
Routers using the OSPF protocol are organized into these groups.
Which version of Gigabit Ethernet is published under the 802.3ab standard?
Which versions of Gigabit Ethernet are published under the 802.3z standard?
1000BaseCX ,1000BaseLX, 1000BaseSX
What is the term used for the passage of a packet through a router?
What type of fiber-optic cabling and connectors does a 100BaseFX network use?
Multimode with ST or SC connectors
Of all the gigabit Ethernet standards detailed in the chapter, which maintains a signal over the greatest distance?
What is the size of the wavelenth used by 1000BaseLX fiber-optic cabling?
What is an IP addressing notation that uses a slash and is named for the method of generating blocks of IP addresses?
In a NAT router, what is the name for an arbitrary number generated by the sending computer?
Ephemeral port
Which of the following is the distance vector routing protocol used on the Internet?
What is the one protocol used on the Internet for communication between Autonomous Systems?
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP-4)
Local connections do not use this, although every routing table has a column for it, and therefore, a value appears in this field for each route.
If your company has a single server on the private LAN that they want to make accessible from the Internet, which of the following would give the server the protection of NAT while allowing access to that server from the Internet?
port forwarding
Who assigns Area IDs?
network administrators
Who assigns Autonomous System Numbers (ASNs)?
Some manufacturers, such as Cisco, use this term to refer to either overloaded NAT or port forwarding.
PAT; port addressing tables
Similar to OSPF, but not used very often; Sends only updates to routing tables; worked with IPv6
IS-IS; Intermediate system – Intermediate system
Proprietary to Cisco; A hybrid which includes aspects of both distance vector and link state protocols; losing ground to nonproprietary IGP protocols; Developed to replace RIP
EIGRP; Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
Yost cable
Oldest method for connecting to router for configuration; almost unique to Cisco-brand routers; also called rollover cable
Yost cable
These type of devices include both routers and advanced switches that CAN be configured
Managed devices
A communications program designed to allow SECURE login from a Windows PC to a remote devices
A program that you can use to connect to other computers, Telnet sites, bulletin board systems, online services, etc.
Sends unencrypted transmissions
Sends encrypted transmissions
There is a strong push to refer to TCP/IP as these terms instead of TCP/IP
TCP/IP suite or internet protocol
This protocol involves a handshake. Acknowledgement between “two people” beginning conversation where both parties respond. The same info sent is the same being received. There is a close to the conversation.
This protocol can use more bandwidth and would be used in media streaming, VoIP
This protocol uses UDP on port 67 for clients sending the data to this server, and port 68 for server sending the data to these clients. The acknowledgement from the server comes with IP configuration.
DHCP; Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
This protocol sends small files between computers – Max file size of 4GB; IntraLAN use where chances of losing data is small. Does not support authentication or encryption. No longer provided by Microsoft for security reasons.
TFTP; Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Connectionless communications that never need more than a single packet; Handles maintenance issues like disconnect which makes the host unreachable; Applications use ICMP to send status information to the other end of a session; Most commonly used with ping. You can open or close it through port 7.
ICMP; Internet Control Message Protocol
Which command is blocked by default and needs to be enabled.
Win 7 ping
This protocol is used for multicasts; Enables routers to communicate with hosts to determine a “group” membership; Class D IP address with network ID 224-239 range using a subnet mask of
IGMP; Internet Group Management Protocol
HTTP Port; Web
Port 80
HTTPS Port; Secure Web
Port 443
Telnet Port; Terminal emulation
Port 23
SSH Port; Secure terminal emulation
Port 22
SMTP Port; Sending e-mail
Port 25
POP3 Port; E-mail delivery
Port 110
IMAP4 Port; E-mail delivery
Port 143
FTP Port; File transfer
Port 20/21
TFTP Port; File transfer
Port 69
Total number of port numbers
2^16; 65535
Well-known port numbers for specific TCP/IP
0 to 1023
This is randomly generated port number of the receiving machine
ephemeral port
Less common TCP/IP applications register their ports with IANA
1024 – 49151; registered ports
Most operating systems avoid registered port numbers and use these ports instead.
49152 – 65535; Dynamic/Private Ports
A windows network command line that displays network protocol statistics as well as the current TCP/IP connections.
netstat -n
Remote Desktop protocol port so you can remote desktop from one internal computer to another internal computer.
Port 3389
Translates human readable names into machine readable IP addresses.
DNS; Domain Name Service
Top dog DNS servers. The internet name for DNS root is “.”
DNS root serveres
Host and domain name together for a naming convention.
Fully qualified domain name; FQDN
Domain is an organization of computers that shares one or more Windows domain – get more info
active directory
DNS previously required manual updates to zone files, but it became very problematic as the Internet and organization’s computers grew in numbers. This enables a DNS to talk to a DHCP server and get IP addressing info on its clients.
Dynamic DNS; DDNS
Flush the DNS cache and forcing it to repopulate itself to repopulate with the latest DNS resolutions.
ipconfig /flushdns
This command queries functions of the DNS servers, depends on proper permission level, running this gives teh IP address and the name of my default DNS server
Steps to troubleshooting the network
Diagnose the NIC
Diagnose locally
Check IP address & subnet mask
Run netstat with no options
Run netstat -s
Diagnose the gateway
Diagnose the internet
To scramble, mix up, or change data in such a way the bad guys can’t read it.
Encryption; Decryption unscrambles it on the other end
The process that guarantees that the data received is the same as originally sent. Designed to cover situations in which someone intercepts your data on the fly and makes changes.
The process of making sure data came from the person or entity it was supposed to come from. It prevents others from pretending to be a different entity and doing evil things by impersonating
Defines what an authenticated person can do with data. Most famous form is username and password
Defines what an authenticated person can do with data. The classic thing done in windows is to assign permissions to user accounts.
A general term for a way to encrypt data; series of complex and hard-to-reverse operations. Run the cipher on a string to make a new set.
This is the mathematical formula that underlies the cipher.
A boolean logic operation that is widely used in cryptography as well as in generating parity bits for error checking and fault tolerance. XOR compares two input bits and generates one output bit. If the bits are the same, the result is 0. If bits are different, the result is 1.
XOR; Exclusive OR
When you run cleartext through a cipher algorithm using a key, you get what’s called ____.
Any encryption that uses the same key for both encryption and decryption is called a _____.
symmetric-key algorithm or symmetric key encryption
Any encryption that uses a different key for both encryption and decryption is called a _____.
asymmetric-key algorithm
Most algorithms are called this because they encrypt data in single “chunks” of a certain length at a time.
block ciphers
Developed by the U.S. Government it uses a 64-bit block and 56-bit key; Old TCP/IP symmetric-key algorithms
Data Encryption Standard; DES
This type of encryption takes a single bit at a time and encrypts it on the fly.
Stream cipher
Develped in 1980s, it is lightning fast encryption, easy to use and free. In 2001-2013 some flaws were found with it, so while it is still supported, it’s quickly being looked at as legacy.
Rivest Cipher 4; RC4
A block cipher using 128-bit block size and 128, 192, or 256 bit key size. Incredibly secure, practically uncrackable, and so fast even applications that traditionally used stream ciphers are switching to it. Applications are switching to AES.
Advanced Encryption Standard; AES
What is the biggest weakness to Symmetric-key encryptions?
Anyone who gets a hold of the key, can encrypt or decrypt data, and it forces us to send the key to the other person.
Encryption keys can be exchanged securely
public-key cryptography
A highly secure cryptography method where the private key is kept by the owner, the public key is published. This is also used for authentication by creating a digital signature.
Rivest Shamir Adleman; RSA
Public and private keys that go together are called ____.
key pair
A mathematical function that you run on a string of binary digits of any length that results in a value of some fixed length. Used with checksum to test the integrity of the data. It is a one way function.
What are two hash functions that are no longer recommended as safe
SHA-1 and MD5
A digital guarantee that information has not been modified as if it were protected by a tamper-proof seal. The recipient uses the public key to decrypt this back into the original digest, recomputes a new digest from the transmitted file and compares the two to see if they match.
digital signature
A standardized type of digital signature that includes the digital signature of a third party, a person or company that guarantees that who is passing out this verification is who they say theya re.
How can you know a web site is secured with a digital certificate?
The lock icon on the browser window on the address bar or the bottom corner
A framework for creating a secure method for exchanging information based on public key cryptography. It is the certificate authority which issues digital certificates that authenticate the identity of organizations and individuals over a public system such as the internet.
PKI; public-key infrastructure
If you use passwords and one or more other form of authentication
multifactor or two-factor authentication
A clearly defined list of permissions that specifies what an authenticated user may perform on a shared resource.
access control list; ACL
Tracking who logs in, what time, and what they are accessing
Unencrypted files so data is easily read or viewed. It is not just the case in text files, but binary as well.
plaintext and cleartext
This is how we change numbers to letters
A mechanism that will attack a cipher to look for any combinations possible
brute force
A quicker type of encryption where single bits are encrypted at a time.
stream ciphers
Where does some proprietary encryption devices fall on the OSI model?
Layer 2
A selection option for signing digitally.
PGP; Pretty Good Privacy
The method of using third party verification for digital signatures
PKI; Public Key Infrastructure
The certificate of authority is at the top of the “tree”, intermediate certification is in the middle, and the digital signature is at the bottom.
root authorization
Three types of access control models
Mandatory Access Control; MAC
Discretionary access control; DAC
Role-based access control; RBAC
Authentication, Authorization, & Accounting
Proprietary to Cisco, and functions like RADIUS; separates authorization, authentication and acounting
Authentication protocol for TCP/IP
No connection to PPP
Many clients
Single authentication server
If it’s down, no one has access
Timestamping requires synchronized clocks
Kerberos; KDC
Logical network topologies
Client/server, peer-to-peer, VPN, VLAN
Act as both client and server
Peer-to-Peer; P2P
A private network configured within a public network such as the Internet or a carrier’s network.
Virtual Private Network; VPN
This is used by all but the smallest LANs. It allows you to set up physical computers from logical computers.
VLAN; Virtual Local Area Network
Carrying multiple VLANs through a single network link through the use of a _______ protocol. To allow for multiple VLANs on one link, frames from individual VLANs must be identified.
Shortcuts for IPv6 are called?
address compression
If you use this protocol found with IPv6, every packet sent from your system is encrypted
A complete IPv6 address always has?
eight groups of four hexadecimal characters. Leading zeroes can be dropped.
What is the loopback address for IPv6?
Equivalent to IPv4’s APIPA address, when a computer running IPv6 boots up, it gives itself this type of address. The first 64 bits are always FE80::/10 followed by 54 zero bits.
link local address
The second 64 bits of a link-local address which is generated either randomly or in older Windows products, they use the device’s MAC address to create a 64-bit number called an Extended Unique Identifier or EUI-64
interface identifier
In IPv6 what are the maximum number of bits for the subnet? This is because the last ____ bits are generated by the NIC card.
Who passes out /48 subnets to ISPs and end users who need large allotments? The ISPs and others will borrow another 16 bits for subnetting and then pass out the /64 subnets to end users
IPv6 completely drops the idea of broadcast addresses and replaces it with the idea of ____.
Ethernet reserves this address for IPv4 multicast frame destination addresses.
A “global address”. This is required to get on the Internet. Your system needs a second IPv6 address and it gets it from the default gateway which must be configured to pass out these IP addresses.
Global unicast address.
When a computer boots up, it sends out a router solicitation message on the multicast address looking for a router. The router hears this message and tells your computer the prefix. Once it has a prefix, the computer generates the rest of the global unicast address, and now you have a legitimate public IPv6 address. What is the multicast address?
This works like any other tunnel, encapsulating one type of data into another. In this case, you are encapsulating your IPv6 traffic into an IPv4 tunnel to get an IPv6 capable router.
This is a tunneling protocol that enables IPv6 traffic to use the IPv4 Internet without having to set up explicit tunnels.
This is built into Microsoft Windows and is the second NAT traversal IPv6 tunneling protocol
An open source implementation of Teredo for Linux and some other UNIX based systems.
Which T-carrier has 24 channels and speed of 1.544 Mbps
Which T-carrier has 672 channels and speed of 44.736 Mbps
Which T-carrier has 32 channels and speed of 2.048 Mbps
Which T-carrier has 512 channels and speed of 34.368 Mbps
How many quartets does an IPv6 IP address contain?
8 quartets; 16 bits each; 16 bytes total
This replaces the IPv4 Address Resolution Protocol; ARP
NDP; Neighbor Discovery Protocol
Can get IP address to communicate with the Internet without talking to the DHCP server.
Stateless Address Auto Configuration; SAAC
The solicitation specific number in IPv6
Every router uses a subset of the next higher router’s existing routes and reduces the size and complexity of routing tables. This gives a geographic picture of Internet organization. The IP address indicates location and is part of IPv6
This mode of DHCPv6 works like DHCP in IPv4
This mode of DHCP in IPv4 only passes out optional information DNS and TFTP info

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