|citokinesis||the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.|
|Replication||the action of copying or reproducing something.
a plaintiff's reply to the defendant's plea.
|Cell cycle||The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.|
|chromosomes||a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.|
|chromatid||each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.|
|centromere||the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.|
|gametogenesis||the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes.|
|gamete||a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.|
|sperm||a male reproductive cell; spermatozoon.|
|chromatin||the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.|
(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
a diploid cell, organism, or species.
|interphase||the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.|
|crossing over||the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.|
|tetrad||a group or set of four.|
|synapsis||the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.|
|polar vodies||each of the small cells that bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova.|
|gonad||an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary.
a man's testicles or genitals.
|ovum/ova||a mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.|
|haploid||(of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
a haploid organism or cell.
|mitosis||a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.|