We have discussed about the assorted larning theories in the last chapter. But as aspiring instructors. it is our experience that no learning jobs can be solved by geting cognition of larning rules. The theoretical accounts of instruction will be a aid to understand the nature of instruction.
Teaching theoretical accounts are developed maintaining in position of the acquisition theories ( So that the learning theories may be indoctrinated and reaffirmed by utilizing these theoretical accounts. ) . The learning theoretical account gives a comprehensive and specific lineation of learning procedure. A learning theoretical account basically follows the six activities given below: – • determines the acquisition outcomes or instructional aims • specifies the acquisition environment
• specifies the mechanism of larning procedure
• specifies the standard of public presentation expected from pupils • analyse category room scenes and design instruction schemes to accomplish desirable results • modify the tactics if the expected behavioral alterations do non happen.
Therefore we may specify a theoretical account of learning as “an instructional design that produce peculiar environmental state of affairss ( schoolroom scene ) for pupils to teach and larn in such a manner that the expected alteration occurs in his behavior. ”
1 ) “A theoretical account of instruction is a program or form that can be used to determine course of study. to plan instructional stuffs and to steer direction in the category room and other scenes. ” – Bruce Joyce & A ; Marsha Weil 2 ) “ The theoretical account of instruction is a manner to speak and believe about direction in which certain facts may be organised. classified and interpreted. ” – Hyman
A close analysis of the above definition reveals the range and maps of a theoretical account of learning. Planing the Curriculum
Development of survey stuffs Steering the instructor • It helps in planing the course of study or classs of survey. • It helps in – development and choosing proper instructional stuffs. text books. work books. multimedia plans and CAL programme ; using the instruction stuffs decently ; planing the appropriate educational activities • It guides the instructor in learning – larning procedure by assisting to accomplish instructor –pupil interaction ; proposing the ways to make favorable environment ; choosing appropriate instruction techniques. schemes or method Ultimately the instruction theoretical accounts are utile in conveying desirable alterations and develop their societal. personal and cognitive abilities.
Features of Teaching Models
1 ) Models of learning are programs or guidelines or forms of learning. 2 ) They follow a systematic scientific process to modify the behavior of scholars. 3 ) They specify the acquisition outcomes or instructional ends and the standards of acceptable pupil public presentation. 4 ) They specify in definite footings the environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed. 5 ) All theoretical accounts of learning specify mechanism or process that provide for students’ reaction and interaction with the environment. 6 ) Models of learning are constructed on the footing of single differences and harmonizing to assorted premises. 7 ) Models of learning nowadayss appropriate learning experiences suited to learner’s demands. involvements. wonder and degree of intelligence. 8 ) The instruction theoretical accounts bring about qualitative development of teacher’s competence every bit good as student’s personality.
A theoretical account of learning enables the pupils to larn more easy and efficaciously. It will develop the needed acquisition accomplishments and wonts in scholars. Hence theoretical accounts of learning are in fact theoretical accounts of acquisition. Because here the instructor aid pupils to get information. thoughts. accomplishments. values. ways of thought and agencies of showing themselves ; the instructor besides learn them how to larn.
On the footing of this treatment. we can reason that a theoretical account of learning consists of guidelines of planing educational activities and environments. It specifies ways of instruction and acquisition to accomplish certain sorts of educational ends. It is a bluish print for transporting out the undertaking of learning larning procedure.
Categorization of Teaching Models
A figure of educationists have developed theoretical accounts of learning from assorted beginning – analyzing schoolroom state of affairss. psychological theories. confer withing healers and so on. It was Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil who have identified these assorted theoretical accounts and classified them into four households based on the nature. typical features and effects of the theoretical accounts. But these theoretical accounts are being revised and new 1s are added on history of the research surveies conducted on their effectivity.
The four households of learning theoretical accounts as classified by Joyce and Weil are: –
1. Information Processing Family
These theoretical accounts focus on the rational capacity and growing. They are concerned with the ability of scholar to detect. organize informations. understand information. signifier constructs. work out jobs. and utilize verbal and non verbal symbols.
2. Personal Models
These theoretical accounts focus on the personal development of the person. They develop self-awareness and understanding. It develops capacity for ego acquisition. They are besides concerned with human feelings and emotions and aid to develop positive relationship with the environment.
The accent of personal theoretical accounts is on the alone character of human being. to develop him as an integrated. confident and competent personality. They attempt to determine instruction in such a manner that pupils understands themselves better and go more competent. stronger. sensitive and originative in their lives.
arvey. Harry Schroder | | | | |Develop maximal capacity for personal development | | |Abraham Maslow | | |5. Self realization | | |
3. Social Interaction Models
They emphasise the relationships of the person to the society and to other people. They enable pupils to work together. fit them with democratic values and learn them to analyze societal issues and critical societal values. The societal household of theoretical accounts help pupils to spread out their cognitive degree through interactions with others. to work fruitfully in a group and to utilize both single and group positions. It develops accomplishments and values required in human dealingss.
4. Behavioral Systems Models
These theoretical accounts are based on the behavioristic school of psychological science. The accent is on altering the behavior of the scholar.
These theoretical accounts are used in a broad assortment of applications from learning information. constructs. and accomplishments ; supplying comfort and relaxation ; bring arounding phobic disorder ; altering wonts ; to larn how to command one’s behavior.
Elementss of a Teaching Model
A instruction theoretical account has a definite construction. The operation of each theoretical account is described within this construction. For utilizing a theoretical account. the instructor must cognize the cardinal elements of the construction of a theoretical account. The major elements needed for the description of a theoretical account are – Focus. Syntax. Social System. Principles of Reaction. Support System and the Instructional and Nurturant effects. 1. Focus: – It is the cardinal subject of a instruction theoretical account. It describes the ends and aims of the theoretical account. the rules and major constructs underlying the theoretical account and the description of the environment required.
2. Syntax: – The sentence structure or phasing of the theoretical account describes the theoretical account in action. Syntax is described in footings of sequence of activities called stages. Each theoretical account has a distinguishable flow of stages.
3. Social System: – The societal system describes the functions of instructor and pupils and the relationship between them. In some theoretical accounts. the instructor is the Centre of activity. the beginning of information and authoritative in nature. In other theoretical accounts the instructor may be an organizer. reflector or facilitator of group activity. promoting a great trade of societal and rational independency through the active engagement of pupils. In some other theoretical accounts both the instructor and pupil portion the activities every bit. The first instance where the interactions are all pre planned is a extremely structured societal system ; whereas the 2nd instance is low structured and the 3rd a reasonably or medium structured societal system. The societal system of all theoretical accounts can be varied to accommodate to the nature of pupils. The function of the instructor and the manner the pupil behavior is rewarded. varies from theoretical account to pattern.
4. Principles of Chemical reaction: – This aspects tells how the instructor should see and react to what scholar does. It provides the instructor. the regulations to choose appropriate responses to pupils as per the theoretical account demands. For e. g. in some theoretical accounts. the instructor shapes behaviour of pupils by honoring certain pupil activities and keeping impersonal stance towards others. In the theoretical accounts designed to develop creativeness. instructors may keep a impersonal stance to let pupils to go autonomous.
5. Support System: – It indicates the back uping conditions necessary for the proper operation of the theoretical account. It includes books. movies. research lab kits. mention stuffs. audio ocular AIDSs. programmed texts. etc to provide to the demands of the single scholar.
6. Instructional and Nurturant Effectss: – Every instruction theoretical account produces two types of larning effects. They are categorised as given below. < Instructional effects are the direct effects of the learning theoretical account attained from the acquisition activities based on the content and accomplishments. < Nurturant effects are the indirect effects achieved through sing the environment created by the theoretical account.
A instructor may choose any peculiar instruction theoretical account for its nurturant effects instead than the direct effects. if the state of affairs demands that. Differences between learning theoretical accounts and learning methods.
Models of learning differs from methods of learning in many facets.
A method is used for the dealing of content. Presentation of the capable affair is the nucleus procedure of learning method. The instructor adopts a method as determined by the content to be taught. The instruction methods are applicable to all learning state of affairss. Different learning methods can be used for showing a peculiar subject. every bit good as the same method can be employed to accomplish different aims.
But theoretical accounts of learning purpose at realization of pre-determined aims beside content dealing. They emphasise on definite phases or the stages of presentation. The instruction theoretical accounts besides have a formal construction of the sequence of Acts of the Apostless to be carried out in the category room scenes. The instructor selects a peculiar theoretical account in conformity with the aim to be achieved. All theoretical accounts can non be applied to all state of affairss as they are normative learning schemes to gain a specific instructional ends. Hence different theoretical accounts are required to accomplish assorted instructional ends. While a learning method focal point on the impressive presentation of content. the instruction theoretical accounts aim at making complete acquisition environments.
Models of learning are supported by sound psychological theories of larning. It besides gives accent to the metacognitive facets in acquisition.