mitosis and meiosis

Term Definition
citokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Replication the action of copying or reproducing something.
a plaintiff's reply to the defendant's plea.
Cell cycle The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
chromosomes a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
chromatid each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.
centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
gametogenesis the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes.
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
sperm a male reproductive cell; spermatozoon.
chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA, and DNA.
diploid 1.
(of a cell or nucleus) containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.
a diploid cell, organism, or species.
interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
crossing over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
tetrad a group or set of four.
synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.
polar vodies each of the small cells that bud off from an oocyte at the two meiotic divisions and do not develop into ova.
gonad an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary.
vulgar slang
a man's testicles or genitals.
ovum/ova a mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
haploid (of a cell or nucleus) having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
a haploid organism or cell.
mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.

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