Multinational companies need to accomplish high public presentation in productiveness and quality irrespective if the works is located on developed or on emerging states. And sometimes, the sort of obstructions and chances are differents in each site, chiefly when the high engineering in developed states is non completed transferred to subordinates in emerging states.
This paper researched 30 fabrication cells from an automotive transnational company established in Brazil, placing 16 features used in operation of equipments under a thin production system and detecting its efficiency. Additionally was applyed the package ( SPAD ) to nonparametric Multivariate Analysis of Data that showed the influences that each of the 16 characteristics have on the fabrication cells and grouped into categories.
The decision was that although the engineering used is non the most current in planetary market, there is range for bettering productiveness by working on some features of the thin theoretical account.
Cardinal words: Overall Equipment Effectiveness OEE, cellular fabrication, productiveness, fabrication public presentation
Along the last three decennaries, companies have radically changed the construction of fabrication as a response to the globalisation of markets and increased fight. The scheme is to set up local workss with similar production constructions to the theoretical account of excellence in planetary operations. Mention systems are being adopted by planetary companies in order to organize and set up a common linguistic communication that enables the exchange of production flows between workss. Systems called World Class Manufacturing and Lean Production Systems are being adopted to accomplish this end.
An component used in this attempt to accomplish operational excellence is the measuring of efficiency losingss of productive assets through operational indexs. The methodological analysis for mensurating losingss known as Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) has become consecrated, an index used to mensurate the losingss within their productive operations on planetary companies. The usage of the index OEE allows companies to analyse the existent efficiency on the usage of their assets. The analysis of these conditions starts from the designation of losingss bing in fabricating environment. Then, it measures the degree of equipment handiness, public presentation and quality and eventually it generates an overall index that measures the efficiency of the plus use through the relationship between the effectual clip of adding value activities and the entire available clip in a given period ( LJUNGBERG, 1990 ; NAKAJIMA, 1988 ) .
HoweverA the measurementA of the lossesA of the equipmentA has non yet beenA described in the literatureA about the features ofA usage ofA equipment inA aA peculiar production system.
Through the usage ofA a standardizedA measurementA calculationA of lossesA known asA OEE, the research was designedA to accomplish theA following aims:
Measure the degreeA of influence of theA runing features of theA production systemA on the useA of the equipment adopted by company in a thin direction environment andA the several consequences ofA efficiency of the equipment.
Compare the efficiency between the equipment taking into consideration the bunchs of features identified.
IdentifyA the features of useA of equipmentA in production system which can yet to be improved by acceptance of thin tools.
2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Models of Production Systems in chase of Excellence
The system of mass production in Fordism has grown with the rule of bring forthing big measures of merchandises or parts to run into the turning demand for standardised merchandises in the first three quarters of the 20th century. In the period when mass production was autonomous, the determination to bring forth in big tonss was non a job because stock list costs and long lead times were absorbed by the demand for big measures of a few theoretical accounts. When demand began to interrupt down into many different types of little measures each, a new scenario was being created where the simple production of big tonss was no longer the best solution ( WOMACK, JONES, ROOS, 1990 ) .
In the system of mass production, the cost decreases as the production volumes increases ( economic systems of graduated table ) . In postwar Japan, peculiarly at Toyota, the demand to replace the theoretical account of mass production by another theoretical account, more suited to the demands of that company to bring forth little batches of a high assortment of vehicles with different features ( WOMACK, JONES, 1996 ) brought the thin production theoretical account to life. In the system of thin production, the cost per unit is non reduced by the turning volume of production, but by extinguishing the waste or loss along the production flow.
This new signifier ofA Manufacturing ManagementA became popular A with the publication of the book “ The Machine thatA Changed the World ” ( WOMACK, JONES, ROOS, 1990 ) . The waste elements are classified into seven types: overrun, waiting, transit, processing, stock list, motion and production of faulty points ( OHNO, 1997 ; WOMACK, JONES, ROOS, 1990 SLACK, 2002 ) Reducing these losingss and waste production means looking for operational excellence characterized by high public presentation efficiency and productiveness. In the theoretical account of thin fabricating the end to accomplish excellence is supported by two pillars.
The first pillar is JIT ( Just-in-time ) with the rule of bring forthing what is needed merely when needed. This pillar introduces the construct of pull production as a manner to avoid losingss linked to big batch production above demand. This loss is non accounted for straight by the OEE, nevertheless is the increased handiness and efficiency of productive assets that enable the production of JIT because they increase the velocity of response to the sum of demand.
The 2nd pillar is autonomation ( Jidoka ) and means an mechanization with a human touch or mechanization humanized ( OHNO, 1997 ) . One manner to pattern autonomation is to divide adult male from machine to let it to move on multiple machines, ever holding the authorization to halt the line in instance of happening of defects. Another manner is through the deployment of devices to prove mistakes and failures, besides known as poka-yoke or baka-yoke ( OHNO, 1997 ; SLACK, 2002 ) . In thin production, the physical agreement or layout recognized as a facilitator of these two pillars and therefore the designation of losingss is the cellular agreement. A fabrication cell is normally shaped in a “ U ” , because experience has shown that this form achieves the best consequences in footings of productiveness, and facilitates both the communicating between bargainers and the visual image of the whole cell. In this physical agreement, the figure of operators is 50 % to 70 % lower than the figure of bing machines ( GAURY, KLEIJNEN, PIERREVAL, 2008 ) . With the attack of the machines, the distances and paths of operators decrease proportionately, leting the operation of several machines by one operator.
The clip crossA of the cellA isA on averageA 90 % A lowerA than theA functional physical agreement ( HINES, TAYLOR, 2000 )
Waste in production systems
Waste can be defined as any operation or activity that takes clip and adds no value to the procedure. Toyota has identified seven types of waste ( OHNO, 1997 ) on their production system, possible to be applied to the industrial world on other organisations:
OverproductionA – ProductionA greaterA than the amountA demanded by theA following degrees, is the biggestA beginning ofA waste ;
A Wait TimeA -A The amountA of timeA spentA on waiting forA stuffs whichA occurs when operatorsA are producingA parts in the procedure non at the necessaryA clip ;
TransportationA -A The motion of stuffs within the mill every bit good as inordinate motion of the stock in procedure, is an activity that adds no value ;
Procedure -A The procedure itself, there may be beginnings of waste. Some operations merely when there are divergences and failures of undertakings in the care, so they are likely to be eliminated ;
Inventory -A Inside the thin doctrine, all stock becomes the mark of riddance. But merely one can cut down stock list by extinguishing its causes. You must take all the stock bumper. Besides stick oning a considerable sum of capital stocks delay feedback on the quality, which means more waste and more rework ;
Handler -A Sometimes, the operatorA may seemA busy, butA is onlyA movingA because ofA defects in the process.A DeriveA there fromA the costsA relatedA to the driveA useless inA accomplishing theA activities, A Internet Explorer, due to theA inefficiencyA of the operationA itself ;
Defective ProductsA -A areA productsA out of specification.A The noise created by faulty parts along the procedure can upsetA the full system.A Some devicesA that cut down the incidence of these failures areA calledA poka-yokes.
Ranking the seven authoritative types of losingss and specifying them as an unneeded work ( actions that generate costs, but do non add value to the merchandise / service ) , Ohno ( 1997 ) declares that before acknowledge them it is necessary to understand its nature.
It besides defines thin fabrication as a systematic attack to the riddance of waste in a procedure of uninterrupted betterment in chase of flawlessness from the demands of clients.
Hines & A ; Taylor ( 2000 ) suggest that we need to fit workers with “ spectacless alterations ” ( alterations in the Nipponese linguistic communication means any activity that consumes resources without adding value to clients ) , enabling them to see losingss. The thought is to make a civilization that encourages them to extinguish the losingss identified. Achieving this end requires non merely the qualitative apprehension of the classs of waste, but besides a measuring system that allows to measure to what degree these wastes occur in the system making certain degrees of losingss.
Shah and Ward ( 2003 ) related to thin production the relevant patterns, through the vision of many writers. Among these patterns, one can happen the production degree, cell fabrication, Kanban, rhythm clip decrease, batch size decrease, competitory benchmarking, Quality Management plans, among others. Each of these writers cited by these research workers made aˆ‹aˆ‹reference to some of these patterns.
Performance indexs of production systems
Cardinal Performance Indicator – KPI metric is the quantitative index of efficiency, public presentation or accomplishment. Are vectors of mensurable public presentation presently used by companies to mensurate consequences and determination – devising stand upon short, medium and long term.
One of the cardinal factors to concern excellence is to hold production systems and efficient operations, enabling organisations to derive competitory advantages over their rivals. In this context, the success or failure of many companies can be explained by the harmoniousness between competitory schemes, fabricating engineerings and ways of Production Management ( SLACK, 2002 ) .
One wayA to knowA if theA production systemA is in line withA company strategyA and moving asA aA boosterA agentA ofA competitory advantagesA over itsA competitorsA is throughA an equal system ofA public presentation rating forA the production function.A The performanceA measuring systemA for theA production functionA for the scope of indicatorsA and reportsA that purpose toA buttocks howA production isA goingA in relationA to the marks ofA the company ‘s scheme.
Johnson and Kaplan ( 2001 ) show that the usage of indexs of non-financial public presentation is to measure the best monthly public presentation of a company. They claim that the usage of fiscal indexs no longer reflect their recent public presentation. They claim that can be challenged by rapid alterations in engineering, reduced life rhythms for merchandises, by inventions in the organisation of production operations and the inclusion of disbursals from old periods or those that include benefits that are achieved in the hereafter. Let non-financial indexs and set marks to better foretell the long-run profitableness of the company.
JohnsonA and Kaplan ( 2001 ) continue that thisA image is justified by theA need for furtherA rating of the performanceA attributesA ofA companies thatA efficaciously reflects the integrationA and flexibleness of theirA resources.A It can be concludedA that the performanceA is manageableA in the proportion thatA is measured.A Without these measurings, managersA can non communicateA specifically whatA the public presentation expectationsA and whatA the expected resultsA of subsidiaries.
Introduced by theA assetA direction systemA known asA TPM modelA ( TotalA Productive Maintenance ) A A OEEA isA aA set ofA indexs used to measureA performanceA of the productive systemA in relation to theirA resources of production, enablingA companies to analyzeA the existent conditions ofA usage ofA their assets ( DAL, TUGWELL, GREATBANKS,2000 ) .These conditions are analysedA from the identificationA of lossesA bing in the fabrication environment, affecting ratesA of handiness of equipment, public presentation and quality.
Measuring the overall effectivity of the equipment can be applied in different ways and ends. Harmonizing to Jonsson and Lesshammar ( 2005 ) the O.E.E. indicates countries where betterments should be developed or can be used as a benchmark index, leting developed to quantify the betterments in equipment, production lines or cells over clip.
Harmonizing toA Nakajima ( 1988 ) theA O.E.E.A is a step thatA seeks to revealA the concealed costsA in the company. LjungbergA ( 1990 ) show us that before the adventA of this index, A the handiness wasA onlyA consideredA in the usage ofA equipment, which resulted inA overestimationA of capacity.A Harmonizing toA Nakajima ( 1988 ) theA O.E.E.A is measured from theA stratification of theA sixA large losingss andA calculated byA multiplying theA indices Availability, Performance and Quality.A Besides harmonizing toA NakajimaA ( 1988 ) A O.E.E. of 85 % should be soughtA as the ideal goalA for the equipment.A Companies that had an O.E.E.A aboveA 85 % wonA the prizeA TPMA Award.A To obtainA the value ofA OEE, A it is necessary to cipher: ( 90 % A for availabilityA X A 95 % A for public presentation X 99 % forA quality ) .
FigureA 1 illustratesA the index OEE -A its contents andA lossesA related to eachA one.
Figure 1 – Index O.E.E.
Beginning: Adapted from Nakajima [ 11 ]
The O.E.E. indexA can be calculatedA through the expressionsA of theA Availability, Quality andA PerformanceA ( velocity ) Indexes, asA described below ( JONSSON, LESSHAMMAR, 2005 )
Availability Index: Answers theA inquiry of whetherA the machine is running.A ForA that, they considerA the undermentioned losingss:
Losingss due toA managementA issues ( waiting forA scheduling, A operatorA failure, deficiency ofA tooling, deficit of spaces, etc. )
Losingss due toA unscheduledA downtimeA ( care, apparatus, pendingA award, A power outages, etc. )
EquationsA ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) A and ( 3 ) A refer to theA computation ofA the handiness index:
( 1 )
( 2 )
( 3 )
Performance IndexA ( Speed ) : TheA 2nd indexA is a response to the undermentioned inquiry: “ Is the machine running at theA planned velocity? ” ThisA index canA be obtained from equation ( 4 ) .
( 4 )
ToA NakajimaA ( 1988 ) A the difference betweenA theoretical and actualA public presentation occurs due toA losingss relatedA to downtime andA bead of public presentation ( bead inA the velocity toA which the machineA wasA designed ) .
Quality Index: TheA 3rd index thatA composes theA OEEA answers the inquiry: A ” Is the machine bring forthing withA the right specifications? “ A ThisA index canA be obtained from equation ( 5 ) .
( 5 )
Overall Equipment Effectiveness ( OEE ) : OEE index, as antecedently mentioned is composed of three old indexes. Harmonizing to Jonsson and Lesshammar ( 2005 ) its aim is to analyse the effectivity of the equipment and non the operators. Therefore, it is used to verify that the machine continues to work on velocity and quality specified in your undertaking and besides to indicate out the losingss from the production system as a whole. This index can be obtained from equation ( 6 ) .
O.E.E. ( % ) = Availability x Performance x Quality ( 6 )
Therefore, the designation of losingss ( waste ) is the most of import activity in the procedure of computation of OEE the restriction of the company to place their losingss in the act prevents the Restoration of original equipment, guaranting effectual planetary range, as established when the merchandise was purchased or renovated. The O.E.E. is quoted by Kenyon, Canel and Neureuther ( 2005 ) as one of the cardinal factors to cut downing costs, increasing productiveness and therefore the net. The writers evaluate the impact of batch sizes on factors that straight influence the OEE, as measures produced, in-process stock list, net income, operating costs and lead clip.
There is no consensus on what is the ideal minimal OEE index and the literature values aˆ‹aˆ‹are from 30 % to 85 % . The most presently accepted value is 85 % , which was established by Nakajima ( 1988 ) . It is composed of 90 % handiness, 95 % efficiency and 99 % quality ( 0.90 X 0.95 Ten 0.99 = 0.85 ) .
The research was divided into three phases with triangulation between them. In the first phase was developed with the accent on quantitative measuring of OEE indexs cell machinery in the 2nd phase the accent was through qualitative analysis of the features of equipment for usage in thin production system, and eventually the 3rd phase, turned to seeking to place the quantitative features of these influences on the overall efficiency.
3.1 The company used as object of survey
The company elected to transport out this research is an car company in the metropolis of Sao Bernardo do Campo in metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil ‘s most industrialised part. The company is a planetary organisation nowadays in several states in Europe, North America, Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania, using 273,216 employees worldwide ( 2010 twelvemonth ) . This company is based in Stuttgart, Germany.
In Brazil, it has three units that have a sum of 14,073 employees ( 2010 twelvemonth ) . The unit located in Sao Bernardo do Campo employs 11,986 workers ( 2010 twelvemonth ) and has a big industrial installation where you can happen fabrication activities such as machining and assembly of mechanical constituents, activities related to the development of new merchandises and proficient support countries for across the endeavor, offering computing machine services and care of its substructure.
From 1994 to 2000 the Brazilian unit has introduced a set of patterns compatible with the thin production theoretical account, effectual patterns of Kaizen, 5S, TPM, fabricating cells. In the old ages from 2004 until 2009 the corporation began the planetary standardisation of these patterns and began to follow the OEE as a tool that enabled the comparing of consequences from process efficiency and the guided direction of resources. In 2004 and 2006, the Brazilian unit received the award of the award for best works in the application of thin constructs, doing it influential in planetary position of the corporation.
3.2 Features of the analyzed sample
The 30 fabrication cells considered in this survey belong to the production sector of the forepart and rear axles of commercial vehicle of the trade name, with 893 machines ( 2010 baseline ) distributed in a marquee of 71,650 square metres with about 1,500 employees. Table 1 shows some indexs of the sector in which the cells are located.
The store floor is composed by the latest engineering equipment and besides with equipment with more than 35 old ages ( figure 2 ) . In all devices, prognostic, preventative and disciplinary care constructs are applied.
Entire Area ( mA? )
Built-up Area ( mA? )
Annual Production ( Axes )
Productivity / Employee
Primary disbursals ( Mio )
Rationalization ( % )
Note Global Standardization
Table 1 – Annual Indexs of Manufacturing Board of Axes
Beginning: “ adapted from ” Report of the company studied.
The list of equipment includes points that perform the machining, heat intervention and assembly of assorted parts that compose the axle. The machines are aligned harmonizing to the construct of fabrication cell and work with the agenda set by the system “ kanban. “ .
The sample of 30 fabrication cells was set up 15 old ages ago, and is operated by structured work squads ( Team work ) .
The production system of these cells in the survey consists of machine tools arranged in the cell type and layout adopted in the signifier of JIT logistics.
The blessing of the quality of work is the duty of the operator, which characterizes the independent work squads ( Team Work ) .
The cell efficiency is measured by ciphering the OEE of the constriction of the cell, one that limits the productive capacity of the group of machines.
The O.E.E. is calculated in the company studied in peculiar, utilizing the index on the overall consequence of equation ( 8 ) and categorising the losingss in an specific relationship, described in a aggregation signifier and recorded in a database.
( 8 )
Figure 2 – Age of Machinery Manufacturing Board of Axes
Beginning: “ adapted from ” Report of the company studied.
The informations of day-to-day efficiency of the constrictions from the 30 cells shown in Table 2 was collected during a period of 17 months in the old ages of 2009 and 2011.
Gross Available Time
Net Available Time
Average Produced Time
O.E.E. ( mean ) Internet
Complete axle lodging assembly
Wheel Hub HL5
Complete axle lodging assembly
Wheel membranophone HL7
Steering metacarpophalangeal joint VO4
Heavy responsibility brake places
Wheel membranophone HL7
Heavy responsibility wheel disc
Steering metacarpophalangeal joint LN
Steering metacarpophalangeal joint VL3
I-Beam VL3 6,5 T
Wheel Hub VL2/HL2
Wheel Hub HL7
Differential lodging HL5/HL4R
Wheel Hub HL4
Wheel Hub VL3 5T
Medium responsibility axle lodging
Medium responsibility interruption places
Wheel hub VO4/VL4
Wheel hub M2000
Wheel membranophone VL3
Medium responsibility interruption places
Table 2 – Fabrication Cells with O.E.E. Average for the Period
The cells were grouped into three classs harmonizing to their mean efficiency:
10 cells with low public presentation, is below 75 % ,
Middle public presentation 11 cells, is between 75 % and 85 % ,
High public presentation 09 cells, were, above 85 % ,
3.3 Features of equipment for usage in cells in the thin production system.
The 2nd phase of the research started with over production runing systems the proficient literature about features straight or indirectly linked to the equipment. 15 characteristics were identified which generated 32 possible applications:
Feeding procedure is automatic or manual ;
Team work is available or non ;
Celular layout is available or non ;
The constriction is a CNC or conventional machine ;
Operator dedicated to one individual machine in the constriction, or he operates more machines ;
The work station has ergonomic issues or non ;
Preventive care is in topographic point or non ;
Statistical procedure control ( SPC ) is available or non ;
Type of machined stuff: steel or dramatis personae Fe ;
Age of the constriction equipment is older than 0, 5, 10, 20 or 30 old ages ;
One or more merchandises is ( are ) manufactured in the location ;
Weight of merchandises ;
Weekly figure of apparatuss ;
Average clip spent on each apparatus ;
Number of operators working in the cell.
Subsequently, each cell was analyzed sing the presence – a factor – or absence – 0 factor – of these features in the equipment constriction ( table 3 ) .
Table. 3 – Check list of Features of the Cells – Beginning: Writers.
4. Analysis OF DATA
4.1 Influence grade of usage features of equipment within the thin system over the efficiency of the fabrication cells.
The survey of influence on the overall efficiency began with the function of single features of each cell. Each characteristic was evaluated by their comparative engagement on each group, established in the first stage of the survey as low, medium and high public presentation.
High public presentation Group = dwelling of 09 cells with public presentation greater than or equal to 85 % ;
Middle public presentation Group = dwelling of 11 machines with public presentation between 75 % and 85 % ;
Low public presentation Group = dwelling of 10 machines with public presentation lower than or equal to 75 % .
At this phase the characteristics for which per centums appeared at the same time in two or three groups with fluctuations of the order 0 to 20 % were eliminated from farther analysis. The riddance is based on qualitative correspondence between the low presence of the characteristic and the alteration of the grade of efficiency.
Selected 10 features that most act upon the public presentation of the fabricating procedure of the sample that generated 16 most influential possibilities seen in table 4.
Loading procedure is automatic or manual ;
The constriction is out of cell layout ;
The constriction is a CNC machine ;
The constriction is simple or complex conventional machine ;
The constriction has ergonomic intervention ;
Preventive care is in topographic point ;
Type of machined stuff – steel or dramatis personae Fe ;
Age of the constriction is higher than five old ages ;
Average clip spent on each apparatus ;
Number of operators working in the fabrication cell.
Features Present in the Cells Studied Groups
Low Performance ( 10 cells )
In-between Performance ( 11 cells )
Preventive care applied
Type of Material = Steel
Age up to 5 Old ages
Set Up – Up to 10 min
Set Up – Up to 60 min
Set Up – Beyond 60 min
No Set Up
Up to 2 Operators Case
Up to 3 Operators Case
Beyond 3 Operators Case
Table 4- Summary of Attendance Percentage of 16 characteristics per fabrication cell
Statistical Analysis Data
The statistical technique employed in informations analysis was Correspondence Analysis ( GREENACRE,2003 ; 1984 ) , a non-parametric methodological analysis. Correspondence analysis is a statistical method of Multivariate Analysis of Data. Harmonizing to Hair et Al. ( 2005 ) Multivariate Data Analysis refers to all statistical methods that at the same time analyze multiple measurings on each person or object under probe.
This method is applied to big transverse tabular arraies or eventuality tabular arraies, which are fundamentally used for distinct variables. It can besides be applied to uninterrupted variables, harmonizing to Hair et Al ( 2005 ) , provided they are decently coded. It is by and large used when there is involvement in analyzing the relationships between sets of variables that are being crossed. After making the analysis, if the relationship between elements of different sets of variables, one can state that these sets are in correspondence. The Correspondence Analysis involves two sets of variables called cross-Binary Correspondence Analysis, as in the instance of more than two sets of variables cross, called Multiple Correspondence Analysis.
As a research tool, we used the Access database OEE the company studied. Their Numberss were processed with the aid of plans like Excel and SPSS 11.0 ( to obtain the parametric quantities of the descriptive statistics of the information ) and SPAD 3.6 – Portable Systeme pour l’Analyse diethylstilbestrols Donnes ( for the process of nonparametric Multivariate Correspondence Analysis ) . Using the SPAD show the influences that each of the 16 characteristics have on the fabrication cells and grouped into categories.
The first effort to bunch in three categories generated a high grade of scattering within each bunch. There was the suggestion of a new grouping with four categories which allowed a lower scattering:
Class 1 / 4 – Composed of 04 cells ;
Class 2 / 4 – Composed of 09 cells ;
Class 3 / 4 – Composed of 09 cells ;
Class 4 / 4 – Composed of 08 cells.
Figure 6.14 shows diagrammatically the consequences of the Table of the Results of grouping the four categories of cells that held 3.6 SPAD plan. Each category had the undermentioned features linked to efficiency criterions:
From the 04 cells that make up this group, 03 are high public presentation. All three have in common:
Automated workstation, load/unload is automatic and does non depend on the operator.
Preventive care is practiced.
From the 09 cells that compose this group, 05 are showing medium public presentation. They all have two things in common:
Workstation “ multi machine ” , where one operator works in two or more machines.
Apparatus with mean clip of 60 proceedingss continuance.
From the 09 cells that compose this group, 06 are low public presentation. All three have in common:
Four or more operators that interfere with the production, i.e. , the cell is composed of several employees.
Setup medium with clip over 60 proceedingss long.
They have ergonomic intervention.
Figure 3 – Graph O.E.E. Cell divided into four categories – Beginning: Writers.
From the 08 cells that compose this group, 06 are high public presentation and 02 with mean public presentation stopping point to 85 % and none with low public presentation. All three have in common:
Merely one operator that interferes with the production. e.g. : the cell is composed one individual employee lading the constriction machine.
Setup medium with clip under 10 proceedingss.
The constriction is out of cell.
Figure 4 shows the graph of the scattering of cells issued by package.
Figure 4 – Scatterplot of Characteristics of Four Classes
From the ascertained influence of the 16 chief characteristics production by cells in footings of comparative engagement in the group, along with the consequences of the three most important characteristics in the four categories harmonizing to the correspondence trial, the research identified the most representative characteristics and matching each form efficiency. The most important lucifers are verified in the comparative tabular array 7.1.
Table 7.1 – Summary of features found in the fabrication cells
The high-performance cells have in common the undermentioned features:
Load/unload automatic, significance: The operator has none or limited influence on the gait of work on the constriction ;
One operator station, intending the operator is working merely in the constriction machine/station, non working in two or more machines/stations within the workplace.
Workstation does non hold any ergonomic restraint.
Preventive care is applied
Type of machined stuff – steel.
Average clip spent on each set up until 10 proceedingss.
Number of hebdomadal apparatus equal to one or zero.
The lower the figure of the operators in the fabrication cell, the better is the public presentation
Some recommendations emerge from the information with the aim of accomplishing high public presentation in most cells and observed utilizing tools available in the thin production theoretical account:
Standardized work of operators prioritising constriction machines cells. Standardized work good applied does non necessitate the constriction machine is removed from the cell and ensures their burden as observed in the informations that point to high public presentation machines with individual operator ( features a, B, H ) . If standardised work is applied carefully about leveling undertakings between operators avoiding idling, will besides forestall intervention with the public presentation of the machines caused by deficiency of synchronism in larger groups of operators ( characteristic H )
Assuming that the standardised work good distributed and applied non convey the coveted effects, yet there would be no demand for full mechanization with greater investing. The information indicate that a localised mechanization in burden and unloading decreases the influence of beat operator and increases the public presentation category of the cell ( characteristic a )
Use of the tool fast set-up or SMED should be intensified and associated surveies for logic sequencing of alteration tools. The end is to accomplish set up below 10 proceedingss ( characteristic degree Fahrenheit, g )
The usage of TPM focused on independent and preventative care histories for loss decrease with unscheduled downtime and helps the engagement of operators. ( characteristic vitamin D ) . On machines used in working with difficult stuffs like the illustration of dramatis personae Fe, one extra preventative action should be considered or planned readying to back up these stuffs. ( characteristic vitamin E ) .
Implement plans to better the biotechnologies of occupations is an enterprise that has been adopted in kaizens to back up standardised work ( characteristic degree Celsius ) .
The research has the restriction of non quantify the single influence of each of the influencing factors. This restriction prevents to execute the anticipation of how each recommendation for betterment in the factors mentioned could ensue in betterment. However, the triangulation of informations to propose that the gradual acceptance of the factors to better standardised work and to better the handiness of machines through TPM and fast set-up showed strong grounds in the facts and attachment to the theory.
These findings are of great relevancy to emerging states because it means that in a phase of intermediate engineering, betterments in machine public presentation and productiveness in general can still be achieved without big investings by utilizing the recommendations and patterns of production direction compliant with the theoretical account thin production.