This assignment will show positions about the two most good cognize motive theories ; hierarchy of demands and dual-structure hierarchy. These two theories are selected sing the fact that Albania has late switched from a communism economic system to a market economic system and is still considered a hapless state by Western European criterions, so the fulfilment of basic demands are still a important incentive.
This state of affairs is farther analyzed inside an international based company, Banka Societe Generale Albania, to see how the demand factors are applied in a practical scenario of the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours work.
An illustration of a complex undertaking is analyzed as a instance survey in order to discourse motive theories and research the application of these theories in undertaking organisation.
There are many differences between a normal structural organisation and a undertaking organisation, but, when it comes to motive, the same theories can be used. However there are differences on the function of a traditional director and a undertaking director in a motive procedure.
Concluding decision is that these two theories are a valid theoretical account of motive, that though some alteration can assist directors understand, develop and use human potency.
About Societe Generale Albania
Banking sector continues to be one of the most of import economic sectors and one of the most rapid turning concerns in Albania in the last 10 twelvemonth ( Bank of Albania, 2010, www.bankofalbania.org ).
Societe Generale Albania, antecedently named Banka Popullore, started its activity on 1st of Red planets 2004. In 18th of April 2007, Societe Generale Group acquired 75.01 % of the portions of this bank. The bank has its caput office in Tirana and is present allover Albania with 41 operation subdivisions. At the terminal of 2009, the bank had 379 employees, both Albanian and Gallic nationality ( Annual Report 2009, 2010, www.societegenerale.al ).
About the instance survey
Bing one of the most of import economic sectors has created adequate infinite for operation of 17 Banks in a comparatively little market like Albania. With such a high competition it is really of import that Bankss stay ever in line with economic developments and respond fast toward client demands for new merchandises or version. Our bank is rather little and there are often high force per unit areas for sharing resources in order to finish in clip and with budget different operational or concern enterprises. These demands has made mandatary for bank direction to use a matrix organisational layout in our organisation.
Such organisational construction are rather complex when it comes to direction and control of staff public presentation, as they bring the employee in forepart of two directors, the section director and the undertaking director. Now twenty-four hours ‘s undertaking direction is going a cardinal constituent of the success for every organisation in any sector and such the motive of employees working in undertakings is of a great involvement for both the undertaking director, as the chief donee, and the organisation. There a batch of researches and surveies for motive in standard organisational construction, but the subject is considered as less explored when it comes to project direction ( Dwivedula and Bredillet, 2009 ).
Why does a undertaking directors need motive and motivated staff? Do the theories apply the same in every state? Can the same theories apply in standard organisation and in undertaking? Are they depending on the economic state of affairs of the state? Is motive a determination or a procedure? Do we utilize motive to hold more control over our employee?
These are some of the inquiry I would wish to turn to in this assignment by supplying a reappraisal of 2 good known theories and their application in my organisation during a undertaking.
Theories of motives
“ Motivation is the driving force within persons that compels them physiologically and psychologically to prosecute one or more ends to carry through their demands or outlooks, ” ( Lam and Tang, 2003, p. 61 ).
There are presently a batch of theories to explicate the nature of motive and aid troughs on turn toing it harmonizing to their demands. These theories do non conflict between them, which means the director can utilize any of them or even unite them. In my assignments I will be focused in 2 theories ; “ The hierarchy of demands ” as the most first one and most good known by all sort of directors and “ The dual-structure theory ” since it was developed based on a research on applied scientists and histories, which is about the same environment and employee nature as in my bank. Another ground for choosing these theories is the fact that both of them have as a starting point the fulfilment of basic human demands and in the development states we meet a high demand of them.
The Hierarchy of Needs
This is one of the most good know need theories of motive and was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1940. Harmonizing to this theory the demands are organized in 5 chief groups of demands that stay together in the signifier of a pyramid ( Maslow, 1943 ) :
Physiological Needs ; they stay in the underside of the pyramid and include the basic demands of every human been such as: the demand for nutrient, drink, instruction, medical attention, etc. Every organisation can supply these demands by supplying good on the job status and a salary to their employees.
Security Needs ; includes the demand for experiencing safe and secure, holding a unafraid occupation, holding a place and a hereafter. The organisation can fulfill these demands by offering occupation continuity, wellness and retirement programs.
Belongingness Needs ; includes the demands of worlds to love and be loved, to be accepted by others, to take and give friendly relationship. Most of this needs acquire satisfied by the household ties, but this is non adequate since we spend a considerable clip of our life in our plants. Directors and direct supervisors can play a important function to fulfill these demands by promoting the work in group, heighten their communicating with employees and provided footing for societal interaction between employees.
Esteem Needs ; the demands of this group in be divided into two major demands, the demand for self regard and the demand for being respected by others. The organisations and directors can fulfill this by occupation rubric, awards, acknowledgment of virtues, benefits etc.
Self-Actualization Needs ; is the highest degree of the hierarchy and includes the demand we have to be the one we want to be in order to be self fulfilled. If all the other degrees of the hierarchy are to the full satisfied, it does non stay a batch for the directors to make to fulfill this demand, all they need to take attention off is make certain the person has a ambitious occupation and that other demands in lower degree become deficient.
Harmonizing to the theory the demands of each degree should be satisfied before traveling to the following degree until we reach the self-actualization demands, nevertheless if during our route to the top of hierarchy, a lower degree of demand become lacking once more the single returns to that degree ( Moorhead and Griffin, 1995 ).
Despite the fact that the theory is good recognized among many organisation and directors due to the intuitive logic and easy apprehension, the theory is non to the full validated either by Maslow or any other research, in contrary many lacks have been identified ( Wahba and Bridwell, 1976 )
The most common unfavorable judgment is the limited figure of people used in his research and coming out with decisions for everybody
( Boeree, 2006, hypertext transfer protocol: //webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html ), this of class does non look really scientific.
Another of import one, are the constrains Maslow put on the self-actualization. He pointed out that the ego realization is in the top of his hierarchy and can be reached merely when all the other demands are satisfy. In opposite to this there are many illustrations where people show end products of self-actualization by being menu from fulfilment of their basic or belongingness demands.
It is of import to advert that if we carefully evaluate the hierarchy we see that the most basic demands, up to the 3rd degree, are normally satisfied by the authorities and/or organisation regulations and ordinance. If we go up in the hierarchy of demands more we see that there are direct supervisors and squad members who help to fulfill these demands and turn them in incentive for bettering occupation public presentation.
The Dual-Structure Theory
The theory was developed by Herzberg on late fiftiess based on a research with a twosome of 100 applied scientists and histories ( Herzberg, 1968 ). The determination of this research proved that different set of factors were connected with different feelings about work. The motive of an employee goes in a two measure procedure, foremost fulfilling the employee ( extinguish any factor which may convey dissatisfaction ) by hygiene factors and 2nd spell with motive factors. The motive factors would ensue at the terminal with satisfied and motivated employees who can hold a long term and positive occupation public presentation. The combination of these factors can put employee in four state of affairss ( Herzberg, 1987 ) :
Satisfied and motivated employee. The mark state of affairs for holding the best public presentation.
Satisfied but non motivated. The director should happen the manner to use motive factors and alter the position ; otherwise the de-motivated employee will convey low productiveness and bad quality.
Not satisfied but motivated. The company should alter its policies and regulations and seek to alter the state of affairs. An employee is non expected to remain to long in this position.
Not satisfied and non motivated. The worst state of affairs, both company and directors have a batch to make. These employees will convey to the concern apart from the low productiveness and bad quality a batch of complains, work stoppages, no communicating.
The hygiene factors ( salary, company policies, competency, interpersonal dealingss, working conditions, etc ) when they exist are in placed by the company scheme and/or authoritiess regulations and they are non straight related to the public presentation and ability of anybody. In opposite with them, the employee can acquire the motive factors ( acknowledgment, accomplishment, work itself, promotion, and duty ) merely by his engagement and his work. ( McCrimmon, 2008 ).
The theory has been analyzed more than any other theory in the field of organisational behaviour ( Pinder, 1998 ) and the consequences are quite contradictory. Studies and research workers which use the same method support the theory, other 1s knock it for the research population used, which is limited merely to comptrollers and applied scientists, for non taking into history the single differences, since a motive factor can depend single age and/or organisational theoretical account ( House and Wigdor, 1967 ).
Herzberg ‘s theory provinces that money does non actuate employees but lone satisfies them ( Herzberg, 1968 ), due to this statement the theory is widely discussed and analyzed in surveies and researches about the rewarding and motive ( Beel, 2007 ).The rewords protagonists are wholly against it and they say it does non hold groundss to turn out that money is non a motive. Another facet of critics is the fact that the theory does non take in consideration the fortunes, what does actuate an employee today, non necessary satisfy and motivate another one tomorrow ( Robbins, 2005 ).
Ocular presentation of the double construction theory ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tutor2u.net/business/people/motivation_theory_herzberg.asp, Nov 2010 )
Motivation in Project direction
PRINCE2 manual defines a undertaking as:
“ a direction environment that is created for the intent of presenting one or more concern merchandises harmonizing to a specified concern instance. ”
Another definition is:
“ a impermanent organisation that is needed to bring forth a alone and pre-define result or consequence at a pre-specified clip utilizing pre-determined resources ”.
Bing a impermanent organisation and with specific marks, the undertaking organisation is a more complex construction than a normal organisation unit and different regulations and patterns are applied in every facet of organisational behaviour, including motive.
Description of instance survey
In 2008, our bank started a 15 months undertaking for migration of bing nucleus banking system into a new and modern one as portion of the group scheme for mutualization of IT services. The undertaking squad was composed by more than twenty high qualified employees coming from different sections and sectors, different instruction background, covering many different places such as ; transcribers, concern analysts, IT developers, organisation and even a public relationship specializer. The bank knew since the get downing that such a challenging and multidimensional undertaking could non win within the specified clip and budget without a motivated squad.
The bank manfully considered the premise that people are motivated by money. This was coming from their experience with the gross revenues force in the subdivision web and missing of experience on running horizontal cut acrossing undertaking in undertaking manner. They provided undertaking staff with a simple fillip schemes based on their public presentation with a upper limit of one monthly wage. The fillip was delivered one time in the center of the undertaking and one time in the terminal of it.
In add-on to this bank has tried to supply good working status, apply policy on compensation and benefit, ensuing on payment of societal and wellness insurances, use Global Employee Share Ownership plan, so staff has non merely the position of employee but besides have a stockholder position ( BHFM/SGO/REF, 2007 ), and besides use some flexibleness working hours.
It is of import to foreground since the beginning that motive in undertaking is different from motive in standard organisation substructure. There are 2 major differences ( Schmid & A ; Adams, 2008 ), the first one is related to the fact that in undertakings undertakings and leaders are impermanent. Can a undertaking director do something in a short or mid term period of clip to actuate its employee, even if the organisation motive is non in the needed degree? The 2nd difference is each undertaking goes through some chief stages ; planning, put to deathing, monitoring and shutting, so different factors should be used to actuate the squad in different undertaking positions.
If we get back and see company has already addressed some of the hygiene factors, but because of the no experience on the field the bank has wholly under evaluated the occupation security factor and has non provided the undertaking staff with a clear position of what will be their place in the bank at the terminal of the undertaking. This of import factor was become case in point for staff go forthing the undertaking and the bank merely before the shutting stage of the undertaking and causation holds and increase insecurity among other members. As a consequence of this, high qualified staff found themselves de-motivated and acquiring back to the really basic degree of demands hierarchy.
If we go up in the hierarchy of demands we see that the company has non done plenty to carry through the societal demands of this squad, no societal activities were organized, for illustrations ; parties, organized trips or happy hours. Harmonizing to Dwivedula and Bredillet ( 2010 ) a positive work clime of the group is achieved when all members have sufficient undertaking mutuality, one common aim to accomplish and of class a good relationship and changeless communicating with each other. Social activities are of import to hold a positive work environment, but the undertaking director has to be really careful and measure each state of affairs so, if one individual intrinsic motive is alienated so it may convey the spillover consequence and de-motivated the full squad ( Schmid and Admas, 2008 ).
Based on Herzberg dual-structure theory we know that satisfied employee is non plenty to hold motivated employee. Undertaking and organisation direction had addressed the acknowledgments and accomplishments factors by set uping an internal magazine distributed monthly to all bank staff and to the full dedicated to the undertaking squad and their accomplishments.
We indicated above that the bank allowed some of the undertaking squad members to hold flexible working hours, this was a really positive thing, witch decently addresses the position factor by doing them make full different and appreciated.
How where the staff selected to be portion of the undertaking? Where they volunteering or merely appointed without their will? Most of the squad was appointed to the undertaking. Harmonizing to a research made by Aller, Lyth and Mallak ( 2008 ) the creative activity of undertaking squad utilizing Mingling Method gives an involvement and motivated squad which besides has the appropriate accomplishments and abilities to do the occupation. Despite the fact that this research is addressed to the apparatus of squads in university undertakings, it can be utile and applicable in creative activity of each undertaking squad. When used and combined with other methods this would assist on achieving of a high occupation satisfaction degree of the squad members.
Employee public presentation is determined by three chief things:
ability to make the occupation ;
work environment ; and
motive ( Griffin, 1990, p.437 )
The first two 1s can be better addressed by the lasting organisation of the bank as most likely they need clip and investings. Staff non being able to execute an activity may necessitate to be trained to make so, good working environment besides need investings and clip to be in located. Motivation from the other side is something which can instantly better the public presentation is managed decently.
Undertakings by definition are a impermanent organisation ; this automatically excludes or reduces them from turn toing ability and work environment and wholly concentrate on the motive. Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands and Herzberg ‘s dual-structure theory are valid theoretical accounts of motive in undertaking direction and in development states. These theoretical accounts should non be seen as frozen theories ; they should be decently evaluated, used and interpreted by each undertaking director to excite squad members, growing their single development, reach undertakings ends and increase productiveness in organisation. However we should ever maintain in head that some people may hold exclusions organize this hierarchy.
The bank can assist its undertaking leader by executing studies which would state what the employee ‘s penchants for occupation motive are. Often the strongest incentives for employee are the things they miss more in their occupation (.Wiley, 1995 )