Marketing Mobile TV in India A Case study Introduction – Executive Summary India represents a unique opportunity in direct mobility due to its huge potential customer base and the relatively moderate penetration rate of services across this customer base. Paradoxically, the market is fragmented and price wars on voice services have reduced the margins on voice services to a minimum. In this context, with the upcoming advent of 3G, the possibility of generating more revenue than ever before from data related non SMS value added services is higher and more likely than ever before.
Amongst the many value added services, Mobile Television is unique because it combines two screens on a single device – television & mobile. The penetration rate of mobile TV is currently very low. While technology in terms of suitability of mobile device has limited its spread to a certain extent, the problem looks set to be resolved within the next 36 months as mobile manufacturers are poised to provide sufficiently technologically advanced phones – thereby eliminating the challenge posed by the incompatibility of the mobile device.
A more fundamental problem lies in the consumer choosing to view television on a mobile – the rigidity in not doing so poses the biggest challenge to future growth of the market. Traditionally, service providers have approached the mobile TV market by pushing all available content to the customers and allowing the customers to create their own bundles in line with their choices. The strategy is useful in a nascent market, however in a market poised for growth, the cost of providing an undifferentiated product with regard to competitors is high.
It is therefore important for service providers to understand consumer needs in a better manner to be able to respond to the customer needs and increase their share of the market. The objective of this exercise is to understand the landscape of the Indian telecom Industry, determine the forces that influence the potential growth of the mobile VAS market and create a marketing strategy & marketing mix for Mobile TV as a VAS service. In arriving at the final recommendations, focussed interviews have been conducted with leading service providers and content creators. It is therefore hoped that the recommendations will be useful for service roviders looking to enter the mobile TV market. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction – Executive Summary3 Current landscape of Indian telecom industry4 Market size & growth4 Challenges to telecom5 Market forces/growth drivers5 Porter’s 5 Forces for Indian Mobile Telephony5 Value-Added Services (VAS) Market6 Impact of 3G on VAS6 Why is VAS not exciting enough? 6 Factors leading to VAS innovation6 Mobile TV8 MOBILE TV worldwide8 Indian Scenario8 Market Segmentation for Mobile Television in India9 Market Targeting for Mobile Television in India –12 Market Positioning for Mobile Television in India –12
Marketing Mix – Product13 Marketing Mix – Promotion14 Marketing Mix – Distribution15 Marketing Mix – Pricing15 Mobile TV – Challenges16 Mobile TV – Future Opportunities17 Appendix A – Technology – How It works18 Objectives The following are the objectives of this report •Understand the landscape of the Indian telecom Industry •Determine the forces that influence the potential growth of the mobile VAS market •Create a marketing strategy & marketing mix for Mobile TV as a VAS service Research Methodology The objectives were accomplished by using the following methodology ObjectiveResearch Methodology
Understand the Landscape of the Indian Telecom IndustrySecondary research using industry analysis, annual reports & media publications Determine forces which influence potential growth for the mobile VAS marketSecondary research, focussed interviews Create a marketing strategy & marketing mix for mobile TV as a VAS serviceSecondary research using Annual reports, media advertisements; focussed interviews Current landscape of Indian telecom industry The Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest growing in the world with around 635 million mobile phone connections as of June 2010.
It is also the second largest telecommunication network in the world in terms of number of wireless connections after China The sector is forecasted to grow at 15. 3% (CAGR) by the end of 2012, with additions of over 8 million subscribers each month. Market size & growth As per the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), as on 30th June 2010, India’s telephone subscriber base touched 671. 69 million, up 2. 72 % from the May 2010 . This takes the overall tele-density (telephones per 100 people) to 56. 83. During the same period, the wireless subscriber base touched 635. 51 million, up 2. 91 per cent, from 617. 3 million in May 2010. There have been additions of 17. 98 million additions in wireless. Some additional statistics: •Growth impetus from wireless segment with 84% wireless and 16% wired •National tele-density at 22%, rural tele-density at 7%, while urban at 57% •9 million Internet and 2. 5 million broadband subscribers •Six major operators and eight minor operators Source : TRAI Challenges to telecom Market forces/growth drivers 1. With 671. 69 million subscribers as in June, 2010, which is estimated to reach approximately 700 million by 2012, India is one of the biggest and fastest growing telecom markets in the world. . Multiple factors including low tariffs, low handset prices, effective government regulations, higher incomes and customer life style changes are the key drivers for growth. 3. Liberal foreign investment regime: The telecom sector is one of the highest FDI attracting sectors in India, and has recorded FDI inflows worth over US$ 8. 8 billion between 2000 and 2010. 4. Well regulated framework: The Telecom Regulator Authority of India (TRAI) has well-defined regulations for the Indian telecom sector. Telecom companies therefore need to plan current & future strategies in accordance with the regulations. 5.
Growth in the subscriber base will potentially lead to increased revenues. In spite of declining APRU’s, increased Minutes of Usage (MOU) is fueling the current revenue growth. Porter’s 5 Forces for Indian Mobile Telephony COMPETITIVE RIVALRY: High •Seventeen players in saturated telecom market •Tariff war and cut throat competition •Association with socially responsible campaigns with an eye to incremental revenue increases (Aircel Save Tiger, Idea’s Save Trees) • New entrants can enter as Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) increasing the number of players in an increasingly fragmented market. Issuance of pan-India BWA licenses as opposed to limited circle 3G Licenses will provide competitive advantage to players with deeper cash pockets BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS: High •With restrictions on import of Chinese and Israeli equipment by the Government of India, low cost equipment is no longer an option, thereby increasing the deployment costs •Such restrictions may strengthen European equipment manufacturers’ bargaining power for higher rates and low discounts BARGAINING POWER OF CUSTOMERS: High Lack of differentiation among service providers – still voice and SMS form the major push by operators •Low switching costs •Possibility of mobile number portability in the near future THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS: Low •Large license fees to be paid upfront & high gestation period/higher operating costs at low volumes • Spectrum availability & regulatory issues •High infrastructure set up costs •Rapidly changing technology THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES: High •Wireless CDMA •Broadband services: VOIP, IPTV, Video based services on PC Value-Added Services (VAS) Market
Mobile value added services (VAS) include text or SMS, menu-based services, downloading of music or ring tones, mobile TV, videos and sophisticated m-commerce applications. As per an industry report , VAS that accounts for 10-12 per cent of the telecom operator’s revenue is expected to reach 20 percent by 2013. The report further predicted that after the introduction of 3G services in India, the segment may garner USD 5. 98 billion in turnover by 2013. Currently, the segment stands at USD 2. 07 billion. An editorial on telecomtalk. nfo provides an assessment of the potential of the VAS market by one of the big six telecom players in India: “Average Revenue per User (ARPU) for the company was at Rs. 220, down Rs. 10 from Rs. 230 last quarter. But the percentage of “Non Voice Revenue” for the company grew 9. 3 percent quarter on quarter to 11. 8 percent of mobile revenues. SMS revenues as a percentage of mobile revenues declined to 5. 7 percent of total mobile revenues. The exponential increase in Non-Voice revenue during the time of falling ARPU shows the sturdiness of Value added services” Impact of 3G on VAS
The advent of 3G bandwidth by September 2010 would allow the VAS industry to increase its market share manifold. The 3G services would enable mobile users to access high speed data services such as movies on demand, mobile TV, High speed Web access, video calls, online gaming, fast music and video downloads, interactive gaming and GPS. Why is VAS not exciting enough? SMS based VAS has traditionally been the focus of the service operators. This is primarily because of the mass market nature of this service. Consequently, VAS content providers have resisted from investing too much in terms of content creation. Factors leading to VAS innovation
The cellular phone industry is overcrowded with 17 players with no entry barrier resulting in a pure play price war on voice plans. Adding to these factors are the declining ARPU and saturated voice penetration in Urban (Metro and A-cities) 100%. With Mobile Number Portability on the horizon customer churn out will increase. •Increased usage of mobile entertainment, gaming & other related services are influencing service operators to focus on innovation and providing customized services to consumers. •Increased bandwidth availability as a result of 3G license distribution will enable service providers to push more services to the consumers. Portability of VAS applications on devices is not restricted to the smart phones only. In the near future, more and more entry level phones will be technically compatible to support a range of VAS services. Also, preinstalled VAS applications will enable service operators to push through more VAS services to the consumers. “Mobile value-added service providers are preparing to offer cellphone applications delivering live news and movies to medical diagnosis and tutorials after the release of 3G spectrum, which is expected to give a boost to the estimated Rs. 6,250 crore VAS market,” opines the CEO of an Advertising Firm •Increased government focus on education combined with the predicted increased rural mobile telephony penetration and low cost of services & handsets will provide a growth market for VAS for telecom service providers. Given this and the expected 3G & BWA penetration beginning late this year, operators will entice customers with a range of MVAS services. Among these, Mobile TV – as an entertainment service and education service – is the likely candidate for “the killer app.
Mobile TV MOBILE TV worldwide Nearly 120 million mobile users in more than 40 countries are expected to receive broadcast TV services by 2012, compared with less than 12 million in 2007. Worldwide annual consumer spending on mobile broadcast TV services is expected to exceed $6. 6 billion by 2012; combined end-user revenues from streamed and broadcast mobile TV services will rise from just under $1. 4 billion in 2007 to nearly $12 billion in 2012 Indian Scenario 86% respondents in India are likely to watch live TV on mobile phones in next 12 months •;95% Indians surveyed were satisfied with their music download experience •;63% respondents were satisfied with mobile gaming services in India •93% say clear pricing and 94% say download speed as influencing factors for purchase of video clips and mobile TV •Apalya, India’s leading content aggregation, provisioning and distribution platform in the Mobile Video Delivery market currently has technology catering to 1250 handsets on varied platforms such as Windows, Android, Symbian, Blackberry among others. Over 3 million downloads of video on demand over last one year (Source Apalya) •Currently subscription charges are below Rs. 150 per month for content from all participating content providers. The future model proposes free to air services to customers with revenue being generated from advertisements. Indian consumers are most likely to use mobile chat services in the next 6-12 months (34% said yes, while the world average was 18%) and also to watch live TV on mobile (87% said very likely, world average:67%).
Market Segmentation for Mobile Television in India The key to increased penetration of mobile TV as a VAS in India primarily depends on the following •Suitability of Mobile Device to support mobile TV •Lifestyle & Occupational choices made by the consumer •Content bundle available to consumer •Price that the consumer wants to pay Considering these factors, the following segmentation variables have been considered Demographic •Age •Gender •Area of residence oUrban vs. Rural •Occupation oStudents oEarly & Mid career professionals oExecutives Psychographic Lifestyle Orientation oSmart phone users vs. Non-smart phone users •Personality Orientation oRecreation oInformation oEntertainment oInfotainment Segmentation methodology In the current market scenario, the providers of mobile TV services have adopted a model of providing an entire breadth of content to the consumers and allowing the consumers to create their own bundles based on their preferences. While this model is suitable to the nascent Indian market, the 3G bandwidth availability later this year will see new players enter this market.
In order for mobile service providers to create a unique position for themselves, it will become important to understand and capture consumer preferences & provide services matching those preferences to the customer rather than forcing the customer into action into making that choice. Therefore, the objective of the segmentation exercise is to divide the mobile subscriber base using a combination of the segmentation variables mentioned above & arrive at a few target segments where focused consumer offerings may be provided.
The base data used for this purpose is the 2001 Census data. From that data, the following are the observations •Urban male population as a % of total population = 14. 64% •Urban female population as a % of total population = 13. 18% •Rural male population as a % of the total population = 37. 09% •Rural female population as a % of the total population = 35. 08% It was then decided to exclude the rural population from the scope of this segmentation for the following reasons -Current rural mobile penetration ~ 40% -Current rural smart phone penetration ~ 3%
The next step is to subdivide the urban population into age groups that reflect a combination of unique age profiles, personality orientation & occupation. The below table summarizes the segments Population segmentUnits2001 CensusUrban Male population in age 15-19 yearsLakh nos53980. 85 Male population in age 20-24 yearsLakh nos46369. 45 Male population in age 25-29 yearsLakh nos41662. 4 Male population in age 30-34 yearsLakh nos37456. 1 Male population in age 35-39 yearsLakh nos36054 Male population in age 40-44 yearsLakh nos29944. 85 Male population in age 45-49 yearsLakh nos24937. 35 Female population in age 15-19 yearsLakh nos46360. 9 Female population in age 20-24 yearsLakh nos43456. 42 Female population in age 25-29 yearsLakh nos41954. 47 Female population in age 30-34 yearsLakh nos36947. 97 Female population in age 35-39 yearsLakh nos34544. 85 Female population in age 40-44 yearsLakh nos25933. 67 Female population in age 45-49 yearsLakh nos22529. 25 ** Male Urban population = 15% of 2001 Census ** Female Urban population = 13% of 2001 Census With the Urban Population obtained and with the assumption that the mobile penetration rate in urban India ~ 100%, the next step is to divide each of these in terms of smart phone and non smart phone users.
The current smart phone penetration in India ~ 15% and is projected to grow to ~ 37% – 40% by 2012. Since the smart phone penetration in rural India is very low, we obtain the number of smart phone users for each of the above demographic classifications as under Population segmentUnitsUrbanSmart phones @15% Male population in age 15-19 yearsLakh nos80. 8512. 1275 Male population in age 20-24 yearsLakh nos69. 4510. 4175 Total male population in age 15-24 years 22. 545 Male population in age 25-29 yearsLakh nos62. 49. 36 Male population in age 30-34 yearsLakh nos56. 18. 415
Male population in age 35-39 yearsLakh nos548. 1 Total male population in age 25-39 years 25. 875 Male population in age 40-44 yearsLakh nos44. 856. 7275 Male population in age 45-49 yearsLakh nos37. 355. 6025 Total male population in age 40-49 years 12. 33 Female population in age 15-19 yearsLakh nos60. 193. 0095 Female population in age 20-24 yearsLakh nos56. 422. 821 Total female population in age 15-24 years 5. 8305 Female population in age 25-29 yearsLakh nos54. 478. 1705 Female population in age 30-34 yearsLakh nos47. 977. 1955 Female population in age 35-39 yearsLakh nos44. 56. 7275 Total female population in age 25-39 years 22. 0935 Female population in age 40-44 yearsLakh nos33. 671. 6835 Female population in age 45-49 yearsLakh nos29. 251. 4625 Total female population in age 40-49 years 3. 146 ** Assumed that smart phone penetration for females in the age bracket 15-24 years & 40-49 years is lower than average of 15 % – assumed to be ~ 5% ** Total size of the market with 2001 population with above smart phone penetration = 91. 82 lakhs Since the population of India in 2010 is ~ 1. 2bn & the urbanization rate is ~ 29% (against 27. % in 2001), the current size of the urban smart phone consumers can be conservatively estimated to be 1. 2 times the 2001 market size = 110. 184 lakhs The urban smart phone consumer market can be split into the following segments Students & Entry Level Professionals – -Males aged between 15 – 24 -Females aged between 15 – 24 Early Career Professionals – -Males aged between 25 – 29 -Females aged between 25 – 29 Mid and Advanced Career Professionals & Executives – -Males aged between 30 – 39 -Females aged between 30 – 39 -Males aged between 40 – 49 -Females aged between 40 – 49
Market Targeting for Mobile Television in India – From the segments derived above, the recommendation is to target all segments except the following -Females aged between 40-49 years In a country like India which is still a relatively patriarchal society, it is likely that even in the urban context, in households with one smart phone; the user of the phone is a male. While this division may not be as pronounced amongst working professionals, it is more likely to represent itself in the segments mentioned above. “The Mobile TV market is poised for tremendous growth over the next year with the advent of 3G.
With the enhanced 3G infrastructure, we can provide high quality streaming services which will greatly improve customer experience. We are looking towards aggressive marketing spanning across customer segments” – Vodafone Market Positioning for Mobile Television in India – Even though the entire market is urban, the needs of the various segments are different and therefore mobile television needs to be positioned differently in each of these segments. The product offering in each of these segments must then cater to the positioning statement.
Students & Entry Level Professionals – aged 15-24 “Hooked to the Roaming Party” For this segment, having the ability to view programs of their choice such as sports events & concerts on demand is a sure way to improving their standing amongst their peer groups. Early Career Professionals – aged 25 – 29 “Mobitainment is my New Mantra !! ” Most smart phone users in this segment spend a considerable part of their days travelling to & from their workplace. Mobile TV will give them an opportunity to catch up with the day’s news or watch sitcoms, cookery shows etc on demand.
Besides removing the monotony of travel, this will also allow them to contribute more to coffee-table discussions in their workplace. Mid and Advanced Career Professionals – aged 30 – 49 “ The News breaks in my pocket” Most smart phone users in this segment would be an enterprise user. Information is valuable for a lot of these users if it is available in the right quantities in the right time. Mobile TV will give them an opportunity to scan through news as it breaks, choose the news that affects their sphere of influence & view and act on it thereby increasing their decision making time.
This would particularly be useful since a considerable part of this segment would also be the business traveler very often on the move. Additionally, by being able to access news on the move, they can spend more time after work meeting their personal commitments. Within this segment, over and above the above need, males & females will have different needs that will need to be catered for. Perceptual Position Map Marketing Mix – Product Following are the products that will be offered to the various target segments.
These will be in line with the position statements for each of these segments as mentioned above. Product CategoryAccess methodProduct FeaturesProduct CodeSegment SportsLive On Demand Ability to watch specific matches of marquee events like IPL, EPL, Commonwealth GamesSL SOD Students and Entry Level Professionals, Early Career Professionals, Mid and Advanced Career Professionals EntertainmentLive On Demand Events such as Fashion Shows, concerts, finals of TV game shows, Movies and songs Movies, songs, baby care & nurture shows, cooking shows, beauty & lifestyle shows Sitcoms, beauty care
EL_SEP EOD_SEP EL_ECPF EOD_ECPF EL_MACPF EOD_MACPF Students and Entry Level Professionals Early Career Professionals – female Mid and Advanced Career Professionals – Female InfotainmentLive On Demand Tech gadgets & car shows, award ceremonies, songsIL IOD Early Career Professionals – male NewsLive NewsGeneral News Business News NL_GN_ECPM NL_BN_MACP Early Career Professionals – male Mid and Advanced Career Professionals Marketing Mix – Promotion Since historically the penetration of mobile TV in India has been low, the focus has to be on creating a buzz.
Some of the channels that could be leveraged are oAdvertising inside Aerobridges in Greenfield Airports across the country oLaunching a viral campaign through social networking channels oAdvertising on mass transit systems and Mobi-ads. oActing as media partner in marquee inter college events such as Mood Indigo and showing a segment live on mobile oAdvertising on Coffee Cups in outlets such as CCD, Barista including those franchisees on corporate & educational campuses oTV advertisements – advertisements with focused messages for each segment Marketing Mix – Distribution
The distribution of Mobile TV as a product that delights the customer involves achieving synergies with the following stakeholders. •Mobile Service Providers •Content Developer: The content developer, who takes live feed from content owners (TV channels) and customizes it for display on mobile. Also the content developer will record this live feed and create small capsules for distribution later. E. g. Apalya •Content Owner: oTV Channels (e. g. CNBC-TV18, Bloomberg, ESPN, Sky Sports) oShow Producers: Balaji Telefilms, KBC producers oEvent Organizers: Filmfare awards, Oscars, Miss World Beauty Pageants, BCCI for IPL •Infrastructure enablers Device Manufacturers oNetwork service providers (Nokia-Siemens) Marketing Mix – Pricing The pricing is decided on the basis of following factors •Target Segment oMid and Advanced Career Professionals, ?Enterprise user & COCP (Company Owned Company Paid) – The individuals in this target segment are not price sensitive. However, enterprises, which actually pay the bills for their employees are sensitive to pricing & quality of services in the current competitive market. Service providers rely on the volumes generated through these segments to determine their pricing strategy.
The key is therefore to use competitive pricing to generate a sufficiently large customer base of enterprises and penetrate the market. ?IOIP (Individual Owned Individual Paid) – This segment will be very selective in terms of content that they watch and the decision is likely to be guided by price sensitivity. The pricing will vary based on package & channel content. oStudents and Early Career Professionals – This target segment is price sensitive and less loyal to brand. Use economic pricing to penetrate this market. •Usage (like DTH service) oMonthly subscription oPay per use Buy a bundle oOn Demand Product CodePricing (INR) SL5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels SOD5-10/capsule, based on size, recency and demand EL_SEP5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels EOD_SEP5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels EL_ECPF5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels EOD_ECPF5-10/capsule, based on size, recency and demand EL_MACPF5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels EOD_MACPF5-10/capsule, based on size, recency and demand IL5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels
IOD5-10/capsule, based on size, recency and demand NL_GN_ECPM5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels NL_BN_MACP5/unit, 10/event, 15/channel, 50/bouquet of 10 channels NOTE-unit is one IPL match or 1 episode final of a program like KBC, event is complete IPL tournament or KBC show. Channels are NEO channel or ESPN as a single channel or a bouquet of 10 channels selected by customer, capsule is a show or award ceremony available on demand Mobile TV – Challenges The successful launch of Mobile TV is dependent on few constraints in the environment. Regulatory Environment
There needs to be a separation of content from carriage. Carriage requires a separate license—Cellular Mobile Telephone Service (CMTS) license for mobile telephony. Content will be regulated by the Ministry of I while the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) shall oversee carriage. As long as it is a broadcast TV channel, it needs to conform to set rules, but regulating content on a city-wise basis will be a monumental task for any regulator. Technological challenges Availability of bandwidth and cheap handsets supporting live media content are current challenges which will be resolved shortly. Glicense is already sold and spectrum will be made available to service providers by Sept of current year, 2010. Leading handset manufacturers like Nokia and domestic handset manufacturers are working on launching mobile handsets with battery lasting more than 30 days. New entrants in handset manufacturing are developing smart phones for less than 5000 INR. Integration of services and processes across channels, producers, content developers and service providers For the success of the service, both the operator and the broadcaster have to come together. The Major issue is of revenue split.
The service provider tries to get away with the lion’s share of the revenue. On an average the service provider earns around 80% of the revenue of the third party content sold on their network. However, in Japan, the revenue share between the operator and the content service provider is 92:8. The broadcasting industry has long been demanding a level playing field between operators and broadcasters as they asked for better and bigger role on the mobile TV platform. Content providers are also justified in asking why they should create content when there is no business viability for them.
Operators refuse to share equal revenue with broadcasters arguing, “Content is just a small part in the entire delivery chain,” they argue. Telecom operators provide the technology platform, billing service, customer relationship and servicing. A paradigm shift is being witnessed in the industry which would lead to more equitable and fair distribution of the revenues. “The market is looking towards a 70-30 distribution of PAT in the days to come” says the Product Manager of Mobile TV, Vodafone. Mobile TV – Future Opportunities
Free mobile TV: According to the business forecast of India’s leading mobile TV content provider, once the paid VAS service sees a significant adoption, mobile TV will be offered as a free to air service. Backward Integration of Content Provider: According to Capgemini’s Telecom and Media Insights report, mobile TV content providers will be easy acquisition targets for the big telecom operators. This will help the telecom operators bring a value added service into their operational fold to provide differentiated services. Conclusion & Recommendations
In the near future, urban upscale & trendy consumers will adapt to Mobile TV as a VAS offering. For a service provider, achieving a balance between content standardization & content customization coupled with the correct pricing strategy is important in achieving a significant market share in a very crowded market. Service operators who will be able to achieve a critical mass of mobile TV users in this market will be better positioned to grasp opportunities to position themselves as differentiators in the mobile TV marketplace in India over the next 3-5 years.
Appendices Appendix A – Technology – How It works WiFi/WiMAX Terrestrial Satellite References : ohttp://www. ciol. com/News/News-Reports/VAS-in-the-times-of-3G-revolution/136333/0/ ohttp://www. medianama. com ohttp://www. ciol. com/News/News-Reports/VAS-in-the-times-of-3G-revolution/136333/0/ owww. apalya. com ohttp://contentsutra. com/article/419-trai-recommends-infrastructure-sharing-separate-licenses-for-terrestria/ ohttp://www. zdnet. com/blog/igeneration/mobile-tv-why-it-stalled-and-why-it-wont-take-off/2570 ohttp://www. imobi. tv/apalya/news. html ohttp://economictimes. indiatimes. com/Infotech/ITeS/Live-TV-on-a-mobile device/articleshow/5511097. cms ohttp://www. intomobile. com/2007/06/04/t-mobile-uk-names-mobile-tv-content-providers/ ohttp://in. nielsen. com/company/documents/ConvergencevsDivergence-ShubhranshuDasandShankariPanchapakesan. pdf oCapgemini’s Telecom & Media Insights, Issue 38 oCMIE Databases oPrimary Research Contacts oCo-founder of Apalya Technologies oMobile TV Product Manager, India – Vodafone