Harmonizing to Robbins and Coulter ( 2005 ), “ The procedures that account for an person ‘s willingness to exercise high degrees of attempt to make organisational ends, conditioned by the attempt ‘s ability to fulfill some single demand. ” On the other manus, Weihrich and Koontz ( 2003 ) identified motive as “ a general term using to the full category of thrusts, desires, demands, wants, and similar forces. ”
If we consider the Content positions of motive harmonizing to Griffin ( 2005 ), which focus on the undermentioned inquiry What workplace factors motivate people? Harmonizing to this criteria motive trades with demands and demand lacks. Brown ( 2000 ) argued that, ‘motivation can be more efficaciously enhanced by supplying employees with more liberty and greater duty. ‘
The most widely known theories of motive are Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, Fredcrick Herzberg ‘s Two Factors Theory, Douglas McGregor ‘s Theory X and Theory Y, The Expectancy theory, The Goal Setting theory, The equity Theory etc. these theories of motive are briefly described below:
Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs:
Abraham Maslow a human relationist, argued that people are motivated to fulfill five demand degrees. They are, Physiological needs, Security needs, Belongingness needs, Esteem needs, and Self-actualization demands. This is known as Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs theory of motive. This theory shown in the figure below:
Figure: Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs.
Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Through this theory, Maslow mentioned that, when an inferior rank demand is satisfied ( for illustration, guaranting nutrient, vesture, the demand of external respiration, etc ), the following degree demand becomes dominant, and the attending of the individual is dedicated to the achievement of this higher rank demand. The demand of self-actualization can ne’er be satisfied ; Maslow references in this sense that “ adult male is a perpetually desiring animate being ” and merely an unsated demand can actuate the behaviour, the dominant demand being the primary factor for behavior motive. During the development of demands towards the top of the hierarchy of demands, there is besides a psychological development, but it does n’t go on needfully as a direct patterned advance. The inferior rank demands continue to be, even if temporarily in a latency province as motive factors, and people invariably come back to antecedently satisfied demands.
Maslow ‘s theory has had a great influence over the organisations, but it was besides really criticized, particularly for its rigidness, because people are different and have different precedences. Even Maslow mentioned that it is difficult to accept that people ‘s demands progress increasingly and invariably towards the top of the pyramid, in a really orderly mode.
Another motive theory is Frederick Herzberg ‘s Two Factors Theory. He made an probe about the beginnings of professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction for comptrollers and applied scientists. Hertzberg ascertained that their statements about the good periods were largely related to content elements of the professional activity, particularly professional recognition, accomplishments, publicities, duties and the nature of work itself.
The defeats of the interviewees were often related to the context of their work: the company policy, the direction, the surveillance system, the wage, and the work conditions. Hertzberg considers that motive and the addition of work public presentation can be merely obtained through the action of the motivational factors, which straight reflect the content of the executed work by the employee on his place.
The contextual factors represent merely the conditions necessary for the executing of work procedures. This theory was frequently criticized, particularly because it does non do any rating of the relation between satisfaction and public presentation. Many critics besides suggested that Hertzberg drew deductive decisions, with general incidence, unjustified by the use of important interviewees.
Douglas McGregor developed one of the best known motivational theories, Theory X and Theory Y. In the procedure of work, McGregor separate employees in two classs. Employees that align to the X theory are predisposed to negligence, by avoiding work every bit much as possible, by missing aspiration and avoiding duties. Considered a medium degree individual, the X employee is apathetic to the demands of the company that he belongs to, and has certain inertia towards alteration, by defying it. In effect, at the workplace, the X employee must be forced, threatened with penalties, for good controlled and penalized in order to be determined to do the attempts necessary to achieve the company objectives. Harmonizing to the Y theory, the employees consider it normal to do physical and rational attempts at work, by voluntarily taking upon themselves different assignments and duties and by being motivated by the associated wagess. The Y employee must non be forced by different agencies to obtain public presentation, because he is motivated by the content of his work. McGregor ‘s position can, of class, be considered simplistic, because external and internal factors can frequently resolutely act upon his work public presentation.
Along with those three content theories, there are besides different procedure theories. If in the content theories the speech pattern is on the specific factors that motivate the employees sing certain necessities and aspirations, in the procedure theories the speech pattern is laid on the procedures, on the psychological forces that have an consequence on motive. They start from the premiss that motive begins with the want of making something, bring forthing outlooks. The procedure or cognitive theories are more utile to the directors than the content theories because they offer more realistic rules sing the motive techniques. The best known procedure theories are: the anticipation theory, the end puting theory and the equity theory.
The anticipation theory, besides named the VIE theory was ab initio elaborated by Vroom ( 1964 ) and so developed by Porter and Lawler ( 1968 ). This theory establishes a connexion between the employees ‘ motive and the cocksureness of their anticipations. The motive is possible merely when there is a clear relation between the work public presentation and its consequences and the consequences are means to fulfill a certain demand.
The end puting theory, developed by Lotham and Locke ( 1979 ) states that, the degree of motive and public presentation is higher when the person has specific aims established and when these aims, even with a high degree of trouble, are accepted and are offered a public presentation feedback. The human resources specializers have an of import function to play in set uping organisational aims. The employees must take part in the procedure of end scene in order to obtain their blessing when puting higher and higher marks and the human resources people can assist them to understand the effects of these marks over their full activity. Feedback is besides critical to keep employees motive, particularly when aiming even higher aims.
The equity theory, speaks about the people perceptual experiences sing the manner they are treated in comparing with others. Actually, the theory states that the people are higher motivated when they are reasonably treated and less motivated when there is no equity between employees. This theory merely explains one of the characteristics of the motivational procedure, but an of import 1 at an ethical and moral degree.
From many positions this theory is contrary to the general theories developed by Maslow and Herzberg. They put into visible radiation merely the intrinsic and extrinsic motive of an person. The Fifty – Fifty regulations enlarge the motive apprehension and suggest that 50 per cent of our motive lies without us. Of class, this does non intend that it is unpointed to analyze the really much known theories. The two research worker ‘s part lies in the fact that they map out the internal demands and motives of an single, many times accomplished through work. Maslow ‘s study map is more general and more original. Herzberg continued and applied Maslow ‘s theory into pattern. He dichotomized the human needs into satisfiers and dissatisfiers, or motivational and hygiene factors. The Fifty – Fifty regulations covers both positions: the internal position of an single and its interior motivational factors and besides the external position, when the employee motive is influenced by others and the instant fortunes. Adair ( 2006 ) argued that, “ When person is actuating you, he or she is consciously or unconsciously seeking to alter the strength and the way of your motor energy ”.
Discussion of the relevancy of Motivational techniques on my organisation
I design this work by building a conjectural organisation of mine. That will hold concern of Fast Moving Consumer Goods ( FMCG ). As for making concern as FMCG the organisation needs to increase efficiency in production and selling. Though these two sectors are wholly different in construction so I need to utilize different motivational techniques for different sections and besides need to see that these techniques should hold dealingss with each other and while utilizing pecuniary factors as motivational tools this should be equal for each of the divisions. In my organisation I would wish to utilize following motivational tools:
As per my concern by utilizing these factors I will go able to increase my profitableness and productiveness. In the first if I discuss about pecuniary inducements this will actuate the employees to execute at a standard degree and besides actuate them to increase their efficiency. Locke et Al. ( 1980 ) conducted a research on the significance of pecuniary inducements on public presentation betterments and the consequence of this research was “ The average public presentation addition found in the field surveies they reviewed was 30 per centum. ”
Management by aims ( MBO ) is now one of the most widely used motivational techniques. It establishes criterions for employee public presentation and offer feedback of the employees about the extent to which the criterions have been achieved. Locke et Al. ( 1980 ) attribute a 16 per centum average betterment in public presentation ( with a scope of2 per centum to 57.5 per centum ) as a consequence of end puting. They besides emphasized that feedback about advancement for end puting to modulate public presentation efficaciously.
Harmonizing to Hackman ( 1977 ) Job design involves the structuring of assorted facets of the occupation content. It increases the duty, task liberty of the employees and distributes the authorization which flattens the hierarchy.
As all the techniques and tools is suited for each and every state of affairs. On the other manus we can state every motivational technique has some restrictions. As if we use the pecuniary inducements as motivational tools it will cut down net net income after revenue enhancement of the company and besides encourage directors for window dressing which may do Agency Problem.
On the other manus, while implementing MBO attack as motivational tools, the aim should be dynamic, otherwise the profitableness and efficiency of the organisation will be hampered at a specific phase. While puting the end we must see several troubles such as, First, end puting frequently is an of import requirement of effectual public presentation assessment and pecuniary inducements. Second, end puting offers one of the primary paths to personal significance support because it creates a mechanism by which persons can detect their parts to organisational success. Third, end scene is an attractive option to pecuniary inducements, which, in the long tally either could neglect for deficiency of equal fiscal wagess or might take away from public involvement values. Fourth, end scene might be an efficient option to pecuniary inducements in that it offers a high rate of return for rather limited investings.
In instance of Job design attack, Locke et Al. ( 1980 ), argued that, “ Measuring the effectivity of occupation design is more hard than measuring the effectivity of other motivational techniques because it normally is implemented in concurrence with feedback and other structural alterations. ” And he suggest that, by commanding the end puting component occupation design plan can be controlled without holding any consequence on the public presentation.