On 23rd October 1946, a new air hose was born. Initially registered as a pilot undertaking in Calcutta, Orient Airways Ltd. had at its helm Mr. M.A. Ispahani as Chairman and Air frailty Marshal O.K. Carter as General Manager. The new bearer ‘s base remained in Calcutta and an operating licence was obtained in May 1947.
Four Douglas DC-3s were purchased from Tempo of Texas in February 1947 and operations commenced on 4th June 1947. The designated path for Orient Airways was Calcutta-Akyab-Rangoon, which besides happened to be the first post-war international sector to be flown by an air hose registered in India. Within two months of Orient Airways ‘ operational beginnings, Pakistan was born. The birth of a new state generated one of the largest transportations of population in the history of world.
Orient Airways, along with the aid of BOAC aircraft which had been chartered by the Government of Pakistan, started alleviation operations and transit of people between Delhi and Karachi, the two capitals. Subsequently, Orient Airways transferred its base to Pakistan and established a critical nexus between Karachi and Dacca, the two capitals of the two wings of Pakistan. With a skeleton fleet of merely two DC-3s, three crew members, and twelve mechanics, Orient Airways launched its scheduled operations in a fairy-tale mode. The initial paths were Karachi-Lahore-Peshawar, Karachi-Quetta-Lahore and Karachi-Delhi Calcutta-Dacca. By the terminal of 1949, Orient Airways had acquired 10 DC-3s and 3 Convair 240s which were operated on these paths. In 1950, it had become progressively evident that extra capacity would hold to be inducted to provide to the turning demands of the sub-continent.
The intent of this survey is to look into the impact of Job Satisfaction and Motivation of the employees employed by PIA ( Pakistan International Airline ) . The thought of this survey is to look into and place those factors which are doing high motive and occupation satisfaction among the employees.
This is a descriptive survey based on the impact of motive and occupations among employees employed by PIA. In today ‘s fast paced epoch environment of the direction is to how the directors can better the degree of motive and occupation satisfaction of employees. So that the company attain a dependable and efficient work force. The inquiries that are to be answered by this survey are:
How some employees are satisfied from their occupation as comparison to others.
How some employees perform better than others
What are the ways through which direction can better the motive of its employees
Attracting, rewarding, presenting and actuating clients are a challenge. It requires better service, realistic public presentation, outlooks and a supportive work environment
Theories of Motivation
Motivation theories are of two types i.e. Content theory and Process theory
Basically content theory of motive focal points on those factors which are involved with the persons that energizes, directs, sustains and stops behavior. To actuate people they determine the actualized and specific demands. On the other manus procedure theory describes and analyzes that how the behavior on single or individual is stopped by those factors which are external i.e. energized, directed and sustained. Both theories have of import impact on directors who are involved in the motivational procedure as per their occupation nature ( Gibson et al, 2000 ) .
Kini and Hobson ( 2002 ) agreed with the differentiation explained above between content and procedure theories which suggested that the theory of content is associated with the importance of internal elements which are identified and the prioritization involved with the person ‘s account of these elements. While procedure theory imposes on peculiar psychological procedures underlying action and emphasized on explicating the operation of single determination system in order to associate it to the behavior.
Process theory of Motivation
Process theory of motive attempts to explicate and depict the factors which are external to the person, that energize, direct, sustain and halt behavior. The major theories of motive are discussed above includes the undermentioned theories which are as follows:
Social acquisition theory
Goal puting theory
Job design theory
Social acquisition theory
Learning is typically the cardinal procedures which are based on the behavior and in bend, motive. In organisations about every person ‘s behavior is learnt. Percept, attitudes, ends and emotional reactions are learned. Skills – e.g. programming a system or reding de-motivated employee can be learned. Basically significance and utilizations of linguistic communication used are learned. Learning is an on-going procedure by which the comparatively occurring alterations in the behavior as a consequence of practise ( Gibson et al, 2000 ) .
In another point of position larning occurs as a consequence of behavior, and this acquisition is called operant conditioning. Late universe celebrated behaviorist B.F.Skinner is the individual closely associated with this type of larning that is operant conditioning. Many rules of this theory can assist directors who attempt to act upon behavior. An of import rule of acquisition is enforcement. Generally internal cause of behavior is motive while external cause is reinforcement.
Positive support occurs when a positively valued inducement ‘s follows a response to a stimulation. Positive support can be anything that both increases the strength of response and induces repeats of the behaviors that preceded the support.
Negative support occurs when the public presentation of the behavior is increased or diverted due to unwanted state of affairs instantly after the response.
The existent account of anticipation theory was developed by Victor Vroom. Early surveies ( about 50 ) tested the deduction tested the truth of anticipation theory in foretelling employee behavior. The anticipation theory defined in vroom ‘s construct is that motive as a procedure regulating picks among the options signifiers of voluntary activity. From his point of position largely behaviors are under control of the persons and are persistently motivated. Expectancy theory is by and large explained in four constructs:
First and 2nd degree outcomes- the results of the first degree are ensuing from behavior that is linked with making the occupation itself which includes turnover, quality of productiveness, absenteeism and productiveness. The results of the 2nd degree are those events such as penalties and wagess that the results of the first degree are likely to bring forth such as group credence or rejection, merit wage increase and publicity.
The mention to the person ‘s perceptual experience that the result of the first degree is related with results of 2nd degree is instrumentality.
As seen by the person the penchant of the results is valance e.g. a individual March prefer a 10 % increase in the wage over a transportation to another subdivision. The result is that the in positively valent the offer is preferred and in negatively valent it is avoided.
The person ‘s belief refers to the anticipation is concerned with the likeliness or descriptive possibility that a certain behavior will be followed by a certain result such as ; degree of public presentation ( Gibson et al, 2000:160-161 ) .
Equity theory of motive was tested and developed by J.Stacey Adams. The basic construct of equity theory of motive is that the attempts and wagess of the employees are compared with others in similar work state of affairss. Basically the theory of motive is based on the premise that persons, who work for wagess from the house, and are motivated with a perceptual experience to be every bit treated at work. The care of the employee ‘s perceptual experience of equity in the on the job environment is administered by the direction. There are four footings on which the theory is based i.e.
Person: the person for equity or unfairness is perceived
Comparison with others: any person ( s ) or group used by individual as referent sing the ratios of inputs and results.
Input signals: the single characteristic brought by individual to the occupation this may be achieved ( e.g. accomplishments, experience, cognition and acquisition ) or ascribed ( e.g. age, gender, race ) .
Results: what individual received from the occupation ( e.g. acknowledgment, periphery benefits and wage ) .
The ratio of the inputs ( attempts ) to their results ( wagess ) is tantamount to the ratios of other similar employees is the perceptual experience of the employees where the equity exists. When an persons ain ratio of inputs to results could be greater or less than that of others, the ratio are n’t tantamount, inequity exist ( Gibson et al, 2000: 164-165 ) .
The proposition of this theory is that the persons are motivated to stabilise just or “ just ” relationships between themselves and to alter those unjust “ unjust ” relationships ( Kini and Hobson, 2002: 605 ) .
Goal puting theory
Edwin Locke proposed that end puting theory was a cognitive procedure of some practical public-service corporation. Edwin ‘s position was that an person ‘s purposes and witting ends are the primary factors of behavior. A end is the action of an object i.e. it ‘s a individual efforts to accomplish. Locke besides carefully determined the features of the cognitive ( mental ) procedures of end scene which are as follows:
The grade of quantitative preciseness ( lucidity ) of the end refers to the end specificity.
The grade of proficiency or the degree of public presentation sought is end trouble.
Goal strength pertains to the procedure of puting the end or finding how to make it.
Higher attempt and public presentation consequences when people commit to hard and specific ends instead than to obscure committednesss.
Monetary inducements will impact public presentation merely to the extent that such inducements influence the pick of ends and the extent of end committedness.
Goal committedness will interact with end trouble to find public presentation.
Goal scene is instead complex and hard to prolong
Goal puting plants good for simple occupations ( clerks, typists, lumbermans, and technicians ) , but non for complex occupations. Goal puting with occupations in which ends are n’t measured has posed some jobs
Goal puting encourages game playing. Puting low ends to look good.
Goal scene is used as another cheque on employees. It ‘s a control device to supervise public presentation
Goal achievement can go an compulsion. In some state of affairss, end compositors have become so haunted with accomplishing their ends that they neglect other of import countries of their occupations ( Gibson et al,2000 )
Job Design Theory
Task characteristic theory ( occupation design ) ( JD ) : Seek to place undertaking features of occupations, how these features combined in order to organize occupations that are different, and their relationships to employee motive, satisfaction, and public presentation ( Kini and Hobson, 2002: 605 ) . The Hackman-Oldman occupation features theoretical account, a derived function of this theory developed in Japan which contends that supplying employees with undertaking assortment, undertaking identify, undertaking significance, undertaking liberty, and feed back, will take to three critical psychological provinces ( experient meaningfulness of the work, experient duty for results, and cognition of the existent consequences ) which, in bend, will take to high internal motive, high quality work public presentation, high work satisfaction, and low absenteeism and turnover ( McAfee, Quarstein, and Ardalan,1995 ) .
The impact of this theory for direction is in order to maintain the employees satisfied and motivated in their occupations, so directors must:
Employees should be provided with a assortment of accomplishments on their workplace
Employees should be given independency and freedom to agenda and plan their undertakings
One on the most of import portion that directors must supply changeless feedback as to how employees are mensurating to put ends.
Contented theories of Motivation
Employees on their work convey their feelings, beliefs and perceptual experiences which determine their modus on day-to-day operation and day-to-day undertakings. It is the ground that directors invariably seek to understand, explicate the nature of employee ‘s behavior is being predicted by the directors. Contented theories of motive explain and describe factors within the individual that energize, direct, sustain and halt behavior. The major theories of motive are explained as under:
Maslow ‘s demand hierarchy
Aderfer ‘s ERG theory
McClelland ‘s erudite demand ; and theory of demands
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs
The widely cited and discussed motive theory i.e. the demand hierarchy theoretical account is presented by Abraham Maslow. In this theoretical account the lowest degree demands are the physiological demands, and the highest -level demands are for self-actualization. Maslow defined human demands as under:
Physiological: the demand for H2O, nutrient, shelter and alleviation from hurting.
Safety and security: the demand for freedom from menace and safety of life.
Belongingness, societal, and love: the demand for friendly relationship, association, interaction and love household etc.
Esteem: the demand for self-esteem and for regard from others
Self-actualization: the demand of carry throughing oneself by maximising the usage of abilities and accomplishments.
Maslow ‘s theory assumes that an single efforts to fulfill the more basic demands i.e. the physiological demands before directing the behavior towards fulfilling upper degree demands i.e. self-actualization.
Lower order or degree demands must be satisfied before a higher order need such as self-actualization begins to command an person ‘s behavior. Harmonizing to Maslow, a satisfied needs leads motive or it motivates.
Aldersfer ‘s ERG theory
Alderfer agreed with Abraham Maslow that demands are arranged in hierarchy. His proposed hierarchy of demands involves three sets of demands which are follows:
Being: the demands which are satisfied with such factors as H2O, air, wage, nutrient and working conditions.
Relatedness: the demands that are satisfied with the love of household, friends, societal and interpersonal relationships.
Growth: the demands which are satisfied by an single devising productive and originative parts.
Three demands presented by Aldefer ‘s – being ( E ) , relatedness ( R ) , and growing ( G ) , or ERG relates or correspond to Maslow ‘s in the being demands are similar to Maslow ‘s physiological and safety classs ; the relatedness demands are similar to the belongingness, societal and love class ; and the growing demands are similar to the regard and self-actualization classs. Maslow proposed that unfilled demands at one degree are most of the importance and that needs on the following higher degree are n’t activated until the presently need s are fulfilled or satisfied. In contrast to Alderfer ‘s ERG theory says that in add-on to satisfaction-progression procedure that Maslow proposed, a defeat arrested development procedure is besides at work by the same clip. Alderfer and Maslow need theories of motive have been criticized. Necessitate theories have been regarded as simple, really easy expressed positions of human behavior ( Gibson et al, 2000 ) .
McClelland ‘s erudite theory of demands
Learned theory of motive was proposed and presented by David C. McClelland and this theory is closely related with learning constructs. David believed that many of our demands are acquired from the civilization of a society. There are three learned demands which are the demand for accomplishment ( n Ach ) , the demand for association ( n Aff ) , and the demand of power ( n Pow ) .
It was suggested by McClelland that when demand is strong in an person, the effects that arises is to actuate him or her to utilize behaviour taking to satisfaction.
Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Based on perceptual experiences, attitudes, personality and larning motive plays a really of import function in understanding behavior. Job satisfaction is a consequence of employees believing that how their occupations supply them what is of import. Harmonizing to ( Mitchell and lasan, 1987 ) , it is recognized that in the field of organisational behavior that occupation satisfaction often and most studied attitude.
Motivation and occupation satisfaction can be studied through several attacks content theories and through reinforcement theories. Specifically the term employee motive is complicated and hard to specify. The animation of an organisation whether it ‘s private or public, comes from the motive of their work force and their abilities plays important function in their work public presentation ( Lewis, Goodman and Fandt, 1995 ) .
Support is explained as any consequence that causes behavior to be repeated which can be either positive or negative ( Naylor, 1999, p.540 ) . Skinner ( 1939, 1971 ) conducted several surveies and came up with the thought of conditioning theoretical account which proposed that if pleasant effects follow a behavior, the behavior will be given to go on whereas, if unpleasant behavior will be given to go on so the behavior will be given to go on whereas, if unpleasant effects follow a behavior the behavior tends to halt. ( Luthans & A ; Kreitner, 1985 ) . Reinforcement theory relies on two premises: foremost, behavior of homo is determined by the milieus and environment and 2nd, human behavior is capable to discernible Torahs. The “ Law of consequence ” is the foundation of the support effects whether are negative or Positive behavior will be repeated ( Lewis et al, 1995 ) .
The work motive theories that have been merely explained have been used for centuries merely to explicate that what motivates persons to work. And the same theories can be used to happen out that how other people are satisfied in their occupations. For illustration as Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of demands explains that if people are happy and satisfied o their occupations if there demands are met. And larning theories proposed that by seeing others rewarded for certain criterions of public presentation people would be motivated. And on the other manus if people will see their colleagues are being punished for non run intoing the criterions of the organisation or non carry throughing the demands of the organisation they will seek to work harder to avoid the hurting or abuse of being punished and so on.
Some people say that occupation satisfaction is simple that how people feel sing their occupations and different stages of their occupations ( Sector, 1997 ) . This assumes that employees will be satisfied or happy if they like their occupations. Another position of Job Satisfaction is that felicity is associated with making a peculiar occupation as expressed by the job-holder ( Gibson et al, 2000 ) . The feelings and attitudes one has about one ‘s occupation whether positive and negative, good and bad are likely to lend for the development of feelings of satisfaction ( Riggio, 2000 ) .
The methodological analysis that has been adopted for the related topic survey is exactly described below:
The industry which I select for the research is the Airline Industry.
Population and Sample size
The population of the industry was really big therefore convenience sampling has been done for this survey. The sample consists of persons who are working in PIA ‘s human resource section and Information engineering section on in-between degree and lower degree employees.
Sample drawn from this industry is 60 respondents. From them 30 are working as a in-between degree and 30 are working as lower degree employees. The respondents belong to section ‘s i.e. human resource section and information engineering section.
Data aggregation method
For the intent of informations aggregation an instrument ( i.e. questionnaires ) will be used.
Data will be analyzed on the footing of the employee ‘s response to the questionnaire, in which saloon and pie charts are a portion of analysis