Activities related to assorted milk response take topographic point in this milk response dock. Obviously. this subdivision should hold equal infinite for droping of tins. trying. rating. weighing. proving and storage of milk and cleansing of tins. By and large this RMRD is provided with interrelated concatenation conveyers to reassign the tins from the droping point to the weigh balance and from the mercantile establishment of the can washer to the burden point. Other equipment that find a topographic point in this RMRD include weigh balance. shit armored combat vehicle. can washer etc.
Milk Processing Section It is located following to the RMRD subdivision. This subdivision shall be broad plenty to suit milk hair-raiser. pasteurizer ( normally HTST in big dairies ) . homogenizer. pick centrifuge. milk storage armored combat vehicles. Cleaning In Place armored combat vehicles ( CIP armored combat vehicles ) and reconstitution unit. Raw milk armored combat vehicles are by and large located at an elevated degree Milk Filling Section Sachet filing machines are installed in this subdivision. Standardized. pasteurized milk is stored in armored combat vehicles located at higher degree than the land to ease gravitation eating.
The filled up pouches are transferred by conveyer belt and stored in crates and in bend the crates are moved to the chilling chamber which is located following to the milk make fulling subdivision. Immediately following to the milk make fulling subdivision is the crate washer room which supplies cleaned crates to the filling subdivision continuously. Milk Production Section This subdivision is located next to the milk processing subdivision. The excess fat obtained during the pick separation operation is processed as pick and this subdivision includes cream storage armored combat vehicles. butter churn. butter runing VAT. ghee boilers. ghee storage armored combat vehicles and ghee filling and boxing units.
Deep deep-freeze capable of conveying down the temperatures up to -30°C is kept in this subdivision for continuing the dairy merchandises. Byproduct subdivision This room is located following to the milk merchandise subdivision. The equipment and the utensils that find a topographic point in this subdivision include casein drying unit. casein VAT. rancid pick centrifuge. butter churn for rancid pick and installations to manage coagulate milk. Parlour Products Section In this subdivision. equipment for the value added merchandises like ice pick. peda. masala butter milk. shrikhand etc are provided. Milk Drying Section.
In a bigger dairy. milk distilling and drying units are normally installed. This include milk condensation works. condensed milk armored combat vehicles. homogenizer. spray or membranophone drying equipment. N packaging chamber. and Sns and carton packaging units. Quality Control Laboratory The quality control subdivision is by and large located near or at least easy accessible to the natural milk having dock. It has installations to prove the fluid incoming milk. milk merchandises proving. packaging stuffs proving. bacteriological and mycological analysis and AGMARK rating subdivisions.
Naturally. this subdivision accommodates all the equipment required for the quality control trials. Refrigeration and Boiler Sections Though considered subsidiary to the chief dairy operations. the infrigidation and boiler subdivisions however. make play a critical function in the processing of milk and dairy merchandises. They can be housed in the chief dairy constructing itself or located in a separate edifice adjacent to the chief works. The infrigidation subdivision consists of ammonia compressors. receiving systems. chilled H2O armored combat vehicles. etc.
Capacitors are normally located on the roof of the infrigidation subdivision or outside the edifice. The boiler subdivision includes the boilers. H2O softening units. H2O armored combat vehicles for soft H2O storage and coal storage or furnace oil storage subdivision. UTILITY Power used-11kv Transformer-750VA transformer ( step down ) By utilizing it we step down electromotive force degrees from 33kv to 11kv for distribution to substations where the 11kv is further stepped down to 415v. [ pic ] Low tenseness panel is used- Metering Panel Board- These Metering Panel Boards are made of16/2mm/ 2.
5 millimeters cold rolled. mild steel metal clad. free standing. wholly enclosed. cell type. to the full compartmentalized. out-of-door / indoor installings and suited for operation on 11kV. 3ph. 50Hz. . and AC earthed system. The panel contains the equipments and constituents complete with bus saloon interconnectednesss. control wiring. appellation labels. cautiousness notices. EB sealing and tablet lockup installations wherever required. [ movie ] MV PANEL- The Switchboards are designed and developed maintaining in head future enlargement of the Industry.
All the enclosures are fabricated out of 16/14 SWG CRCA steel sheets and they are besides powder coated [ movie ] DISTRIBUTION PANEL Distribution Panels or panel board is a type of constituent of electricity supply system that is used for the division of electrical power provender into subordinate circuits. It provides a protective fuse or circuit ledgeman in a common enclosure. There is proviso of a chief switch. one or more residuary [ movie ] STEAM- PRESSURE OF STEAM-14kg/cm2. 14 saloon Types of Boilers There are many different types of boilers in the boiler room today in a assortment of heating applications.
There are two chief classs of boilers among the different types of boilers and those two classs are steam and hot H2O boilers. Either of those classs can be fueled by oil. gas. or electric ( although electric is uncommon for steam boilers ) . They have different designs and shrieking constellations as a steam boiler system is designed to turned the H2O into steam and uses gravitation and force per unit area to present the heat and the hot H2O boiler systems are designed to merely do hot H2O to be circulated ( by a circulator or pump ) through a piping system to supply heat.
Typically. hot H2O boilers are more efficient than steam boilers for a few grounds. First. there is less heat loss throughout the hot H2O piping and the shell of the boiler because the hot H2O boiler operates at a lower temperature than the steam boiler. This means there is less heat loss throughout the full boiler and piping system. Second. because the hot H2O boiler operates at a lower temperature. it requires less fuel or energy to change over into heat. What sort of boiler do you hold in your boiler room? [ movie ] Water Tube Boilers Water tubing boilers have many different tubings inside of it that have H2O go arounding through them.
Hot burning gases surround these tubings and an exchange of heat is realized from the burning gases to the tubings and H2O. The H2O tubing boilers can be built for higher capacities and force per unit areas than the fire tubing boilers because the steam and/or hot H2O is confined in the tubings. Water Tube Boiler sizes scope from from 10 million BTU/h boilers all manner up to 300 million BTU/h and these boilers are by and large found in medium to big commercial/industrial usage and can be either steam or hot H2O boiler in low to high force per unit area boiler applications.
These boilers can be either oil boiler. coal boiler. or gas fired boiler and base on balls hot fluke gases around tubings filled with H2O. Boiler burning efficiencies depend on several factors for these boilers including: whether it is steam boiler or hot H2O boiler. burning controls. flue dampers. frequence of tune-ups and/or air and/or H2O pre-heaters ( boiler economisers ) . Fire Tube Boilers Fire tubing boilers confine the burning procedure and gases in tubings and H2O circulates around these tubings.
Some fire tubing boilers have turbulators inside of the tubings to do turbulency of the flue gases. This increases the heat soaking up into the H2O which makes the boiler more efficient. Fire Tube Boilers scope in sizes from. 6 million BTU/h up to 50 million BTU/h boiler these use hot fluke gases go throughing through tubings submerged in H2O by and large found in medium to big boiler commercial/industrial usage and can be either steam or hot H2O boilers in low to medium force per unit area applications. Again as with the H2O tubing boiler burning efficiencies depend on several factors as noted above.
There are assorted names applied to different fire tubing boilers such as: Scotch Marine. engine. firebox. and perpendicular or horizontal return tubing. Condensing Boilers [ movie ] Condensing Hot Water Boiler Between steam and hot H2O and H2O tubing and fire tubing boilers at that place exists conventional atmospheric boilers and distilling boilers. The distilling boiler is far more efficient than the conventional atmospheric boiler. A distilling boiler typically has two heat money changers and absorbs more heat from the flue gases.
It really absorbs so much heat from the gases that moisture in the flue gases condenses and needs a drain to run out off. This condensed liquid is extremely caustic and it is necessary for the maker to construct the distilling boiler out of particular stuffs to forestall corrosion to the equipment. Typically. the fluke is PVC pipe or chromium steel steel and is immune to the caustic effects of the condensation. Additionally. because so much heat is removed from the flue gases. the merchandises of the burning procedure demand aid to be safely vented. Normally a fan is used to either push or draw these gases out of a blowhole.
Condensing boilers are typically rated at 90 plus efficiency evaluations whereas the conventional atmospheric boilers are typically rated at around 80 per centum plus. Conventional Atmospheric Boilers Conventional atmospheric boilers do non utilize a blower motor to take the burning by-product gases. Alternatively they rely on the burning gases to hold plenty heat to do the gases to lift through the fluke and channeled safely outside of the home. If for some ground excessively much heat is removed from the flue gases condensation can happen inside the fluke or chimney.
This condensation can hold caustic effects to both the fluke and the chimney and cause terrible jobs. It is of import that a qualified HVAC technician inspect the boiler and that they check of the temperature of the flue gases. Using a burning analyser. a qualified technician can tune the boiler to do certain that the temperature of the flue gases is set to optimal degrees so that the gases will decently vent and that the gases do non hold excessively much heat in them. If the fluke gases are excessively hot so you are losing efficiency up the fluke.
If the fluke gases do non hold plenty heat in them so you can hold condensation issues which cause corrosion. Have your boiler checked and inspected at least yearly to keep optimal efficiency. Electric Boiler One other type non mentioned above is the electric boiler. One could state that an electric hot H2O warmer is an electric boiler although there are electric boilers that can heat H2O to steam temperatures. Boilers can utilize many types of fuels ( oil. gas. coal. wood. and electric power ) to heat H2O ( or other liquids ) but the chief focal point of Boiler Types article was to categorise the mechanical facets and differences. [ movie ]
Planing a procedure line In the dairy natural milk base on ballss through several phases of intervention in assorted types of treating equipment before making the consumer in the signifier of a finished. refined merchandise. Production normally takes topographic point continuously in a closed procedure. where the chief constituents are connected by a system of pipes. The type of intervention involved and the design of the procedure depend on the terminal merchandise. The procedure described in this chapter is general milk pasteurization.
This procedure is the basic operation in market milk processing. and besides constitutes an of import pretreatment phase in a concatenation of dairy procedures such as cheesemaking and civilized milk production. The purpose is to show some of 190 Dairy Processing Handbook/chapter 7 the considerations which the works interior decorator has to confront when be aftering a whole milk pasteurization works. Process design considerations There are many facets to be considered when a procedure line is designed. They can change and be really complex. which places considerable demands on those responsible for the preliminary planning.
Undertaking technology ever involves a via media between different demands such as: • Product-related – refering the natural stuff. its intervention and the quality of the terminal merchandise. • Process-related – concerning works capacity. choice of constituents and their compatibility. grade of procedure control. handiness of warming and chilling media. cleansing of procedure equipment. etc. • Economic – that the entire cost of production to stipulated quality criterions is every bit low as possible.
• Legal – statute law qualifying procedure parametric quantities every bit good as pick of constituents and system solutions. Fig. 7. 1 Generalised block chart of the milk pasteurization procedure. The procedure illustrated in figure 7. 1 trades with heat intervention – pasteurization – of whole milk. e. g. market milk for sale to consumers. Some legal demands In most states where milk is processed into assorted merchandises. certain demands are laid down by jurisprudence to protect consumers against infection by infective microorganisms. The diction and recommendations may change. but the combination below covers the most normally stated demands:
• Heat intervention The milk must be heat treated in such a manner that all infective micro-organisms are killed. A minimal temperature/holding clip of 72°C for 15 seconds Keeping Tube Raw milk storage Heat Treatment intermediate storage Clarification procedure illustrated in figure 7. 1 trades with heat intervention – pasteurization – of whole milk. e. g. market milk for sale to consumers Some legal demands In most states where milk is processed into assorted merchandises. certain demands are laid down by jurisprudence to protect consumers against infection by infective microorganisms.
The diction and recommendations may change. but the combination below covers the most normally stated demands: • Heat intervention The milk must be heat treated in such a manner that all infective micro-organisms are killed. A minimal temperature/holding clip of 72°C for 15 seconds must be achieved. • Recording The warming temperature must be automatically recorded and the transcript saved for a prescribed period of clip. • Clarification prior to heat intervention As milk frequently contains solid affair such as soil atoms. leukocytes ( white blood atoms ) and bodily cells ( of bag tissue ) . it must be clarified.
Since pasteurization is less likely to be effectual if bacteriums are ensconced in balls and atoms in the milk. elucidation must take topographic point upstream of heating. Milk can be clarified in a filter or. more efficaciously. in a centrifugal clarifier. • Preventing reinfection Heat money changers are calculated so that a higher force per unit area should be maintained in the pasteurized milk flow compared to the unpasteurized milk and service media. If a escape should happen in the heat money changer. pasteurised milk must flux into the unpasteurized milk or chilling medium. and non in the opposite way.
In order to safeguard that a supporter pump to make a force per unit area derived function is frequently needed and in certain states it is compulsory. In the event of temperature bead in the pasteurized merchandise due to a impermanent deficit of heating medium. the works must be provided with a flow recreation valve to deviate the insufficiently heated milk back to the balance armored combat vehicle. Equipment required The undermentioned equipment is required for a distant controlled procedure: • Silo armored combat vehicles for hive awaying the natural milk. • Plate heat money changer for warming and chilling. a keeping tubing and a hot H2O unit.
• Centrifugal clarifier ( as merely whole milk is to be treated. a centrifugal centrifuge is non needed in this illustration ) . • Intermediate storage armored combat vehicle for impermanent storage of processed milk. • Pipes and adjustments for linking chief constituents and pneumatically operated vaves for commanding and administering the merchandise flow and cleaning fluids. • Pumps for transit of milk through the full milk intervention works. • Control equipment for control of capacity. pasteurization temperature and valve places. • Various service systems: – H2O supply – steam production.
– infrigidation for coolant – compressed air for pneumatically operated units – electric power – drain and waste H2O. Most of the assorted service systems are described in chapter 6. 11. Service media demands are calculated after the works design is agreed upon. Thus the temperature programme for pasteurization must be known. every bit good as the specifications for all other countries where warming and chilling are needed ( cold storage. cleaning systems. etc. ) . before the figure and power of electrically operated machines. figure of pneumatically operated units. working hours of the works. etc. can be determined.
Such computations are non presented in this book. Choice of equipment Silo tanks The figure and size of silo armored combat vehicles are determined by the natural milk bringing agendas and volume of each bringing. In order to run the works continuously without arrests due to miss of natural stuff. a 7-hour supply of [ movie ] natural milk must be available. Preferably the milk should hold been stored for at least 1 – 2 hours before being processed. as natural degassing of the milk takes topographic point during Legal demands for: • Heat intervention.
• Recording • Clarification prior to heat intervention • Preventing reinfection Harmonizing to ordinances set by the European Communities the heat intervention equipment must be approved or authorised by the competent authorization and at least fitted with • automatic temperature control • entering thermometer • automatic safety device forestalling deficient heating • equal safety system forestalling the mixture of pasteurized or sterilised milk with incompletely heated milk and • automatic recording device for the safety system referred to in the preceding purpose.
192 Dairy Processing Handbook/chapter 7 that period of clip. Short periods of agitation are acceptable. but agitation is non truly needed until about 5 – 10 proceedingss before start of emptying. to equalize the overall quality. This avoids intervention with the natural degassing procedure. Plate heat exchanger The chief purpose of pasteurizing milk is to destruct infective microorganisms. To accomplish this. the milk is usually heated to non less than 72°C for at least 15 seconds and so cooled quickly.
These parametric quantities are stipulated by jurisprudence in many states. [ movie ] When the relevant parametric quantities are known. the platage ( dimensioning ) of the home base heat money changer can be calculated. In the present illustration. the parametric quantities are: • Plant capacity 20 000 l/h • Temperature programme 4°C – 72°C – 4°C • Regenerative consequence 94 % • Temperature of the warming medium 74 – 75°C • Temperature of the coolant +2°C The demand for service media ( steam. H2O and ice-water ) is besides calculated. as this well influences the pick of valves for steam ordinance and ice-water provender.
Connection home bases between the subdivisions of the home base heat money changer are provided with recesss and mercantile establishments for merchandise and service media. The recess and mercantile establishment connexions can be oriented either vertically or horizontally. The terminals of the home base heat money changer ( frame and force per unit area home base ) can similarly be fitted with recesss and mercantile establishments. Dimensioning informations for the home base heat money changer are given in chapter 6. 1. Hot H2O heating systems Hot H2O or saturated steam at atmospheric force per unit area can be used as the warming medium in pasteurisers.
Hot steam. nevertheless. is non used because of the high differential temperature. The most normally used heating medium is hence hot H2O typically approximately 2 – 3°C higher than the needed temperature of the merchandise. Steam is delivered from the dairy boiler at a force per unit area of 600 – 700 kPa ( 6 – 7 saloon ) . This steam is used to heat H2O. which in bend heats the merchandise to pasteurization temperature. The H2O warmer in figure 7. 2 is a closed system dwelling of a specially designed. compact and simple cassette type of home base heat money changer ( 3 ) equipped with a steam regulation valve ( 2 ) and a steam trap ( 4 ) .
The service H2O is circulated by the centrifugal pump ( 5 ) via the warmer ( 3 ) and the warming subdivision of the pasteuriser. The map of the enlargement vas ( 7 ) is to counterbalance for the addition in the volume of the H2O that takes topographic point when it is heated. The system besides includes force per unit area and temperature indexs every bit good as safety and airing valves ( 8 ) . Temperature control A changeless pasteurization temperature is maintained by a temperature accountant moving on the steam regulation valve ( ref. 2 in figure 7. 2 ) .
Any inclination for the merchandise temperature to bead is instantly detected by a detector in the merchandise line before the keeping tubing. The detector so changes the signal to the accountant. which opens the steam modulating valve to provide more steam to the H2O. This increases the temperature of the circulating H2O and stops the temperature bead in the merchandise. Keeping The length and size of the externally located keeping tubing are calculated harmonizing to the known retention clip and hourly capacity of the works and the pipe dimension. typically the same as for the pipes feeding the pasteurization works.
Dimensioning informations for the keeping tubing are given in chapter 6. 1. Typically the keeping tubing is covered by a chromium steel steel goon to forestalling people from being burnt when touching and from radiation every bit good. Pasteurisation control It is indispensable to be certain that the milk has in fact been decently pasteurised before it leaves the home base heat money changer. If the temperature drops below 72°C. the unpasteurized milk must be kept apart from the already pasteurized merchandise. To carry through this. a temperature sender and flow recreation valve are fitted in the pipe downstream of the keeping tubing.
The valve returns unpasteurized milk to the balance armored combat vehicle if the temperature sender detects that the milk go throughing it has non been sufficently heated. Pasteuriser chilling system As already noted. the merchandise is cooled chiefly by regenerative heat exchange. The maximal practical efficiency of regeneration is about 94 – 95 % . which means that the lowest temperature obtained by regenerative chilling is about 8 – 9°C. Chilling the milk to 4°C for storage therefore requires a chilling medium with a temperature of about 2°C.
Ice H2O can merely be used if the concluding temperature is above 3 – 4°C. For lower temperatures it is necessary to utilize seawater or intoxicant solutions to avoid the hazard of stop deading chilling media. The coolant is circulated from the dairy infrigidation works to the point of usage as shown in figure 7. 4. The flow of coolant to the pasteuriser chilling subdivision is controlled to keep a changeless merchandise mercantile establishment temperature. This is done by a regulation circuit consisting of a temperature sender in the outgoing merchandise line. a temperature accountant in the control panel and a regulation valve in the coolant supply line.
The place of the regulation valve is altered by the accountant in response to signals from the sender. The signal from the sender is straight relative to the temperature of the merchandise go forthing the pasteuriser. This signal is frequently connected to a temperature recording equipment in the control panel and recorded on a graph. together with the pasteurization temperature and the place of the flow recreation valve. Booster pump to forestall reinfection Care must be taken to avoid any hazard of taint of the pasteurized merchandise by unpasteurized merchandise or chilling medium.
If any escape should happen in the pasteuriser. it must be in the way from pasteurized merchandise to unpasteurized merchandise or chilling medium. This means that the pasteurized merchandise must be under higher force per unit area [ movie ] than the medium on the other side of the heat money changer home bases. A supporter pump. ref. 2 in figure 7. 3. is hence installed in the merchandise line. either after the keeping subdivision or before the warming subdivision. The latter place minimises the operating temperature of the pump and protract its life.
The pump increases the force per unit area and maintains a positive differential force per unit area on the pasteurized merchandise side. throughout the regenerative and chilling subdivisions of the pasteuriser. Installation of a supporter pump is specified in the legal demands for pasteurization in some coun The complete pasteuriser A modern milk pasteuriser. complete with equipment for operation. supervising and control of the procedure. is assembled of fiting constituents into a sophisticated procedure unit. Balance tank The float-controlled recess valve regulates the flow of milk and maintains a changeless degree in the balance armored combat vehicle.
If the supply of milk is interrupted. the degree will get down to drop. As the pasteuriser must be full at all times during operation to forestall the merchandise from firing on to the home bases. the balance armored combat vehicle is frequently fitted with a low-level electrode which transmits a signal every bit shortly as the degree reaches the minimal point. This signal actuates the flow recreation valve. which returns the merchandise to the balance armored combat vehicle. The milk is replaced by H2O and the pasteuriser shuts down when circulation has continued for a certain clip. Feed pump The provender pump supplies the pasteuriser with milk from the balance armored combat vehicle. which provides a changeless caput.
Attempts. [ movie ] Flow controller The flow accountant maintains the flow through the pasteuriser at the right value. This guarantees stable temperature control and a changeless length of the keeping clip for the needed pasteurization consequence. Often the flow accountant is located after the first regenerative subdivision. Regenerative preheating The cold untreated milk is pumped through the first subdivision in the pasteuriser. the preheating subdivision. Here it is regeneratively heated with pasteurized milk. which is cooled at the same clip.
If the milk is to be treated at a temperature between the recess and mercantile establishment temperatures of the regenerative subdivision. for illustration elucidation at 55°C. the regenerative subdivision is divided into two subdivisions. The first subdivision is dimensioned so that the milk leaves at the needed temperature of 55°C. After being clarified the milk returns to the pasteuriser. which completes the regenerative preheating in the 2nd subdivision. Pasteurisation Final warming to pasteurisation temperature with hot H2O. usually of a temperature 2 – 3°C higher than the pasteurization temperature ( ? T = 2 – 3°C ) . takes topographic point in the warming subdivision.
The hot milk continues to an external tubular keeping cell. After the clasp. the temperature of the milk is checked by a detector in the line. It transmits a uninterrupted signal to the temperature accountant in the control panel. The same signal is besides transmitted to a recording instrument which records the pasteurization temperature. Flow recreation A detector after the keeping cell transmits a signal to the temperature proctor. Equally shortly as this signal falls below a preset value. matching to a specified minimal temperature. the proctor switches the flow recreation valve to recreation flow.
In many workss the place of the flow recreation valve is recorded together with the pasteurization temperature. For the location of the flow recreation valve. assorted solutions are available to fulfill local ordinances and recommendations. Below are three options which are normally utilized: 1 The flow recreation valve is situated merely after the keeping cell. Where a supporter pump is installed. the valve is located before the pump. If the temperature drops under preset degree the valve diverts the flow to the balance armored combat vehicle and the pump Michigan.
The flow in the regenerative and chilling subdivisions therefore comes to a deadlock ( even when no supporter pump is integrated ) . After a short piece. without temperature addition. the heat money changer is emptied. cleaned and sanitised. When satisfactory warming is possible the works is restarted. 2 The flow recreation valve is located after the chilling subdivision of the works. Following a bead of temperature the flow is diverted to the balance armored combat vehicle and the works is emptied of merchandise. cleaned and sanitised. The works is so ready for restart when the temperature conditions are acceptable once more.
3 The flow recreation valve is located between the keeping cell and the boster pump. If the temperature drops the valve diverts the flow. The supporter pump is non stopped. but other valves around the heat money changer will automatically be positioned so that the milk in the regenerative and chilling subdivisions will be circulated to keep the right force per unit area in the works. This besides preserves a proper temperature balance. When the warming conditions are acceptable the procedure can be resumed without intermediate cleansing. Cooling After the keeping subdivision the milk is returned to the regenerative subdivision ( s ) for chilling.
Here the pasteurized milk gives up its heat to the cold entrance milk. The surpassing pasteurized milk is so chilled with cold H2O. icewater. a glycol solution or some other refrigerant. depending on the needed temperature. The temperature of the chilled milk is usually recorded together with the pasteurization temperature and the place of the flow recreation valve. The graph accordingly shows three curves. Centrifugal clarifier As the milk in the present illustration is non traveling to be separated into skimmilk and pick. a centrifugal clarifier is shown in figure 7. 6.