Multiple Intelligences Stacy Bowers General Psychology/300 May 31, 2010 Dr. James Bell Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theory of multiple intelligences developed by Howard Gardner. It will be discussing three intelligences; Bodily-Kinesthetic, Logical-Mathematical, and Interpersonal. This paper will also take a look at how each of these three personalities can have an impact on personal success. Illustrations of this discussion are used throughout Chapter 8: Intelligence in the book Psychology (5th edition) and in other articles of the same reference.
Multiple Intelligences In 1983, Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, changed the way people perceive intelligence and learning with his theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence is an ability to solve problems or fashion products that are useful in a particular cultural setting or community. Gardner believed that there are at least eight intelligences possessed by all people, and that every person has developed some intelligence more fully than others. According to this theory, when you find a task or subject easy, you are probably using a more fully developed intelligence.
Using a less developed intelligence is considered when you have trouble. “The theory distinguishes eight kinds of intelligence: musical, bodily/kinesthetic, spatial, linguistic or verbal, logical/mathematical, naturalist, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. Gardner argues that intelligences can be isolated based on a number of criteria, including their neurological independence, the presence of savants (who are severely deficient in major intellectual respects but have pockets of giftedness), and their different developmental courses.
Someone could be a brilliant mathematician but inhabit the lowest percentiles of interpersonal intelligence. ” (Kowalski & Western, 2009. ) To learn successfully, one would need to maximize their strengths and compensate for the weaknesses. Bodily-Kinesthetic Someone who has the ability to use the physical body skillfully and to take in knowledge through bodily sensation, coordination or working with hands, is considered to posses bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. People with Kinesthetic intelligence love movement. They enjoy sports and/or dance.
They are good at building things and like to stay active. They have good motor skills and are very aware of their bodies. They learn best through movement and experimentation. People with bodily kinesthetic learning styles learn best when they are permitted to use their tactile senses and fine and gross motor movement as part of the learning process. They often prefer direct involvement with material they are learning than worksheets or reading from a book. Bodily kinesthetic learners understand and remember material longer when they use it in an active way. The bodily kinesthetic learner may be drawn to careers such as professional dancer, athletic coach or trainer, aerobics instructor, artist in painting, sculpture, or woodworking, factory work with moving systems, postal carrier, emergency rescue worker, fire fighter or police officers, or military. ”(FamilyEducation. com) For this learner to be successful, they must utilize their abilities such as, connecting their mind and body, controlling movement, improving their body functions, expanding their body awareness to all senses, and coordinating their body movement.
Logical-Mathematical A person that has the intelligence to understand logical reasoning and problem solving such as; math, science, patterns, and sequences, has logical-mathematical intelligence. This learner has the ability to reason, use abstract information, and analyze the cause and effect of relationships. “They are typically methodical and think in logical or linear order. They may be adept at solving math problems in their heads and are drawn to logic puzzles and games. (Wikipedia. org) “People with logical mathematical learning styles enjoy school activities such as math, computer science, technology, drafting, chemistry, other sciences and design. These learners prefer logical order in instruction and often work best in structured, organized environments. They have strong visual analysis and memory and problem solving skills. ”(Logsdon) As natural tinkerers and builders, they enjoy bringing mathematical and conceptual ideas into reality via hands-on rojects such as computer assisted design, creating electronic devices, using computer applications, or programming computers. They prefer structured, goal-oriented activities that are based on math reasoning rather than less structured, creative activities with inexact learning goals. ” Mathematical logical learners would find a statistical study more appealing than analyzing literature or keeping a journal. Mathematically and logically talented learners may be drawn to careers such as computer programming and design or electronic, mechanical, or chemical engineering.
Drafting, accounting, finance and investment, architecture, and the sciences may also be appealing to people with mathematical logical learning styles. ” (Cortland. edu) Utilizing their abilities to organizing material logically, explaining material sequentially to someone, developing systems and finding patterns, writing outlines, developing charts and graphs, and analyzing information, are the skills that will promote success for this learner. Interpersonal
An interpersonal intelligence has the ability to relate to others, notice their moods, motivations, and feelings. They are linked to social activity, cooperative learning, and teamwork. Interpersonal learners “enjoy school activities such as speech, drama, and debate teams. Interpersonal learners are true people persons. They enjoy heading up committees, group learning projects, and communicating with other students and adults. Interpersonal learners love to interact and prefer learning through interpersonal communication and interaction. (Wikipedia. org) “People with interpersonal learning styles learn best when they are permitted to use their people senses as part of the learning process. They often prefer direct involvement with others in group projects in school or within the larger community. ”(Logsdon) They are stimulated by dialog with students and adults and seem to have a strong sense of intuition regarding others’ opinions and preferences. Interpersonal learners are good at reading people and are good at getting to the root cause of communication problems. The interpersonal learning styled student may be drawn to careers such as politician, attorney, teacher, minister, travel and tourism, psychologist, television or radio, social worker, or corporate officer. ” (Teachervision. fen. com) Seeing things from other’s perspectives, cooperating within a group, communicating verbally and nonverbally, and creating and maintaining relationships ensures the success of these learners. Conclusion The way one learns is a unique blend of intelligences, resulting from distinctive abilities, challenges, experiences, and training.
The ability in the intelligences may develop or recede as your life changes. The theory of multiple intelligences also has strong implications for adult learning and development. Many adults find themselves in jobs that do not make optimal use of their most highly developed intelligences (for example, the highly bodily-kinesthetic individual who is stuck in a linguistic or logical desk-job when he or she would be much happier in a job where they could move around, such as a recreational leader, a forest ranger, or physical therapist).
The theory of multiple intelligences gives adults a whole new way to look at their lives, examining potentials that they left behind in their childhood (such as a love for art or drama) but now have the opportunity to develop through courses, hobbies, or other programs of self-development. These intelligences are good in assessing our strengths and weaknesses, and we should by any means possible encourage and stimulate learners of all kinds, so that they in turn love education, and feel confident about themselves. References Kowalski, R. ; Western, D. 2009). Psychology (5th ed. ) Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Logical-Mathematical Retrieved from http://www. cortland. edu/psych/mi/logical. html Bodily-Kinesthetic Retrieved from http://school. familyeducation. com/child-based-learning/careers/38494. html Interpersonal Retrieved fromhttp://www. teachervision. fen. com/intelligence/teaching-methods/2175. html Logical-Mathematical and Interpersonal Retrieved from http://wikipedia. org Logsdon, A. , Interpersonal Learning Style – Learn about Interpersonal Learning Styles Retrieved http://learningdisabilities. about. com