Ecopreneurs are those enterprisers who start for-profit concerns and who sell green merchandises or services. This is an emerging field where research is still in its babyhood, particularly in South Africa. Research has been called for to understand the factors that motivate these ecopreneurs to get down concerns and that is the focal point of this survey. The purpose of this research study is to compare the findings with consequences of extant literature on ecopreneurial motives outside of South Africa.
This research undertaking comprises 10 in-depth interviews of ecopreneurs in South Africa. Participants were interviewed in a face-to-face, unstructured format. Secondary beginnings such as printed selling stuff and company web sites were besides collected.
It was found that ecopreneurs in South Africa were motivated by 10 factors, in order of prevalence: passion and significance ; placing a spread in the market ; values ; money ; break and alteration ; independency ; family-related incentives ; covering with pleasant people ; vision and the least prevailing, work-related incentives. Ecopreneurs appear to hold rather similar motives to enterprisers in general, aside from their passion and values. Their fiscal motives were found to be secondary to other motives like passion and values. This research study presents a figure of parts to both the ecopreneurship and entrepreneurship literatures.
There was a deficiency in diverseness in the sample and the state context of South Africa influences the consequences.
This is the first sample of ecopreneurs in South Africa to day of the month. Given the emerging nature of the field of ecopreneurship, this survey ‘s decisions require farther research and testing. A sum of seven such suggestions for future research are made.
Ecopreneurs, Entrepreneurs, Motivation, Meaning and Values.
I declare that this research undertaking is my ain work. It is submitted in partial fulfillment of the demands for the grade of Master of Business Administration at the Gordon Institute of Business Science, University of Pretoria. It has non been submitted before for any grade or scrutiny in any other University. I further declare that I have obtained the necessary mandate and consent to transport out this research.
Neville James Bosman
26 September 2012
Thankss to the undermentioned people for their support and part:
To my kids, Ella, Joshua, Ava and Nicholas for their forfeits and for their love and support.
To my supervisor Judi for her antic penetrations and ever believing in me.
To all the interviewees, for sharing their narratives, experiences and acquisition.
List of figures
List of tabular arraies
It ‘s non the size of the Canis familiaris in the battle that counts,
but the size of the battle in the Canis familiaris
– Mark Couple
Chapter ONE: Introduction TO RESEARCH PROBLEM ( 3 of 7 pages )
Background to Research Problem
“ The term ‘ecopreneurship ‘ is a combination of two words, ‘ecological ‘ ( ‘eco ‘ ) and ‘entrepreneurship ‘ . Ecopreneurship can therefore be approximately defined as ‘entrepreneurship through an environmental lens ‘ . Ecopreneurship is characterised by some cardinal facets of entrepreneurial activities that are oriented less towards direction systems or proficient processs and focused more on the personal enterprise and accomplishments of the entrepreneurial individual or squad to gain market success with environmental inventions. ”
– ( Schaltegger, 2002 ) .
With the turning deficit in electricity proviso in South Africa and planetary heating, the South African Government is progressively cognizant of the demand for more eco-friendly patterns in order to make a low C economic system as laid out in the National Development Plan Vision for 2030 ( National Planning Commission 2011 ) .
Understanding what drivers motivate Ecopreneurs will help policy shapers in making the ideal environment for Ecopreneurs to boom ( Thompson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) .
Ecopreneurs are a new strain of environmentally witting societal enterprisers who seek net incomes as a byproduct of environmental and societal benefit ( Isaak, 2005 ) . As the green motion grows more and more enterprisers are seeing it as a concern chance, at the same clip making a meaningful being and impacting on their societies, doing for more sustainable concern patterns. ( Isaak, 2005 ) .
Social norms are altering with a greater accent being placed on the environment. Together with the worlds of electricity deficit and alterations in statute law, more sustainable merchandises and concern patterns are needed. Furthermore, consumers are progressively demanding more sustainable concern patterns, hence making demand for sustainability ( King, 2009 ) .
Hart & A ; Milstein ( 1999, p. 25 ) predicted that enterprisers will see sustainable development, as “ one of the biggest concern chances in the history of commercialism ” . Therefore, enterprisers would make good to encompass this new field of environmentally sustainable concern and take the manner to a more sustainable future both to their benefit and to the benefit of their environment and the societies they serve, particularly as it allows them to tap into new markets, ( Braun, 2010 ) .
By set abouting this research, possible ecopreneurs may larn from the experiences of innovators in this field in South Africa in order to give their new eco-ventures maximum opportunities of wining.
“ Understanding Ecopreneurs and their patterns, condensing recommendations, and adding to the scarce organic structure of academic literature on ecopreneurship, are critical because ecopreneurship, in visible radiation of the dismaying economic and environmental mentality, is set uping itself as a considerable country of concern activity and influence for societal alteration and a sustainable hereafter. ”
– Schauch ( 2009, p 2. )
Although the field of Ecopreneurship has undergone a batch of growing in recent old ages, it is still a comparatively new academic field and it is recognised that much more research is still required ( Schaper, 2002 ) , ( Gibbs, 2006 ) , ( Dixon & A ; Clifford, 2007 ) and ( Thompson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) .
Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) suggested 11 extra research inquiries that could be explored to further their research into Ecopreneurial motive and this proposal is based on three of those inquiries.
The primary audience for the survey will be policy shapers with respect to occupation creative activity and economic growing ; nevertheless, this research may besides be good to the organic structure of entrepreneurial research already bing in South Africa and may take to farther research.
Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) started making research into the motives of ecopreneurs in get downing concerns. They believe their research could be extended beyond start-ups to find whether Ecopreneur ‘s initial motives for get downing concerns guide their subsequent determinations within the concern, hence concentrating on ongoing concern determinations.
Others like Shane, Locke and Collins ( 2003 ) have suggested motives influence the passage of persons from one phase of the entrepreneurial procedure to another, for case in determinations such as using others, growing and taking to diversify into other markets.
Based on research done to day of the month on this subject it would look necessary and utile to carry on research into motivational drivers of Ecopreneurs in South Africa both at start-up stage and in ongoing concerns in order to set up their motives for making so and how their values have affected their determinations along the manner and eventually how these motivational drivers may differ from other enterprisers.
Decision to chapter one
This chapter one has provided context and a instance and for scrutiny of the motivational drivers of Ecopreneurs in South Africa.
Chapter two presents a critical reappraisal of the literature on this subject.
Chapter three sets out the research inquiries that come about as a consequence of the spreads left by the bing research.
Chapter four sets out the research methodological analysis that was followed during this research undertaking.
Chapter five sets out the consequences of the interviews, including relevant quotation marks every bit good as the restrictions experienced during the research.
Chapter six provides a treatment of the consequences in visible radiation of the remainder of this research undertaking.
Chapter seven draws decisions and offers further countries for research.
Chapter Two: LITERATURE REVIEW ( 11 of 20 pages )
[ Need to add extra literature as set out in Chapter 5 and 6 and every bit highlighted in xanthous below ]
Ecopreneurship is a type of entrepreneurship, the survey of which signifiers portion of a turning involvement in moralss, entrepreneurship and the environment ( Isaak, 1998 ; Morris, 2002 ) .
Definition of Ecopreneurship
Schlange ( 2006a ) , identifies three types of enterprisers, the ‘traditional ‘ Economically driven enterprisers ( making economic value for the proprietors of concern ) , Socially driven enterprisers ( making value for society at big ) and Ecologically driven enterprisers ( making value for the betterment of the environment ) and when all three motivations are present he refers to Sustainability-driven enterprisers.
Figure 2.1: Sustainability-Driven Entrepreneurship as a Concept of Integration
( Beginning: Schlange, 2006a, p22 )
Whilst Schlange ( 2006a ) recognises that Ecologically driven Entrepreneurs sees environmental facets as nucleus aims and competitory advantages he argues that along with holding net income driven motivations they besides have sustainability as a basic motive as their eco-driven concern theoretical accounts addresses human jobs finally and hence they can besides be referred to as Sustainability Entrepreneurs.
Other authors have besides interchangeably referred to and confused Ecologically goaded enterprisers as Green Entrepreneurs ( Schaper, 2005 ; Allen & A ; Malin, 2008 ) , Environmental Entrepreneurs ( Schaper, 2002 ; Allen & A ; Malin, 2008 ; Thompson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) , Sustainability Entrepreneurs ( Thompson & A ; Scott, 2010 ; Boyd, Henning, Reyna, Wang and Welch, 2009 ) , Sustainopreneurs ( Schaltegger, 2002 ) , Social Ecopreneurs ( Isaak, 2005 ) , Values-oriented Entrepreneurs ” ( Choi & A ; Gray, 2008 ) and finally Ecopreneurs ( Bennet, 1991 ; Schuyler, 1998 ; Isaak, 2005 ; Schaper, 2002 ; Schaltegger, 2002 ; Dixon & A ; Clifford, 2007 ; Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) .
The focal point of this survey is on Ecopreneurs, defined by Schuyler ( 1998 ) as,
“ enterprisers whose concern attempts are non merely driven by net income, but besides by a concern for the environment ” .
Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) found five common drivers of Ecopreneurial activity:
Environmental values ;
Having seen a spread in the market for their merchandise or service ;
Gaining a life for them and their households ;
Autonomy – working for themselves ;
Passion for their concern.
All of the abovementioned values were found to be in common with economically motivated enterprisers, except for the environmental values ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010, p.215 ) .
Harmonizing to Linnanen ( 2005 ) , it may be excessively simplistic to mention to all Ecopreneurs as being driven by net income and environmental ends to the same extent, alternatively he provided four different types of Ecopreneurs, depending on the environmental and commercial ends driving their behavior:
Figure 2.2: Drivers of Eco-Business Sectors
Beginning: Linnanen ( 2005, p78 )
Parker, Redmond and Simpson ( 2009 ) provides the matrix below, separating between ecopreneurial houses driven by public presentation orientation and houses driven by environmental committedness:
Figure 2.3: Typology of SME types for analyzing environment betterment
Beginning: Parker et Al ( 2009, p.6 )
Isaak ( 2005, p.81 ) , is of the sentiment that there are certain ideal types of ecopreneurs, which create concerns that are green from the beginning, so called ‘green-green ‘ concerns, which brings about extremist alterations in their chosen economic sectors.
Thomson & A ; Scott ( 2010, p.18 ) identified Ecopreneurs in four classs depending on their degrees of environmental accomplishment and their focal point on hazard versus chance when it comes to Environmental statute law:
Figure 2.4: Ecopreneurial Classs
Beginning: Thomson & A ; Scott ( 2010: p18 )
Thomson & A ; Scott ( 2010 ) is of the sentiment that in the United Kingdom the Government policy to be committed to a low C economic system is one of the rule drivers of Ecopreneurship. Furthermore they besides found that new environmental cognition and engineering, eco-regulatory alterations, alterations in social values and perceptual experiences every bit good as busying a particular niche, all lead to success for those ventures who chose to see ecological restraints as chances instead than restraints ( Thomson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) .
Isaak ( 2005: p.81, p.88 ) , had several suggestions for driving ecopreneurship, for case “ authoritiess could aim the creative activity of high-technology development Centres to construct consecutive ecopreneurship and to pull ‘blended value ‘ venture capital ” they could, “ Change revenue enhancement inducements to honor the creative activity of green occupations and to penalize resource usage ; Build creativeness and ecopreneurship inducements into criterions for public-sector direction ; Use ecopreneurship as a scheme for hiking civic competency and societal capital ; Start a public run to de-legitimatise non-sustainable concern consequences ”
Introduction to Motivation
Allen & A ; Malin ( 2008 ) , conducted instance surveies of several green concerns to larn how they incorporate their concerns into environmental and societal justness causes and some of the subjects that emerged from in-depth interviews with these ecopreneurs included a high grade of consciousness of the impact that these concern had on the environment, high degrees of concern for societal justness, personal motive and mission, vicinity, and a forward-thinking orientation about sustainability and advanced theoretical accounts for integrating green concern into environmental causes and natural resource direction. In add-on Allen & A ; Malin ( 2008 ) besides found low degrees of involvement in economic success.
In contrast, Thomson & A ; Scott ( 2010, p.13 ) found, “ There is some grounds that environmental enterprisers may [ accent added ] be disinterested in ‘economic success ‘ ” , proposing that they disagree with this determination to some extent.
Thomson & A ; Scott ( 2010 ) besides found that Ecopreneurs demonstrated a desire to better the universe every bit good as an ability to see green as a competitory advantage.
In contrast, ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) , find that Ecopreneurial motive goes much wider than merely working niche environmental markets, instead they see Ecopreneurs as stand foring a whole new manner of making concern in a responsible and sustainable mode.
Previous research into Entrepreneurial motive has preponderantly focussed on push and pull factors ( McClelland, Swail, Bell and Ibbotson, 2005 and Segal, Borgia and Schoenfeld, 2005 ) . Push ( external ) factors are preponderantly external and seen every bit negative as they push people into get downing new concerns, for illustration being dismissed from work, economic or other necessity ( McClelland et al. , 2005 and Segal et al. , 2005 ) . Pull ( internal ) factors draw people to get down concerns, for case a desire to work for oneself and be 1s ain foreman ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) .
Pull factors have been found to be more prevailing than push factors ( Segal et al. , 2005 ) . Entrepreneurs who have been pulled into get downing new concerns have been found to be more successful than those that have been pushed ( Amit & A ; Muller, 1995 ) , which is of import as Ecopreneurs have been found to be preponderantly motivated by pull factors, for case their green values and being their ain foreman ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) .
Legislation and Technology and have likewise been found to be push and pull factors as statute law forces new, environmentally friendly concerns and concern patterns whilst engineering enables more environmentally friendly merchandises ( Thomson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) .
As the external environment is the same for Entrepreneurs and Ecopreneurs, Schlange ( 2006a ) concluded that the existent difference is the internal mentality of the Ecoprepreneur ego while Kirkwood & A ; Walton have found green values to be the distinguishing factor.
The interrelatedness between the assorted push and pull factors are illustrated good by Rubik ( 2005 ) in the undermentioned figure:
Figure 2.5: Ecopreneurial Push and Pull Factors
Beginning: Rubik ( 2005 )
Identifying Gaps in the Market
Harmonizing to Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) and Frederick & A ; Chittock ( 2006 ) , New Zealand is a state of little to medium endeavors and who are really unfastened to entrepreneurship as farther supported by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ( GEM ) Report referenced below, taking to them being pulled into entrepreneurship by chance instead than being pushed through necessity.
“ Peoples launch concerns for a assortment of grounds. They may be led into entrepreneurship out of necessity: the chase of self-employment when there are no better options for work. In contrast, their attempts may be powered by the desire to keep or better their income, or to increase their independency. GEM therefore assesses the motivations of enterprisers. “ aˆ¦ ” Acknowledging that enterprisers are driven non merely by their ain perceptual experiences about get downing a concern, but the attitudes of those around them, GEM considers the attitudes stand foring the clime for entrepreneurship in a society. Entrepreneurs need to be willing to take hazards and have positive beliefs about the handiness of chances around them, their ability to get down concerns and the value of making so. At the same clip, they need clients who are willing to purchase from them, sellers willing to provide them and households and investors ready to back up their attempts. Even positive social perceptual experiences about entrepreneurship may indirectly excite this activity. ”
– hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gemconsortium.org/Measures # APS ( accessed 13 September 2012 )
The GEM Report measures amongst other things, Perceived Opportunities, being the per centum of 18-64 twelvemonth old respondents who see good chances to get down a house in the country where they live ( Google Public Data – Perceived Opportunities, 2012 ) . As illustrated in the graph below, New Zealanders are more cognizant of spreads in the market than South Africans. Although New Zealand did non take part in farther GEM surveies after 2005, a clear derived function can be seen. Interestingly in 2005, New Zealand held the 7th highest place in Perceived Opportunities, whilst South Africa was figure 34 out of a sum of 47 take parting states ( Google Public Data, 2012 ) . By 2011 South Africa had improved to place 26 although the sample size had dropped to 34 take parting states, besides excepting New Zealand.
Figure 2.6: GERA Perceived Opportunities Graph ( 2012 )
Beginning: Google Public Data – Perceived Opportunities, ( 2012 )
Furthermore, the GEM besides measures Entire early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity ( “ TEA ” ) , being a per centum of 18-64 population who are either a nascent enterpriser or owner-manager of a new concern ( Google Public Data – Entire early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity, 2012 ) . As illustrated in the graph below, New Zealanders have significantly higher TEA than South Africans. Although New Zealand did non take part in farther GEM surveies after 2005, a clear derived function can be seen. Interestingly in 2004, New Zealand held the 7th highest place in TEA, whilst South Africa was figure 29 out of a sum of 44 take parting states ( Google Public Data, Total early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity, 2012 ) . By 2011 South Africa had improved to place 25 although the sample size had increased to 54 take parting states, besides excepting New Zealand.
Beginning: Google Public Data – Entire early-stage Entrepreneurial Activity, ( 2012 )
Break and alteration
In footings of the Product Life Cycle theoretical account industries develop along a growing curve in four stages, from debut, through growing, adulthood and finally decline and each of these phases last for different periods of clip, depending on the nature of the merchandise or the industry ( Golder & A ; Tellis, 2004 ) . Arguably the green industry in New Zealand is in the mature stage. This position is supported by Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , Bruin & A ; Lewis ( 2005 ) and Coyle and Fairweather ( 2005 ) who argue that the clean green image of New Zealand is good established as a strong portion of the civilization and national individuality of New Zealand. In contrast, the green industry in South Africa is arguably still in the growing stage, taking to tonss of alteration and break.
Harmonizing to Schwartz & A ; Rock ( 2006 ) , people fear alteration and the ground for that lies in our yesteryear as our encephalons are designed to go efficient at undertakings over clip as alteration and new undertakings requires activation of the prefrontal cerebral mantle, which requires significantly more energy than we used to hold at our disposal in the yesteryear. Therefore, people are non wired for alteration.
Furthermore, harmonizing to Schwartz & A ; Rock ( 2006 ) , when looking at this job in the context of how 1 goes about altering people ‘s behavior and the civilization of an administration is of the position this is done through abandoning past job behavior and concentrating intentionally on making new behaviors through modus operandi, hence by doing the procedure of alteration witting and seeable.
Add farther literature on: Break: Clayton Christensen “ the pioneers quandary ” ; ‘crossing the chasm ‘ by Geoff Moore.
Covering with pleasant people
Differences between motive of Ecopreneurs and other Entrepreneurs in South Africa
Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) have found green values to be the distinguishing factor for ecopreneurs, nevertheless, they besides found really small research had been done to day of the month on values in ecopreneurial concerns and consequently suggested more research needs to be undertaken to research the consequence of laminitis ‘s green values on get downing and running of ecopreneurial concerns.
Ecopreneurs have been found to hold distinguishable ecological values from other enterprisers ( Thomson & A ; Scott, 2010 ) . Furthermore, alterations in social values sing the environment have been found to hold a major influence on ecopreneurship ( Anderson, 1998 ) .
However, neighboring subjects like sustainability entrepreneurship has undergone more research in values and consequently this literature reappraisal will borrow from those subjects.
Choi & A ; Gray ( 2008 ) did research into values-oriented entrepreneurship and found prevalent in the 21 concerns that they studied that laminitiss of these concerns established them with their ain values reflected profoundly entrenched in these administrations and intentionally promoted their values in order to distinguish themselves from other concerns. However they besides found many of these administrations had trouble in keeping these values during subsequent growing stages ( Choi & A ; Gray, 2008 ) , a position supported by Hockerts & A ; Wustenhagen ( 2010 ) .
Levinsohn & A ; Brundin ( 2011 ) suggests that the treatment in the literature of motive and passion, such as the literature reappraisal above, inherently includes a treatment of values, based on the psychological position of motive, passion and knowledge in the survey of sustainability entrepreneurship ( Shepherd & A ; Patzelt, 2011 ) .
Parrish ( 2010 ) undertook a instance survey of four ventures that embodied societal and environmental values in their nucleus concern activities and found that the chase of net income, people and planet created tensenesss within those administrations and the lone administrations that were successful in get the better ofing these tensenesss were those where the accomplishment and practical experience, for case of ageless logical thinking and steering rules of puting people and the planet before net incomes, was used to maintain the administrations working efficaciously, particularly during the growing stages and subsequent determination devising.
In a instance survey of an single viridity concern that has been running for over 20 old ages, Holt ( 2012 ) explored the proprietor ‘s reconciliation of economic, environmental, and societal demands on their concern and found personal values to hold played a major function in the development of this concern.
Petersen ( 2010, p.223 ) , did a instance survey of 64 ecopreneurial endeavors in Austria, Germany and Switzerland to look into what gave these houses their competitory advantage and they found they were all leaders in their section of the environmental merchandises and services they chose to run and their nucleus concern was work outing environmental jobs.
In add-on, Holt ( 2010 ) besides found of the five prevalent values found in these concerns, proficient ability, client centricity, exclusivity, invention and repute, it was repute and exclusivity that was the most of import to these ecopreneurs in developing a niche for their concerns.
Kearins & A ; Collins ( 2011 ) researched one instance of an ecopreneur who sold his concern after 20 old ages and found a figure of value-related challenges that arose during that period associating to keeping the laminitis values, growing of the concern, covering with undercapitalisation jobs, make up one’s minding who to sell the concern to, make up one’s minding if the laminitis will remain or go forth and eventually how to maintain the values after the laminitis leaves. Ultimately Kearins & A ; Collins ( 2011 ) concludes that it may be possible to sell an eco-brand and keep the original laminitis values.
Add mention and treatment of Tragedy of the parks:
hypertext transfer protocol: //0-dlc.dlib.indiana.edu.innopac.up.ac.za/dlc/handle/10535/5887
“ The ‘tragedy of the parks ‘ arises when it is hard and dearly-won to except possible users from common-pool resources that yield finite flows of benefits, as a consequence of which those resources will be exhausted by rational, utility-maximizing persons instead than conserved for the benefit of all. Pessimism about the possibility of users voluntarily collaborating to forestall overexploitation has led to widespread cardinal control of common-pool resources. But such control has itself often resulted in resource overexploitation. In pattern, particularly where they can pass on, users frequently develop regulations that limit resource usage and preserve resources. ” ( Hardin, 1968 ; Ostrom, 2008 )
Add literature on Sustainability: Business is at that place to back up the community, non the other manner round – contrast with literature on green concern and utilizing the Earth as resource – sustainability in the long tally? ? ?
Passion and significance
Limited research has been done to day of the month on the motivational drivers of environmentally sustainable concerns in South Africa and this construct has been met with some unfavorable judgment as to its value for concerns in South Africa ( Ras & A ; Vermeulen, 2009 ) . This is non surprising as this is a comparatively new academic field ( Dixon & A ; Clifford, 2007 ) and South Africa does non show a civilization of environmental sustainability ( King, 2009 ) .
Although research of a similar nature has been undertaken in other parts of the universe like New Zealand ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) , Australia ( Braun, 2010 ) , United Kingdom ( Dixon & A ; Clifford, 2007 ) , Switzerland ( Schlange, 2006 ) and assorted European states ( Schaltegger, 2002 ) , those research workers have concluded that motivational factors of Entrepreneurs differ from one state to the following.
Consequently it would desirable for policy shapers in this state to establish their determinations on instance surveies undertaken in this state, therefore the localization of function of this survey to South Africa.
Decision to Chapter Two
Based on the literature reappraisal set out in this chapter two and the spreads that exist in the literature on ecopreneurs and specifically in South Africa, this research undertaking will put out to reply the research inquiries set out in chapter three below.
Chapter THREE: RESEARCH QUESTIONS ( 1 of 2 pages )
Based partially on the farther research to be undertaken as suggested in ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010, p.204 ) , the undermentioned research inquiries are posed:
Research Question One
What motivates people in South Africa to go ecopreneurs and how does that differ from ecopreneurs in New Zealand?
Research Question Two
What is the impact of laminitiss ‘ values on get downing and running green concerns?
Research Question Three
To what extent are South African ecopreneurs motivated by money?
Research Question Four
What function does passion and significance drama in Ecopreneurial motive in South Africa?
Chapter FOUR: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ( 8 of 8 pages )
Research methodological analysis experts like Tharenou, Donohue and Cooper ( 2007 ) , Saunders Lewis and Thornhill ( 2009 ) and Malhotra ( 2010 ) , are in understanding that the underlying intent of the survey must find which research design to utilize. The intent of this survey is to understand the sub-conscious, implicit in motives and values that drive Ecopreneurs in South Africa to prosecute both economic and ecological ends in their concerns.
The research method that was followed was a direct attack, holding done explorative research, holding obtained primary informations through qualitative research, specifically by manner of depth interviews.
Rationale for Research Method: Exploratory Research
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2010 ) , this type of research is used when the research worker seeks to derive penetrations into and apprehension of the research inquiry.
Due to the limited apprehension of Ecopreneurs in general and specifically in South Africa, it was still necessary to develop theories sing motive and values of Ecopreneurs, instead than proving theories and therefore it was believed explorative instance study research was the appropriate research method for this subject. Refer besides to Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) in this respect.
Research Procedure: Direct attack
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2010 ) , this attack is used when the intents of the research are either explained to the participant, or if it is obvious from the nature of the interview. Given that unfastened inquiries were asked, it was believed to be good to supply some context of this survey to the participants in order for them to supply the best part they can.
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2010 ) , that is when research workers do direct research themselves, in order to reply specific research jobs.
Given the deficiency of handiness on this subject in South Africa, as illustrated in 2.6 South Africa, above, primary research was done in South Africa in order to derive specific penetrations into the heads of South African Ecopreneurs for the intents of replying the research inquiries posed in this survey.
Harmonizing to Denzin & A ; Lincoln ( 2011 ) , qualitative research workers are concerned with societal concepts, with values, with how societal experiences create significance and they recognise relationships between people and that which is being studied, while quantitative research workers are concerned with measuring of relationships between variables and procedures.
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2010 ) , Qualitative Research is a research methodological analysis that is unstructured and exploratory, based on comparatively little samples, which are intended to derive understanding and insight into the capable affair being researched.
As limited informations existed on this capable affair, qualitative research was believed to be most appropriate in this instance. This attack was supported by old research into this field, for case in the instances of Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , Thompson & A ; Scott ( 2010 ) , Schlange ( 2006 ) and Shaltegger ( 2002 ) .
Depth interviews are a signifier of direct, personal interview during which unstructured inquiries are asked of participants in order to examine their implicit in motives, beliefs, attitudes, and feelings on the research subject ( Malhotra 2010 ) .
“ people may be unable to supply accurate replies to inquiries that tap their subconscious. The values, emotional thrusts and motives shacking at their subconscious degree are disguised from the outer universe by rationalisation and other self-importance defencesaˆ¦ In such instances, the coveted information can be best obtained through qualitative research ”
– ( Malhotra, 2010, p.172 )
Population and Unit of Analysis
Start-ups and established Ecopreneurial ventures were selected – both ventures that have started green from the beginning and those that have gone green at a ulterior phase. The focal point was on the Ecopreneur as an person and where the laminitis was still involved in the concern the laminitis was in most instances interviewed, otherwise a senior representative of the house was interviewed.
In choosing Ecopreneurs, it was of import to test them objectively to guarantee that they will be appropriate for this survey. In the multiple instance surveies undertaken by Schlange ( 2006 ) , 120 possible houses were selected as potentially relevant, they so underwent unsmooth showing, cut downing the list to 20 and after that they applied a matrix of sustainability standards that farther reduced the list to 10 houses, which were finally interviewed.
In this instance analyze a similar method was used as the one used by Schlange ( 2006 ) , as a list of possible houses was compiled by doing usage of contacts from personal webs, every bit good as doing usage of web sites like www.ecopreneur.co.za www.simplygreen.co.za, www.thegreentimes.co.za and www.sustainable.co.za.
Choice standards was so developed to further cut down the list. However, in the terminal, entree to these Ecopreneurs finally determined which of them were interviewed. As most of the Ecopreneurs identified were from all over the state it would non hold been executable to make face-to-face interviews with them due to the clip and cost of travel. Therefore, interviews were arranged with them while they attended the Sustainability Week Exhibition ( www.sustainabilityweek.co.za/expo ) in Sandton, Gauteng where they had the clip and the disposition to allow interviews for this thesis. This attack applied to participants 2 to 9. Participants 1 and 10 were interviewed based on personal webs.
Size and nature of the sample
Size of sample
In other surveies of similar nature, similar subjects emerged over a figure of interviews, for case in the instance of Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) they found that they had plenty informations to pull utile decisions after 14 instance surveies. In the instance of Schlange ( 2006 ) , they found 10 instance surveies to be sufficient and in the instance of Schaltegger ( 2002 ) seven instance surveies were undertaken.
Therefore on the footing of old surveies of a similar nature, 10 Ecopreneurs were targeted for interviewing and after 10 interviews it was found to be sufficient as similar subjects emerged over these interviews.
Unit of measurement of analysis
Harmonizing to Tharenou et Al. ( 2007 ) a unit of analysis can be divided into many different standards for analysis, being persons, couples, groups, administrations and industries. For instance surveies the unit of analysis is the phenomenon that is being studied ( Tharenou et al. 2007 ) . In this survey the focal point was on persons, the Ecopreneurs themselves, either as laminitiss or as current concern proprietors and/or executives.
During this procedure really limited secondary information was besides gathered sing the Organisations established by these Ecopreneurs, so that the administrations so become the unit of analysis. Merely publicly available informations like web sites and booklets was used.
One of the major benefits of garnering secondary informations, as was the instance in this survey, was to triangulate the deepness interview informations, which helps with dependability and cogency of the informations ( Malhotra, 2010 )
Data aggregation – Instrument and Design
Similar to Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , multiple instance surveies were undertaken utilizing interviews. However, different from Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , who used semi-structured interviews, unstructured deepness interviews were used in this research.
Rough outline inquiries were used, based on the existent research inquiries, which were restated as follows:
a ) What motivated you to go an ecopreneur?
B ) What impact has your, or if applicable, the laminitis ‘s green values had during the start-up stage of your concern?
degree Celsius ) What impact has your, or if applicable, the laminitis ‘s green values had to day of the month during the growing stages of your concern?
vitamin D ) Do you believe you are different to other enterprisers? If so, in which manner?
As depth interviews are unstructured merely open-ended inquiries were used in order to efficaciously research the interviewees underlying ideas and feelings sing each research inquiry ( Saunders et al. , 2009 ) .
The rule was to utilize unsmooth outline inquiries in a general mode and so further examining inquiries, for case complex investigations, brooding investigations and cross-checks, story-telling and verbal cues, depending on how the interviewees respond ( Tharenou et al. 2007 ) . The diction and the order of the inquiries were dictated by the state of affairs.
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2010: p186 ) , other techniques that were utile during these depth-interviews were:
“ Laddering – A technique for carry oning depth interviews in which a line of oppugning returns from merchandise features to user features ;
Hidden issue oppugning – A type of deepness interview that attempts to turn up personal sore musca volitanss related to deeply felt personal concerns ; and
Symbolic analysis – A technique for carry oning depth interviews in which the symbolic significance of objects is analysed by comparing them with their antonyms. ”
Secondary informations beginnings, for case company websites, media studies and promotional stuff, were besides gathered to supplement the interviews ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) and to develop a more in-depth apprehension of the single instances within their context ( Schlange, 2006 ) , ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) and to help triangulation of informations to better dependability and cogency of the information gathered through the depth interviews.
Harmonizing to Denzin & A ; Lincoln ( 2011 ) it is necessary for research workers to seek out both the common subjects between multiple instances every bit good as the alone features of each instance. To overemphasize the common features would be to free the deepness and profusion of each instance ( Denzin & A ; Lincoln, 2011 ) .
Whilst subsequent quantitative research could be undertaken to prove and corroborate theories developed as a consequence of the initial qualitative research ( Malhotra, 2010 ) , it was decided non to make so in this instance due to the built-in restraints of this type of thesis it is hence proposed for future research in Chapter 7.
The interviews were transcribed and the transcripts were organised around subjects emerging from the interviews. In the instance of Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , NVivo package was used to set up an indexing system and to code and label each paragraph and sentence in the transcripts harmonizing to subjects that appeared to be of import to the participants and to continuously reexamine the informations and polish this procedure.
Richards ( 2009 ) provides utile counsel on the choice and Jemmott ( 2008 ) on the usage of qualitative informations analysis package and based on this counsel and old experience of research workers at the Gordon Institute of Business Science ( GIBS ) , Atlas.ti 7 Qualitative Data Analysis Software, was selected for this research undertaking. Further information sing this package can be found at www.atlasti.com.
As suggested by Silverman ( 2011 ) , a systematic information decrease was undertaken on the information collected as portion of this research undertaking, in order to simplify and cut down the information by organizing it into subjects and bunchs in order to unite, associate and diverge the thoughts that attach to each of these subjects.
During the informations analysis subdivision of the thesis, quotation marks were selected on the footing that they are representative of the subjects discovered during the research procedure.
This is the same procedure that was followed by Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , which helped to exemplify the deepness and profusion of this qualitative research method.
Data Reliability and Validity
Reliability is concerned with the extent to which the information could be duplicated if the same methodological analysis was followed by person else ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) . Reliability was achieved in this survey through triangulation, for case by besides holding applied secondary informations beginnings and confirmation as was done in Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) .
Validity consists of internal and external cogency ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) . Internal Validity in this instance was achieved by imputing the correct cause and consequence, hence construing the consequences of the survey right, without bias [ Check if this is true ] ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) . This could besides hold been achieved by manner of triangulation, by utilizing multiple beginnings of informations ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) .
External cogency is concerned with the extent to which findings drawn from one group may be generalised to other groups ( Tharenou et al. 2009 ) . The primary manner that this survey overcome external cogency concerns was to set about multiple interviews of multiple Ecopreneurs, as was besides the instance in the related instances of Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , Schlange ( 2006 ) , and Schaltegger ( 2002 ) .
Confidentiality and namelessness
Different from Kirkwood & A ; Walton ( 2010 ) , the moralss blessing that was obtained from the GIBS Ethics Committee for this research required that the names of such interviewees be withheld in these quotation marks to guarantee their namelessness and consequently this was done.
In order to keep namelessness of the interviewees throughout the research procedure, the publication of this thesis and any articles that may follow thenceforth, no names or identifiers of interviewees were recorded in the digital audio recordings of such interviews or in the written texts thereof.
Furthermore, the digital audio recordings of interviews and the written texts thereof are kept confidential.
During the authorship of the thesis, confidentiality was ensured by curtailing entree to the information to as few people as possible and by guaranting that anyone who had entree to this information was under legal duty to maintain such informations confidential by agencies of a Non Disclosure Agreement that was signed by such parties.
As this thesis has now been completed, all records of the informations will be destroyed except for one archival transcript, which is being kept in the GIBS archives.
Restrictions and decision to chapter four
Depth interviews are susceptible to the interviewer ‘s influence or prejudice and quality and completeness of the consequences depends to a great extent on the accomplishment of the interviewer and the informations can be hard to analyze and construe ( Saunders, 2009 ) .
The research worker gained support from other research workers as the interviews progressed by holding others listen to the transcripts in order to understand whether prejudice was present and how this could be improved. This attack was farther supplemented by holding a professional external party transcribe the recordings, guaranting no prejudice entered the written text procedure either.
Furthermore, due to the big sum of clip that was needed for each interview, it inherently limited the figure of interviews in the undertaking ( Malhotra, 2010 ) . However, as mentioned above, in similar instance surveies, 14 ( Kirkwood & A ; Walton, 2010 ) , 10 ( Schlange, 2006 ) and even seven instance surveies ( Schaltegger, 2002 ) were found to be sufficient to pull decisions. Therefore the 10 interviews that this research is based on, inherently minimises the prejudice of the research worker.
Finally, it is hard to generalize the findings of the peculiar instances to other instances ( Tharenou et al. 2007 ) , nevertheless, generalisability was improved in this instance by utilizing more than one instance as was done in this survey.