Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Employee motivation and job satisfaction have always been an important issue in an organization, but few organizations have not made motivation and job satisfaction top priorities or even neglected the issue at times. The failure of the managers in the organization to determine the motivational factors of the employees will create dissatisfaction of the employees which will eventually result to the decrease in productivity of the employees.
The managers of the organization should properly utilize its people who are considered the most important part of an organization because these employees are the one’s doing the legwork in order to achieve the goals of the organization. It will be difficult to utilize the employees of the organization if they are not properly motivated, and in effect create job dissatisfaction of employees. A well-motivated person works harder and perseveres longer than an unmotivated one. A person level of intensity and persistence is higher because motivation energizes his behavior and gives the direction.
It is very similar to the vector quantity in physics, it has both magnitude and direction. In the total workforce, almost all human behavior is motivated and caused and directed, meaning people act because something cause it, but their actions must not be aimless, it must be directional. Motivation, therefore, must be considered the strength of the drive toward an action. In this sense, motivation refers to the whole class of drives, needs and similar forces that prompt people to act in certain ways and develop tendencies for specific behaviors that may eventually lead to job satisfaction (Martirez, 2003).
It is understandable that managers expect high quality performance from their employees regardless of the work environment that they provide. However, if from their employers concentrate on generating a kind of workplace that is positive with high motivation, job satisfaction would likely increase their productivity. Therefore, satisfied employees are more productive, creative and more committed to their work and to their employees as well. However, employees are motivated to excel in their work for many different reasons. Such reasons always lie on different factors.
More often, these factors play an important role in motivating employees to do their best. An employee in this situation is self-motivated. When an employee is motivated, he exerts much effort leading to favorable job performance. The effort is channeled in a direction that is profitable to the organization. Effort that is intended for, and consistent with, the goal of the organization is the kind of effort that this study sought for. It should be noted that motivation is a need satisfying process. Thus, before one goes to exert high levels of effort, the individual needs must be conditioned first.
The needs and desires of a person both have a strong impact on the direction of a person’s behavior. For this reason, individuals will satisfy their needs through different means, and are driven to succeed for varying reasons intrinsically or extrinsically. Hence, a motivated person is conceptualized as someone with cognitions or benefits that lead to constructive achievement behavior. Such as exerting effort or persisting in the face of difficulty. Each individual has different ways to be motivated and to be satisfied.
Some employees are motivated in satisfying their personal needs based on the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs such as physiological, safety/ security, feeling of belongingness, self-esteem, and self-actualization as developed by Abraham Maslow. According to Young (2005) Maslow developed a “hierarchy of needs” or an order of needs that need to be fulfilled in each person in order for the person to be motivated. It is believed that person’s who attain the highest level of the needs are more productive and satisfied because his/her being is intact and can be productive in the workplace. Yet, some people feel uncomfortable receiving compliments.
For these employees, something different, like a more challenging job or even a different job might be a better motivator. The basic issue here is that no two people are identical. You need to tailor incentives to the employee’s individual needs. In short, employees are motivated by their own needs, not ours. Al-alawi (2005), mentioned that humans are motivated by many factors such as psychological needs, physiological drives, survival urges, emotions, huts, impulses, fears, threats, reward, possessions, wishes, intentions, values, freedom, intrinsic, and self-satisfaction, pleasure, dislikes, established habits, goals, and above all, money.
It is apparent that an important starting point lies in understanding employee’s needs and at the same time helping managers understand how employee’s internal needs affect their subsequent behavior. In this regard, the researcher finds it interesting to do a study on the motivational drives or factors that influence the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel particularly in the Department of Education, Regional Office III. The researcher, who is presently assigned at the Personnel Unit of the Regional Office, found it interesting to know what motivational factors influence the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel.
In this case, the management would have a clear understanding on the present dilemma of the non-teaching personnel, which causes the low productivity of some employees. This will also assist the management in creating a more suited programs and projects for the non-teaching personnel that will further enhance their capabilities as employees of the department and as individuals as well. Background of the Problem The Department of Education, Regional Office non-teaching personnel is just like any other organization. It has its duty of giving support staff to the field for the efficient and effective delivery of quality education to our people.
It is responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education. The DepEd as an organization is also the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. The Department of Education is not only composed of teachers but also non-teaching personnel who are responsible in ensuring that the agency is continuing its purpose managing the educational system. The researcher found it necessary to focus the study on the non-teaching personnel who are often neglected and not given top priority in terms of benefits, salaries, and trainings.
Based on the General Appropriations Act of 2010, as approved by the President of the Philippines, almost 75% of total budget of the Department of Education is being allocated for the Personal Services of the teaching and non-teaching personnel. Over 500, 000 teaching and non-teaching personnel are presently under the payroll of the DepEd. In the regional office, out of several thousands of teachers, only 108 non-teaching personnel are catering to their needs in terms of administrative support on personnel actions, budgetary needs, salaries, teacher development and trainings.
Most often the teachers are being given priority in increase in salaries and benefits and the non-teaching are being neglected, which resulted to lack of motivation of some employees who can be an asset to the department. The researcher has been in the regional office for almost ten years now and has witnessed how the non-teaching personnel are being prioritized as part of the organization. Efforts have been made from the DepEd Central Office employees to be united and have a voice by creating a Union for DepEd Non-Teaching Employees.
With the creation of a union, some of the non-teaching personnel felt the importance of having someone to represent the non-teaching personnel especially during the deliberation on the increase of salary for government employees. However, despite the efforts made, still the teacher’s salaries are far more than the non-teaching personnel. This prompted the researcher to do a study and know if the non-teaching personnel in our department are still motivated and how this motivational factors influence their job satisfaction.
The researcher focuses on the dual theory on motivation of Herzberg which includes the motivators or intrinsic job motivation and hygiene or extrinsic job motivation. This theory on motivation either gives an employees satisfaction and no satisfaction at all to a person. The intrinsic or motivators provides a clear view of how the non-teaching personnel are being motivated and satisfied through their relationships with their supervisors and co-workers and if it is contributing to the level of job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel, while the hygiene or extrinsic motivation are the dissatisfier or no satisfaction at all.
Nonetheless, in this study the dissatisfiers can be turn into satisfier depending on the attitude and preferences of the respondents. Theoretical Framework Frederick Herzberg developed a famous motivation theory that divides Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy into lower-level (physiological, safety, social) and higher-level (ego, self-realization and self-actualization) set of needs. It is also Herzberg said that the best way to motivate someone is to offer to satisfy the higher level needs. According to Griffin (2004), there two primary factors identified in Herzberg theory- the motivator (job content factors) and the hygiene (maintenance factors).
The motivator factors (job content factors) such as achievement and recognition were often cited by people as primary causes of satisfaction and motivation. When present in a job, these factors apparently could cause satisfaction and motivation; when they are absent, the results are feelings of no satisfaction rather than dissatisfaction. On the other hand, hygiene factor or maintenance factors came out in response to the question about dissatisfaction and lack of motivation. It is suggested that pay, job security, supervisors, and working conditions, if seen in adequate, could lead to feelings of dissatisfaction.
When these factors are considered acceptable, however, the person still was not necessarily satisfied, rather, he or she was simple not dissatisfied. “To use the dual-structure theory in the workplace, Herzberg recommended a two-stage process. First, the manager should try to eliminate situations that cause dissatisfaction, which Herzberg assumed to be more basic of the two dimensions. For example, suppose that Susan Kowalski wants to use the dual-structure theory to enhance motivation in the group of seven technicians she supervises.
Her first goal would be to achieve a state of dissatisfaction by addressing hygiene factors (extrinsic factors). Imagine for example, that she discovers that their pay is a bit below market rates and that a few of them are worried about job security. Her response would be to secure a pay raise for them and to allay their concerns about job security. According to the theory, once a state of no dissatisfaction exists, trying to further improve motivation through hygiene factors is a waste of time. At that point, the motivation factors (intrinsic factors) enter the picture.
Thus, when Susan Kowalski is sure that she has adequately dealt with hygiene issues, she should try to increase opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and growth. AS a result, she would be helping her subordinates feel satisfied and motivated” (Griffin, 2004). Herzberg’s two-factor theory has important implications for managing a huge organization. With this theory, the management would be well advised to focus their attention on factors known to promote job satisfaction, such as opportunities for personal growth.
Most of the organizations today, both in the public and private sector, realized that satisfaction within their workforces is enhanced when they provide opportunities for their employees to develop their professional skills on the job. Satisfaction of employees in the workplace is equally important in motivating people to be productive. Motivators or intrinsic needs are the primary elements involved in job satisfaction. When present, they can stimulate personal and psychological growth. The relationship between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation resolves the conflict in the earlier definition of motivation.
A leader can motivate his or her people by addressing factors such as working conditions, physical environment, team interpersonal relations and basic rewards. However, the more powerful or high performance motivation needs are within each person and are controlled by each individual team member not the leader. As a result, to impact the high performance intrinsic motivation, a project manager/team leader must address the external factors such as autonomy, opportunity for growth and so on. (http://www. homsettinternational. com/main/articles/hot/hot_turn. htm/retrived on June 27, 2010) George Elton Mayo conducted the Hawthorne Experiment in Chicago, U. S. A. between 1924-1927, he concluded that the need for recognition, security and sense of belonging is more important in determining workers’ morale and productivity than the physical conditions under which he works. The portion of the Hawthorne Studies that dwelt on the positive effects of benign supervision and concern for workers that made hem feel like part of a team became known as the Hawthorne Effect; the studies themselves spawned the human relations school of management that is constantly being recycled in new forms today, witness quality circles, participatory management, team building, et al. (http://www. telelavoro. rassegna. it/fad/socorg03/l4/Elton%20MayoHawthorne. htm/Retrieved on July 5, 2010). Job Satisfaction is also important for several reasons. First, research shows that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance is not so much “satisfaction leads to performance” as “performance leads to satisfaction”.
Second, satisfaction is related to turnover, absenteeism, tardiness and commitment. The more satisfied the employees the less likely, he or she is to be absent or late or leave the company. Apparently, satisfaction influences people’s perception about their work environment. Satisfied employees focus on the positive aspects of their work. Thus, they are more likely to make a commitment to the organization because they are motivated. Robbins (2004) mentioned that a person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitude toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with this or her job holds negative attitudes about the job.
When people speak of employee attitudes, more often than not they mean job satisfaction. In fact, two are frequently used interchangeably. Henceforth, there are varieties of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors included in the study were measured in terms of job standards, consideration of immediate supervisor, workloads and pressures, treatment of co-workers, salary and fringe benefits. There are some standard theories related to job satisfaction. Edwin A. Locker’s “Affect Theory” is accepted worldwide in this regard.
According to this theory, job satisfaction refers to what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. It is obvious that a person will be satisfied if he gets what he wants. The theory also states that people who are serious about their employment are more affected (positively or negatively) than those who have a casual approach towards work. “Dispositional theory” put forth by Timothy A. Judge establishes a direct link between self-esteem and believing in one’s talent as dispositions leading to job satisfaction.
The “Two factor theory” proposed by Frederick Herzberg states that motivation and hygiene factors contribute to satisfaction. Employee motivation means the desire to perform well and emerge victorious in every task and hygiene refers to company policies, pay packet and working conditions. “Job characteristics model” by Hackman and Oldham indicate how job characteristics, like, task significance, feedback, task identity and skill variety affect job satisfaction. (http://www. buzzle. com/articles/employee-satisfaction-surveys-questionnaire-on-employee retrieved on July 22, 2010).
It is evident in this case that the dual motivation theory of Herzberg does influence the job satisfaction of an employee in a certain situation. The satisfiers and the dissatisfiers can create an outcome depending on the persons involvement in the conduct of such investigation. Conceptual Framework: Figure 1 shows conceptual framework of the study. Illustrated in the figure below shows the influence of the independent variables over the dependent variables and the effect of the moderating variable to the independent variable to determine the perception of
The independent variables are the work motivation which includes the motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors). Motivators include the nature of work itself, the actual job responsibilities, opportunity for personal growth and recognition, and the feelings of achievement the job provides. When these factors are present, jobs are presumed to be both satisfying and motivating to most people. On the other hand, the hygiene factors are the extrinsic factors which also influence work motivation.
It includes, job standards, relationship with immediate supervisor, workloads and pressure, treatment of co-workers and salary and fringe benefits. The dependent variable will show the work motivation factors that influence the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel. The arrow connecting the first and second framed represents the hypothesized influence of the independent variable on dependent variables. The demographic profile of the non-teaching personnel consists of age, gender, civil status and length of service. It can be assumed that the emographic profile of the non-teaching personnel has a significant effect on their work motivation that influences job satisfaction. It can also determine which among the motivators and hygiene factors are the satisfiers of the non-teaching personnel in the education department. Figure 1 Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem: The general problem of the study is to determine which of the two factors (motivator or hygiene) influence more the job satisfaction among non-teaching personnel in the Department of Education, Regional Office III.
Specifically, the study sought to find answers to the following problems: 1. What is the profile of employees in terms of : 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Civil status 4. Length of Service 2. To what extent do the following motivational factors influence the job satisfaction as perceived by the non-teaching personnel in DepEd RO III, in terms of the following: 1. Motivators (Intrinsic) 1. Growth 2. Advancement 3. Responsibility 4. Work Itself 5. Recognition 6. Achievement 2. Hygiene (Extrinsic) 1. Job standards 2.
Consideration of Immediate Supervisors 3. Workloads and pressures 4. Treatment of Co-Workers 5. Salary and Fringe Benefits 3. When grouped according to demographic profile, is there any significant difference in the perceived influence of the above-mentioned motivational factor on the job satisfaction as perceived by the non-teaching personnel of DepEd RO III. 4. Based on the findings, what policy enhancement can be proposed by the researcher t improve the job satisfaction of non-teaching personnel problems. Hypothesis
The study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the perceived influence of the motivational factors to the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel in DepEd Region III. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study will be confined to the assessment if the motivational factors do influence the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel in DepEd Regional Office III. The motivational factors includes the motivators (intrinsic factors) and Hygiene (extrinsic factors) of Herbzberg dual theory.
This study aims to determine the influence of motivation to job satisfaction of non-teaching personnel based on the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. It will be delimited to the analysis of data and information that will be gathered from responses of the 85 permanent non-teaching personnel of the department using the stratified random sampling. It will cover the intrinsic and extrinsic work motivation and its influence on the job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel as well as the socio-demographic profiles.
A validated questionnaire will be the instruments to be used in gathering the data. Frequency distribution, arithmetic mean, simple averaging and percentage will be adopted to quantify the data on the profile and ANNOVAvwill be used to test the level of influence of the work motivation to the job satisfaction of non-teaching personnel in DepEd regional office III. Significance of the Study This study provided baseline data on intrinsic work motivation which are contributory to the worker’s job satisfaction, the individuals and groups who will be benefited are the following:
To the Field of Public Administration. This study will be beneficial in the field of public administration since it can provide information on how to give importance on the human resources of the government agencies in boosting their work motivation and to heighten their level of job satisfaction. It can also provide an input to those who would like to further pursue a study on human resource development particularly those who are working in the government sector. They can also use the information in this study to assess the different attitude of students and their work attitudes.
To the Regional Directors/Administrators/Heads. The study will benefit the agency concerned in such a way that this study would provide a good source of information from where to improve the existing programs in motivating the non-teaching personnel of the department. This will be of great help to the administrators in formulating a more tailored-made program wherein the employee’s morale will be boosted and have higher job satisfaction to improve the quality and standards of service to its clientele.
The honest assessment of the non-teaching personnel as respondents from each division will serve as a basis for the heads to keep their subordinates motivated in order to become more productive. To the Non-Teaching Personnel. The study will benefit the rank and file employees because it may regain their enthusiasm and passion to work. This is also a way to rekindle perseverance, love of work, and hope of having a progressive career in the education department despite their present job conditions.
The result of the study will keep them abreast also with the latest trends in motivational activities. The non-teaching personnel will have an awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses as well as their role in the agency. Such awareness may encourage them to continue to strive for best and develop their strengths and focusing to improve their weak points. These strengths can be put into practice by upgrading their skills and competencies or maximizing their potentials, which will be a good result to ultimate improvement.
The non-teaching personnel will then realize the practicability of their own motives with the conditions that prevail and the personality of the administrators. To the Future Researchers. The data that were gathered would also help students of Master of Public Administration and other related courses who also want to study the same related topics with guidelines anchored on the findings of the study. Also, this study would encourage and inspire the students that learning is a constant process and that through studies new developments may rise, considering that what is acceptable today may not be cceptable in the future. It paves a way of preparing themselves towards a new and yet worthwhile adventure. It can give the researches ideas to further investigate and validate the relationship of work motivation to their job satisfaction of the non-teaching personnel or employees in the government sector. To the General Public. Many may realized that the factors mentioned therein are relevant. In that case, there is a need for them to understand that employees are human beings too, and that their needs are similar to their needs. The general public ultimate expectation is quality service.
This survey is designed to measure the motivation and level of job satisfaction of the non-teaching employees of DepED, so if some deficiencies are found to exist, favorable steps for improvement could be undertaken and if findings were proven favorable, the existing policies would be upheld and strengthened. This study will also be beneficial to all the readers of this particular research because they can be aware of the intrinsic work motivation and its effect on the job satisfaction factors in the workplace specifically in the government sector. Definition of Terms
For better understanding of the study the following terms hereunder are conceptually and operationally defined. Intrinsic Motivation or Motivators – this refers to working condition and professional growth and advancement which when present in the workplace caused enduring states of motivation in employees but their absence did not lead to dissatisfaction ( Herzberg, 1959). It also occurs when people are internally motivated to do something because it either brings them pleasure, they think it is important, or they feel that what they are learning is significant.
Job Satisfaction – refers to the feeling of contentment, which an employee derives from his present work. It is an act or attitude one has about his job, his disposition towards his job, how he feels about this work. Motivation – this refers to any factor that brings about a change in behavior, regardless of whether the stimulus comes from inside of an individual or from outside as an internal incentives or pressure (Rigors and Myers, 1973). Growth Advancement Responsibility Work Itself Recognition Achievement
Extrinsic Work Motivation Hygiene Factor- Job Standards Consideration of Immediate Supervisors Workloads and Pressures Treatment of Co-Workers Salary and Fringe Benefits Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the review and related Foreign and Local Literature and Foreign and Local Studies, which will provide directions for this study. The review of related literature focused on two variables, namely motivation and job satisfaction. Related Literature Foreign and Local Motivation
According to Leatherman and Marsh (2001) many persons who have contributed to our knowledge about motivation, Douglas Mc Gregor, Abraham Maslow, and Frederick Herzberg have provided an important foundation for current understanding of motivation. Douglas McGregor focused on the relationship between a leader’s attitude towards his or her employees and the resultant employee’s behavior. Abraham Maslow investigated employee needs and Frederick Herzberg at how the employee job affects his or her motivation. All the three factors- the leaders attitude, the employee’s needs and the job affects employee motivation.
According to Young (2005) Maslow developed a “hierarchy of needs” or an order of needs that need to be fulfilled in each person. If a manager believes in Maslow’s hierarchy, he or she will motivate employees, keeping the order of needs in mind. The hierarchy of needs theory developed by Abraham Maslow is relevant to the present study because the theory has clear implications for how motivation is conceptualized. It is compatible to the present study because it accounts for different aspects of knowing motivation needs that focus on different causes of behavior.
It shows that motivation problems in any situation that offers the opportunity to succeed or fail. At the same time, by knowing the dynamics of this motivation and by using this knowledge appropriately it would explain and predict the outcome of the study. Motivation can be defined as the intensity of a person’s desire to engage in some activity. We know that employees can be motivated and that there are few more important leadership tasks than motivating subordinates. Motives and needs also play a central role at work. A motive is something that incites the person to action or that sustains and gives direction to action.
When we ask why defendant might have done what he did, or why a football player works to stay in shape all year, or why a sales manager flies all night to meet with a client, we are asking about motives. Need-based approaches to motivating employees focus on the role of needs or motivational dispositions in driving people to do what they do. Frederick Herzberg developed a famous motivation theory that divides Maslow’s hierarchy into lower-level (physiological, safety, social) and higher-level (ego, self-esteem, self-actualization) sets of needs; he says the best way to motivate someone is to offer satisfy the higher-level needs.
Herzberg believes the factors (which he calls hygiene) that can satisfy lower-level needs are different from those (which he calls motivators) that can satisfy higher level needs. If hygiene factors (factors outside the job itself such as working conditions, salary and supervision) are inadequate, employees will become dissatisfied. But – and this is extremely important – adding more of these hygiene factors (like salary) to the job (providing what Herzberg calls extrinsic motivation) is a very bad way to try to motivate someone because lower-level needs are quickly satisfied.
According to Dessler (2001), based on Herzberg theory, the best way to motivate employees is to build challenges and opportunities for achievement into their jobs, to provide intrinsic motivation, in other words. That way even the prospect of doing the job may motivate the employees much better as the thought of doing a favorite hobby may motivate you. Young (2005) also argued that Herzberg two-factor theory, taking a different approach from others. Herzberg argued that hygiene factors in the work setting are sources for job dissatisfaction.
Also, he claims that motivator factors in work tasks are sources of job satisfaction. His theories can be summarized by a quote from him, “if you want people to do good job, give them a good job to do”. The theory of Herzberg may seem a little vague, but it is based on superb ideas. The two-factor theory may be as useful as the other theories of the time because job context and content are major issues in the business world today. Mercado (2000) said in his study that Maslow’s ranking of human needs, the bottom are the physical needs such as food, sex, shelter, and clothing.
As primary need, people will leave all things just to survive. The expression in Tagalog is “kapit sa patalim” (to hold the knife). Once these are fulfilled, Maslow claims the person goes to a higher level of need until he goes to self-transcendence. According to Lupdag (2000) from the definitions of motivations and empirical evidences, some characteristics of motivations have been identified as follows: Motivation cannot be seen. Motivation is a construct that is inferred from observed behavior. Since motivation cannot be directly observed, care must be taken in inferring motivation from what is seen.
Motivation is a goal seeking. Motive organizes behavior towards a goal. A motivated individuals behaves or moves towards the attainment of a goal. A thirsty individual in a bus station looks for anything to quench his thirst. A student studies his lessons everyday when he is motivated to get the best from his student days. Motivation is selective and directional. The motive of an individual makes his behavior selective at the sometimes give it direction. The thirsty individual in a bus station focuses on the search for anything to drink to quench his thirst.
The student motivated to maximize his school days devotes his time to his studies and activities that enhance learning. A well-motivated person works harder and preserves longer than an unmotivated one. His level of intensity and persistence is higher because motivation energizes his behavior and gives it direction. It is very similar to the vector quantity in physics, it has both magnitude and direction. In total workforce, almost all human behavior is motivated caused and directed meaning people act because something caused it, but their actions must not be aimless, it must be directional.
Motivation, therefore, must be considered the strength of the drive toward an action. Motivation refers to the whole class of drives, needs and similar forces that prompt people to act in certain ways and develop tendencies for specific behaviors that may eventually lead to job satisfaction (Martirez, 2003). According to Florencio and Archimedes (2003), workplace refers to the place of work or to the place where work is done. The workplace is also interchangeably called work environment, an environment where an employment relationship exists between and among people.
Formal activities include all acts in the pursuance of one’s official and regular duties as employee or as contractor of a service. Examples of formal activities in the workplace are: preparing the payroll, keeping and maintaining office files, encoding or typing official documents, etc. and all acts in pursuit of one’s right as a citizen. As individuals existing in a social environment, workers, and employers also perform non-formal practices or activities in conformity to some customary and tacitly observed practices and codes of behavior.
Non-formal practices may also include detestable acts, such as palakasan, lagay, bootlicking, idle talking, backstabbing, etc. Moreover, to better understand the importance of motivation employees in the organization, Kreitner et. al. (2001) suggested a few guidelines for managers in motivating employees in order to perform better and in turn be productive in an organization. These procedures include the following: 1. Recognize individual differences. Employees have different needs. Spend time necessary to understand what is important to each employee; 2. Use goals and feedback.
Employee should have hard, specific goals, as well as feedback on how well they are fairing in the pursuit, of those goals. 3. Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them. 4. Link rewards to performance. Rewards should be contingent on performance. 5. Check the system for equity. Rewards should also be perceived by employees equating with the inputs they bring to the job. Intrinsic Work Motivation According to Leveriza ( 1990), Herzberg’s motivators emphasize achievement. He recognizes achievement as a critical factor for long-run job satisfaction. As such, it is closely related to Maslow’s need-hierarchy model.
Herzberg’s study shows the need for one to be aware of what factors are motivators and which are not. Some factors do lead employees to feel good about their work. Thus, providing the opportunity for psychological growth within which they can meet the fulfillment of self-actualizing needs. Herzberg’s study confirmed the hypothesis that factors of job content (the satisfiers) can stimulate high motivation and increased productivity. Similarly there are other factors, whose absence leads to dissatisfaction but whose presence does not motivate but merely prevents dissatisfaction.
Based on Herzberg’s study intrinsic work motivation includes the following as motivators: growth, advancement, responsibility, work itself, recognition and achievement. Growth and Advancement. Employees are best motivated when they are working toward personally meaningful goals whose attainment requires activity at a continuously optimal (intermediate) level of difficulty. An employee set personally meaningful goals which can contribute to the attainment of goals of the organization. It is also important that the attainment of goals is realistic.
An employees motivated in developing one self is important in order to be more motivated. Responsibility. Motivational factors such as achievement and responsibility are related, for most part, directly to the job itself, the worker’s performance, and the personal recognition and growth that worker’s experience. Motivators that re mostly job-centered, relate to the job content. When workers take their own initiative and responsibility and gain recognition through their own behavior, they are strongly motivated to enhance their productivity level. Work Itself.
If the management wishes to increase satisfaction on the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself — the opportunities it presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization. Recognition. Workers feel satisfaction when others recognize and appreciate their accomplishments. Recognition requires that the process or product or some other result of the learning activity be visible. Recognition differs from competition in that it does not involve a comparison with the performance of someone else in the work place.
Need for Achievement. People who are high in the need to achieve have a predisposition to strive for success. They are highly motivation to obtain the satisfaction that comes from accomplishing a challenging task or goals. They prefer tasks for which there is a reasonable chance for success and avoid those that are either too easy or too difficult. Such people prefer specific, timely criticism, and feedback about their performance. (Dessler, 2001). According to Lahey (2001), for many years, it was assumed that the best way to increase intrinsic motivation was to give people choices.
When people have options, they will choose activities that they are intrinsically motivated to perform, and performing them will further enhance their intrinsic motivation. Job Satisfaction According to Ellickson and Logsdon (2001), organizational scholars have long been interested in why some people report being very satisfied with their jobs and other express much lower levels of job satisfaction. The drive to understand and explain job satisfaction has been motivated by utilitarian reasons (e. g. to increase productivity and organizational commitment, lower absenteeism and turnover, and ultimately, increase organizational effectiveness) as well as humanitarian interests (i. e. , the notion that employees deserve to be treated with respect and have their psychological and physical well-being maximized). Satisfied workers also tend to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors, that is, altruistic behaviors that exceed the formal requirements of a job. Dissatisfied workers show an increased propensity for counterproductive behaviors, including withdrawal, burnout, and workplace aggression.
The author added that job satisfaction is the extent to which employees like their work, an attitude based on employee perceptions (negative or positive) of their work environment. This explained what job satisfaction is and how it ties to the overall job satisfaction. Locke (1993) gives a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. ” Job satisfaction is a result of employee’s perception of how well job provides those things which are viewed as important.
It is generally recognized in the organizational behavior field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. These are three important dimensions to job satisfaction. First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such it cannot be seen; it can only be inferred. Second, job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organizational participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and co workers.
They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they are being treated very well and are being equitably, they are likely to have a positive attitude toward the job. They will be job-satisfied. Third, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Since job satisfaction is an attitude, it cannot be directly observed and therefore must rely on the employee’s self-reports. These surveys are receiving renewed interest in the practice of human resource management. Locke (1993) enumerated ways of measuring job satisfaction. Some of the most common are rating scales, critical incidents, interviews, and action tendencies.
The most common approach for measuring job satisfaction is the use of rating scales. One of the most popular is the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). This instrument provides a detailed picture of the satisfactions and dissatisfactions of the employees. Another popular instrument is the Porter Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (NSQ), it is typically used for management personnel only. The question focus on particular problems and challenges faced by managers. Rating scales offer a number of important advantages in measuring job satisfaction.
One is that they tend to be worded in general language so that they can be used with employees in many different types of organizations. Second is that because they have been so widely used in research, there is usually normative data available so that the responses can be compared with those of employees in other organizations who have taken the test in previous years. On the negative side, these instruments are based in the assumption that the personnel are willing to respond honestly and that they are able to describe their feelings accurately.
Another problem is the underlying assumption that the questionnaire items are valid ( they measure what they are supposed to measure) and reliable ( they accurately and consistently measure). Critical incidents approach is used to measure job satisfaction. Employees awere asked to described incidents on their job when they were particularly satisfied and dissatisfied. These incidents were then content-analyzed. One of the major benefits of the critical incidents approach is that it allows the respondents to say whatever they want.
The individuals are not restricted by predetermined categories or events as on a structured questionnaire. On the other hand, the approach is time-consuming and there is the chance that both the responses and the interpretation will be biased. Another method of assessing job satisfaction is through the use of personal interviews. This approach allows for an in-depth exploration of job attitudes. If the respondent says something that the interviewer does not understand or would like to learn more about, the interviewer can follow up with additional questions.
On the negative side, responses can be misinterpreted and this lead to erroneous conclusions. A second problem is the possibility of interviewer bias. The way in which the individual asks the questions or the types of information the person chooses to record can affect the outcome. Finally, there is the cost factor. Interviews are relatively time consuming and thus expensive way of gathering information. Action tendencies are the inclinations people have to approach or to avoid certain things. By gathering information about how they feel like acting with respect to their jobs, the job satisfaction can be measured.
There are number of advantages associated with this approach to measuring attitudes. One is that less self-insight is required by the respondent. Thus, the chance of self-bias is reduced. A second is that approach provides greater opportunity for people to express their in-depth feelings than do many other more surface job satisfaction instruments. Job Standards. Luthans (1989), stated that the content of work itself is another major source of satisfaction. Some of the most important ingredients of a satisfying job included interesting and challenging work, work that is not boring, and a job that provides favorable status.
Murray (1999) said that since job satisfaction is by definition an attitudinal concept; it seems logical that its effects would be more intangible than quantifiable. Recent trends towards more holistic views of psychology make clear the importance of work in the individual’s overall enjoyment of life. A miserable employee cannot leave the dissatisfactions of an unhappy job at the office at the end of the day. Considerations of Immediate Supervisors. Luthans (1989) positioned that promotion opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction.
This is because promotions take a number of different forms and have a variety of accompanying rewards. According to Leveriza (1995), to improve the morale of government employees, opportunities should be open for them to prepare them for higher responsibilities in the public service, for example attendance at the Development Academy of the Philippines. A line of action that will ensure honest and efficient government service should be pursued with determination by the government. Also, equal advancement opportunity to all under the merit system should be made a reality.
For many, of the government personnel, this factor often outranks pay consideration. The author added that according to Nigro (1995) promotion must be made on the basis of merit from among the best-qualified candidates. Use of written test is not mandatory, but the candidate must be rated as objectively as possible on the basis of evaluation of methods, which are reasonable, valid and fair. This guarantee true competition and makes it impossible to have the decision on the sole question of seniority, no matter what the other attributes of the candidates. Treatment of Co-Workers.
Johnston (2000) also cited that job satisfaction and employee retention are directly linked to the quality of an employee’s relationships. Emphatic and available human resource professionals are in a unique position not only empower employees solve personal and professional problems, but, through their interpersonal skills, help their company save thousands of dollars that would otherwise be spent in employment-related legal fees. The trick in dealing with problem employees is not putting a bandage on their boo-boos when they cry, but rather help them learn how to heal their own.
Not only this help them mature, it will leave you with the energy at the end of the day to deal with children you want to take care of – the ones at home. Workloads and Pressures. According to Luthans (1999) said that working conditions are another factor that have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clean, attractive surroundings, for instance), the personnel will find it easier to carry on their jobs. If the working conditions are poor (hot, noisy surroundings, for example) the personnel will find it more difficult to get things done. Syptak, et. al. 1999) stated that the environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the work they are doing. Also, Bell et. al. (1996), made mentioned that in general, employees do list physical conditions as important as job satisfaction. In addition to productivity, managers and others have become concerned with that design of the work environment can influence job satisfaction. The authors also mentioned that, work environment can be designed to maximize productivity through facilitating workflow and providing safe and healthy working conditions.
Salary and Benefits. According to Luthans (1989) revealed that salary is the significant factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain their basic needs, but it is instrumental in providing upper-level needs satisfaction. Employees often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organization. Leveriza (1995) cited in his book that whether in private business or in the government, the most significant of a job to a worker is the income he derived from it.
There, indeed, may be other vital elements of satisfaction attached to the position or the work process itself but generally a worker would not be in his job unless he earns something out of it for his subsistence. On the other hand, Syptak et. al. (1999) pointed out that old adage “you get what you pay for” tends to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do not want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you.
Luthans (1989) viewed fringe benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know how much they are receiving in benefits. Moreover, most tend to undervalue these benefits because they cannot see their practical value. Zulueta (2002) claims that it is always presumed that happy and satisfied workers in any kind of organization are productive workers. Their attitudes behaviors and job satisfaction are very important to the organization, for the desired goals and objectives to be realized.
However, job satisfaction and human behavior have been association with organizational problems and issues and have been the focal point of deliberate efforts toward improving worker’s performance and productivity. It cannot be denied that any type of connected and related to some of the encouraging outcomes that the managers want. Motivation and Job Satisfaction Sison (1991) enumerated the following factors that were found to motivate employees to do superior performance: 1. Achievement – a feeling of personal accomplishment or the feeling of having done a job well. 2.
Recognition – being recognized for doing a job well such as being complimented by the boss or receiving a company reward, promotion or salary incentive. 3. Participation – being personally involved in one’s work; having some responsibility for making decisions about one’s job. 4. Growth – challenge of the job itself, and the chance to learn skills, acquire knowledge, and achieve development and advancement. As more varied tasks are included in the job under enrichment programs, the work is made more interesting and challenging, the job becomes more satisfying and the employees more productive.
Based on the facts, a motivated person can be viewed as a productive one. Being satisfied is an attitude of positivism and thus it incorporated hardwork and perseverance in their work. The goal or the purpose of an individual in an organization can be easily achieved if the person is highly motivated and reflected the satisfaction in their work place. Profile of Employees According to Ellickson and Logsdon (2001), the second most commonly investigated source of variation in job satisfaction pertains to the socio-demographic characteristics of the employees themselves.
Many researchers also believe that individual attributed serve to moderate the relationship between the environmental factors and job satisfaction. The present study posited that the profile of the employees as moderating variables are equally important with that of the independent variables specifically in testing the variation in job satisfaction. Also, profile of employee’s served as the basis for testing the acceptance and rejection of the hypothesis. The profile includes age, gender, civil status, educational attainment, position, length of stay/service, and service location. Related Studies Foreign and Local
The studies related to this research paper include numbers of studies on motivation and level of job satisfaction under the foreign and local settings. Motivation Lussier (2003) further states that absenteeism is very expensive. For example, at General Motors (GM) absenteeism is 5 percent. This means 25,000 employees are absent each day. This result in 50 million lost hours each year at an annual cost of $1billion. GM is not the only organization with absenteeism problems. Wells Fargo, Johnson & Johnson, and DWG Corp. have all taken action to combat this problem. Turnover is the rate at which employees leave an organization.
Although many other factors are involved in the decision to leave an organization, dissatisfaction is the central one. Recruiting, selecting and training new employees often cost thousands of dollars. The higher the turnover rate, the larger the expense will be. Generally based on the recent studies of the relationship between job satisfaction and performance, we find that a correlation does exist. However, the relationship some low performers are very satisfied with their jobs; some high performers are dissatisfied with their jobs. Nevertheless, and overall positive association exist.
According to Bradly Wright (2001), who studied “Public Sector Work Motivation: A Review of the Current Literature and a Revised Conceptual Model”, reported that the performance of the public organizations and their employees should be at least important to our society than the performance of private sector organizations such as Microsoft, Ford, or McDonalds. Although work motivation is just one factor that influence performance, it is a critical moderator between performance and such other factors as ability of situation productivity improvement requires more than just customer service technology, decentralization process engineering.
Whether these approaches process succeed or fail, will depend largely on the motivation of employees who have been asked to implement them. Judge (2002) in his study is linking the traits from 5-factor model of personality to overall job satisfaction using the model as an organizing framework from 163 independent samples suggest that the five-factor model is a fruitful basis for examining the dispositional source of job satisfaction. In particular, the traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Contentiousness displayed moderate correlations with job satisfaction.
The other two traits – agreeableness and Openness to Experience – displayed relatively weak correlations with job satisfaction. Employees who are emotionally stable, extraverted, and conscientious may be happier at work because they are more likely to achieve satisfying results at work. Job Satisfaction Sokoya’s (2003) study on personal predictors of job satisfaction that monetary compensation is one of the most important explanatory variables for job satisfaction.
He also found out that pay levels affect job satisfaction, reporting that those public employees that compared their salaries with those of private sector employees had lower levels of job satisfaction. There is also an impact on the gender in regards to job satisfaction based on the study of Sokoya (2003) which indicates that there are no differences in the level of job satisfaction among men and suggest that the expectations of working women in terms of job satisfaction are different from those of men. In the relationship of age to job satisfaction, he also suggests that job satisfaction increases with age.
One explanation for such a finding is that older employees are better able to adjust their expectations to the returns work can provide. More findings revealed that the length of time spent in the organization also positively affects the job satisfaction of the employees. The longer time they spend in the organization, the more satisfied the managers are with their jobs. This may be indication that once the process of acculturation is over, managers settle into their jobs, have an increased organizational commitment and it seems that they like their job more.
Simsa (2003) studied about the work satisfaction, workload and motivation of employees in social service organization her findings revealed that there is a high correlation between work satisfaction and motivation with the clarity of guidance structures as well as the commitment of the high-level performance. A study conducted by Kare (2005), indicated that a well-motivated person works harder and preserves longer than an unmotivated one. His level of intensity and persistence is higher because motivation energizes his behavior and gives it direction.
It is very similar to the vector quantity in physics, it has both magnitude and direction. In total workforce, almost all human behavior is motivated caused and directed meaning people act because something cause it, but their actions must not be aimless, it must be directional. Motivation therefore must be considered the strength of the drive toward an action. Motivation refers to the whole class of drives, needs and similar forces that prompt people to act in certain ways and develop tendencies for specific behaviors that may eventually lead to job satisfaction.
In the study conducted by Ignacio (2005) majority of the respondents of the researcher are middle aged, female, married and finished a certain bachelor’s degree, belonged to the lowest salary grade of 1-8, and have rendered more than 19 years of service in the department. The study reveals that the respondents are motivated with regards to their level of work motivation in terms of intrinsic factors related to their job. On the other hand, respondents are moderately motivated with regards to their level of work motivation in terms of extrinsic factors related to their job.
The respondents are moderately satisfied with regards to their level of job satisfaction according to job standards, consideration of immediate supervisor, treatment of co-workers, and salary and fringe benefits. The other respondents are slightly satisfied with their level of job satisfaction according to workloads and pressures. Motivation and Job Satisfaction According to Lussier (2002), a person’s job satisfaction is a set of attitudes towards work.
Job satisfaction is what most employees want from their jobs, even more than they want job security or most employees want from their job satisfaction is a hallmark of a well-managed organization. Low job satisfaction is often the cause of wildcat strikes, work slowdowns, absenteeism, and high employee theft and sabotage, disciplinary problems, and a variety of other organizational problems. Today, managers see less interest in extra hours, job dedication, attendance and punctuality.
Improving job satisfaction may lead to better human relations and organizational performance by creating a win-win situation. Job satisfaction tends to be more associated with lower absenteeism, especially when employees have some control over absences, that is, when they are not really sick or injured. Satisfaction with a course also affects class attendance. The motivation to investigate the degree of job satisfaction arises from the fact that a better understanding of employee satisfaction is desirable to achieve a higher level of motivation which is directly associated with student achievement.
Recently, the assessment of employees attitude such as job satisfaction has become a common activity in organizations in which management is concerned with the physical and psychological well being of people (Spector, 1997) Another study was conducted by Rivera (2003) on the Dimensions of Work Ethics and its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Factors: The Case of NBI, on the overall, clerical and non-clerical employees have expressed a moderate level of satisfaction in their work and that the demographic profile of the respondents such as age, civil status, length of service and nature of work did not significantly influence their job satisfaction as well as the performance. The researcher found out that the higher educational level does not necessarily mean greater job satisfaction. This may be due in part to increase expectations prompted by higher levels of education.
Exceptions to this trend may be found at the level of graduate education, especially at the doctoral and post doctoral levels in medicine and other disciplines. Mercado-Dante (2000) studied the relationship of work motivation and job satisfaction as perceived by the personnel of St. Joseph School in San Pablo City. Results showed that in her study the perceptions of teaching and non-teaching personnel on work motivation both fell in the above average range and that they are also moderately satisfied on their job. The researcher used Work Motivation Inventory and Job Satisfaction Questionnaire as tools for her research to the 27 teaching and 8 non-teaching personnel.
Another study was made by Restituto Giron (2005) which focuses on motivational analysis of the personnel in Development Bank of the Philippines. The researcher employed the descriptive method using a standardized instrument: The Motivational Analysis of Organizations Behavior (MAO-B). It involved 30% sampling of the DBP main branch personnel (119 officers and 334 rank and files). They were drawn randomly across sectors in the bank. Using the MOA-B instrument procedure and the F-test statistically treated data obtained. In the study made by Giron (2005), it shows the correlation of work motivation and job satisfaction of employees in DBP. The fear of failure of the employees reflects the kind of motivation manifested in the employees.
The study conducted by Ventura (1998) is somewhat relevant to the present study of the researcher. Based on the study conducted to 122 employees of the Department of Education Culture and Sports Regional Office III on the level of job satisfaction of employees revealed that respondents were satisfied with the administration and social relationship obtaining in the work environment, moderately satisfied with the physical facilities management, very satisfied with the benefits and work itself. The level of job satisfaction was not, in any way, affected by the variables of age, sex, and civil status. However, highest education attainment and length of service tend to influence job satisfaction.
Educational managers have to establish challenging yet realistic goals with the employees to motivate them to perform to their peak develop and train these employees to reach the level of performance desired by both. Synthesis and Relevance to the Study Motivation plays a vital role in an individual to be able to accomplish a certain task efficiently and effectively. Motivation of employees is important to the organization since it is one of the several factors that significantly affect the productivity and performance of the employees. According to the theory of Maslow, the basic needs of an individual should be realized in order to attain the higher level of needs which is self-actualization. It is the knowing yourself, not only as an employee but as a person as well.
An individual should continuously feel its importance and its purpose. Based on the theory of Herzberg, intrinsic motivators such as growth, advancement, responsibility, the work itself, recognition and achievement are the upper level of motivation which can give satisfaction focusing on the importance of the individual in the organization. Further, the presence of the motivators in the workplace caused enduring states of motivation in employees but their absence did not lead to dissatisfaction. Hygiene motivators, on the other hand, produced an acceptable working environment but did not increase satisfaction – their causes job dissatisfaction. The non-teaching personnel of DepEd are the front liners in performing its tasks of ensuring that all the stakeholders of the agency are being catered to and that the delivery of quality education is continuously done efficiently. The study is very relevant to the existing state of the non-teaching personnel in the Department of Education because it will give a clear look at how the employees are being motivated with the existing policies and programs implemented for the non-teaching. This study will provide inputs on the effectiveness of the programs lined up for the non-teaching personnel in the department. Further, this study will be able to analyze the depth of motivation and satisfaction of non-teaching personnel specifically in terms of pursuing a long term career in the education department. Chapter 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES
This chapter presents the methodology used in the study, the population respondents, the instru