Introduction to Psychology PSY1101 Part 1Short Answer Questions Question 1: List and very briefly describe the five internal factors of the Multifactor Offender Readiness model described by Howell and Day (2007) towards the treatment for high risk offenders. Howell and Day discuss The Multifactor Offender Readiness Model towards the treatment for high risk offenders. They reason that there is an assumption of The Multifactor Offender Readiness model, that readiness is a function of both internal (person) factors and external (context) factors.
The Multifactor Offender Readiness model identifies five internal factors of readiness that are required, they are: • Cognitive factors – the performance of some composite cognitive activity is one internal readiness factor identified by the model. The cognitive variables that are significant when evaluating the impairment of engagement include attitudes, beliefs and patterns of thinking as well as specific expectations of therapy and therapy outcomes.
The perceptions and beliefs that an offender may have in regards to staff providing therapy and the programmes offered by the systems of which they are a part of, are other important factors of the cognitive process. Whether an offender believes that he/she is capable of engagement and change are also significant cognitions as are the beliefs about the benefits and costs of treatment of the offender. • Affective factors – There are three aspects of emotionality that are identified as major influences of readiness: the capacity to experience emotional states, the ability to express emotion and the capacity to reflect on emotional states.
There can be numerous causes of an individual to be unable to access their emotional state, however whatever the causes are, this inability to experience, express and reflect emotions is an obstruction for readiness in many therapeutic programmes. • Volitional factors – The power or faculty of choosing; the will or motivation to be involved in treatment is another readiness factor of the model. The goals of the therapeutic programme the offender is undertaking need to be consistent with those of the offender in order for there to be a readiness to engage in treatment. Behavioural factors – the behavioural and cognitive skills of offenders will ultimately impact their ability to engage in treatment. The behaviours and skills that are needed will vary depending upon the nature of the treatment that the offender is being offered, however, they may include and ability to evaluate one’s own behaviour, the capacity to form relationships and the desire to seek help for problems. Engagement in particular therapeutic programmes may also require basic social and cognitive competencies such as the ability to role play, discuss feelings, thoughts and behaviours. Identity factors – these factors are made up of the individual’s values and beliefs about themselves. For readiness to be achievable it is paramount that the individual’s identity must allow for change in the direction required by the treatment programme. In the case of high risk offenders entering mental health services treatment, an identity shift is needed. A shift from their identity as a ‘criminal’ in the prison system to a ‘patient’ in the mental health system. Reference: 1. Howell, K. , & Day, A. (2007). Readiness for treatment in high risk offenders with personality disorders. Psychology, Crime & Law, 13 (1), 47-56.