Mitosis and Meiosis

nucleus appears normal and the cell is performing its usual cellular functions
cell is increasing all of its components, including organelles as the mitochondria, ribosomes and centrioles
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end of interphase
where does DNA replication occur
chromosomes which contain DNA are duplicated and contain two chromatids (sister chromatids) held together at the
the nucleus divides during
cytoplasm divides is called
two daughter cells are produced
what happens during cytokinesis
during sexual production another form of division occurs
gametogenesis production of gametes(sex cells)
Meiosis is a part of
daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
results of meiosis
daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and genetic material as the parent cell
results of mitosis
genetic material
what can chromosomes exchange during cross over
how many stages are there to the cell cycle
name the four stages
what occurs during G-1 stage
chromosomes are duplicated
what occurs during S stage
prepares for cell division
what occurs during G-2 stage
cell divides
what occurs during M stage
ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until it is own division into 2 cells
explain why it is called the cell cycle process
nuclear division that results in two new nuclei, each having the same number of chromosomes as the original nucleus
the cell that divides
parental cell
results of parental cells dividing
daughter cell
If parental cell has 46 chromosomes how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have following mitosis
visible rodlike sister chromatids held together at the centromere
when cell division begins, chromatin starts to condense and compact to form
duplicated chromosome, that consists of two sister chromatids held together at a centromere
DNA replication results in
a structure that appears and brings orderly distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cell nuclei
has a fiber that stretch between two poles(end), bundles of microtubules, protein cylinders found in the cytoplasm that can assemble and disassemble
main microtubule organizing center of the cell, divides before mitosis so that each pole of spindle has a pair of centrosome
large organelle containing the chromosomes and acting as a control center for the cells
rod shaped body in the nucleus seen during mitosis and meiosis that contains DNA and hereditary units or genes
organelle found inside the nucleus, composed largely of RNA for ribosome formation
the two identical parts of a chromosome following DNA replication
constriction where duplicates (sister chromatids) of a chromosome are held together
central microtubule organizing center of cells
short cylinder organelle in animal cells that contain microtubules and associated with formation of the spindle during cell division
short radiating fibers produced by the centrioles important during mitosis and meiosis
what are the phases of mitosis
centrosomes have duplicated, chromatin is condensing into chromosomes and nuclear envelope is fragmenting
early prophase
nucleolus has disappeared and duplicated chromosomes are visible, centrosome begins moving apart and spindle is in process
chromatids are attached to a spindle fiber (sister chromatid), chromosomes are aligned at the equator
sister chromatids part and become daughter chromosomes that move toward spindle poles, each pole receives the same number and kinds of chromosome as the parental cell
daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear. chromosomes will become chromatin
division of the cytoplasm accompanies mitosis, begins in anaphase, continues in telophase and reaches completion by the start of the next interphase
a cleavage furrow, an indentation of the membrane between the daughter nuclei, begins as anaphase draws to a close.
cytokinesis in animal cells
form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is reduced by half
nucleus contains homologous chromosomes
(look alike and carry the genes for the same traits
diploid cell
chromosomes have duplicated, homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and crossing over occurs
Meiosis prophase 1
cells have one chromosome from each (hp)
Meiosis prophase 11
homologous pairs align independently at the equator
meiosis metaphase 1
chromosomes align at the equator
meiosis metaphase 11
homologous chromosomes separate and move towards the pole
meiosis anaphase 1
sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes
meiosis anaphase 11
daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair
meiosis telophase 1
spindles disappears, nuclei from and cytokinesis takes place
meiosis telophase 11
meiosis results in four haploid cells
daughter cells
chromosomes still consist of two chromatids
chromosome is shorter than usual because some portion is missing
chromosome is longer than usual because some portion is present twice over
chromosome is normal in length but some portion runs in the opposite direction
two chromosomes have switched portions and each switched portion is on the wrong chromosome
ovaries never become functional
turner syndrome
47 chromosomes, no apparent physical abnormalities
Poly-X syndrome
testes are underdeveloped, and breasts may be enlarged
klinefelter syndrome
males are usually taller then average, tend to have speech and reading problems
Jacobs syndrome
during what stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occurs
s stage
name the phase of cell division during which separation of sister chromatids occurs
by what process does the cytoplasm of a human cell separates
name the phase of cell division when duplicated chromosomes first appear
where in humans would you expect to find meiosis taking place
reproductive organ
what do you call chromosomes that look alike and carry genes for the same traits
if homologues are separating, what phase is this
if the parental cell has 24 chromosomes, how many does each daughter cell have at the completion of meiosis 11
name the type of cell division during which homologues pair
meiosis 1
name the type of cell division described by 2n—->2n
does metaphase of mitosis, meiosis 1 or meiosis 11 have the haploid number of chromosomes at the equator of the spindle
meiosis 11
when the egg and sperm unite fertilazation
when during the human life cycle is the diploid number of chromosomes restored
in mitosis chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. In meiosis 1 homologous pairs align at the metaphase plate
how does the alignment of chromosomes differ between metaphase of mitosis and metaphase of meiosis 1
you get recombinant chromosomes either all red or yellow and with crossing over you would get a chromosome that is part red and part yellow
a student is simulating meiosis 1 with homologous that are red-long and yellow-long. Describe the appearance of two non sister chromatids following cross over

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