Mushrooms are fruiting organic structures of the Fungi. The fruiting organic structures are like umbrella, found in every state from white mountains to sandy comeuppances and can turn on all signifier of dirts, wastelands arable lands. The comestible fruiting organic structures are called mushroom and toxicant 1s are called as toadstools.
Mushrooms are popular for their daintiness and flavored nutrient value. It is good established fact that they are first-class beginnings of vitamins and minerals. They besides contain appreciable sums of vitamins like Niacin and Pantothenic acid, minerals such as Ca, P and K and a just measure of Fe. Fresh mushrooms contain about 80-95 % wet, 3 % protein, 0.3-0.4 % fat and 1 % minerals and vitamins. With the low saccharide and fat contents they constitute an ideal dish for diabetic patients.
Oyster mushrooms are lignocellulolytic Fungis doing a white putrefaction of wood and turn of course in temperature, semitropical and tropical woods on dead wooden logs of deciduous and sometimes cone-bearing trees. They can besides turn on disintegrating organic affair. Their fruiting organic structures are clearly shell, fan or spatulate with different shadows of white, pick, Grey, xanthous, tap or light chocolate-brown depending upon the species. However, the coloring material the basiodiocarps is highly variable and influenced by temperature, light strength and the nutrition of the substrate.
Oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus sp ) , the 3rd largest commercially produced mushroom in the universe, are found turning of course rotten wood stuff. The turning addition in ingestion on oyster mushroom is mostly due to its gustatory sensation, medicative and nutritionary belongingss. Pleurotus sp. one of the most produced species, is cultivated chiefly on sawdust. The inaccessibility of sawdust and the fact that droping of trees in most parts of the universe is prohibited makes it imperative that other beginnings of substrates be utilized for its cultivation. In the Torrid Zones and semitropicss, big volumes of fresh lignocellulosic byproducts can be found. These byproducts are left to decompose in the field or disposed off through combustion. Cultivation of mushrooms on these byproducts may be one of the solutions to transforming these uneatable wastes into accepted comestible biomass of high market value. The exhausted substrates from mushroom cultivation can besides potentially be used as an carnal provender addendum, perchance supplying extra animate being provender resources.
The primary aim of this survey was to recycle agro waste into value added medicative and gourmet mushrooms utilizing the mushroom bring forthing whit-rot basidiomycetous Pleurotus species. The present probe was carried out to seek out non conventional agricultural waste for the successful cultivation of Oyster mushroom and besides designed to size up the suitableness of three agricultural wastes as substrate for the cultivation of some comestible mushrooms
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Procurement of civilization
Pleurotus Florida was procured from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University ( TNAU ) , Coimbatore and it is stored at 25oC.
Sorghum grains were half cooked and extra H2O was drained out. CaCO3 Powder was added to acquire 10 per centum of the wet weight of grain, so filled in polypropene bags, plugged with non- adsorptive cotton and sterilized in an sterilizer at 121oC at 15 pound for 30 proceedingss. After chilling, the bags were inoculated with mycelial civilization and incubated at 30-35oC for approximately 15 to 18 yearss complete spawn for tally and chlamydospore formation.
Cultivation of Mushroom
For the cultivation of mushroom, lodging is indispensable. A little hut 10-10 size without airing is made for mushroom cultivation. To keep the stable temperature 25-30oC and the wet maintained at 65 % by spraying the H2O.
Preparation of Substrate for the cultivation of Mushroom
1Kg of substrate were chopped into 2-5cm of unvarying size was made. The shredded substrates are sterilized by autoclaving at 121oC for 15lbs. After sterilisation the substrate was air dried to 65 % wet ( no H2O drips when squeezed beginning custodies ) .
Preparation of Bed
The air dried substrates were packed into 12-24cm polyethylene bags. The substrate was layered 5cm and 50gm of spawn distributed and holes are made to keep the aeration. The holes are besides used for the formation of budding and they easy come out from the bags. After these stairss the cylindrical bag is hanged on the hut and keep the wet degree at 65 % at a temperature of 25-30oC for the growing of mushroom. The full-blown mushrooms are harvested on different clip intervals from 22nd twenty-four hours onwards.
Reaping of mushroom
Reaping of mushroom has been conducted at three different stages. First stage was from 15-22 yearss, 2nd stage was of 23-30 yearss and 3rd stage was of 31-38 yearss. During theses phases the mushrooms have been harvested based on the ripening and visual aspect of the coloring material. Using unfertile blade, the mushroom is spliced from bed and it was quantified utilizing weighing machine.
Consequence of Substrate
Different substrates such as paddy straw, sawdust and sugar cane baggase at different concentration of about 250gm, 500gm, 750gm and 1000gm were used for the production mushroom cultivation.
Consequence of Inoculum
Different concentration of inoculant such as 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 gms of spawn to each substrate were used for the survey of best inoculant concentrations have been screened.
Consequence of Incubation clip
Different clip interval 15-22, 23-30, and 31-38 yearss have been studied to keep the output of mushroom.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the present survey three different agricultural wastes, such as paddy straw, sawdust and sugar cane baggases were used to happen out the most inexpensive and high giving up substrates for the commercial cultivation of the Pleurotus Florida. These above mentioned agro-wastes were selected, because all these were copiously and cheaply available in the Fieldss of India, round the twelvemonth. Each agro-waste was used as a individual substrate ; no combination of the agro-wastes was used in order to do the mushroom cultivation easier and to cipher the potency of each agro-waste for mushroom production.
These wastes were besides selected, by maintaining in position the old experimentation of the different scientists which used assortment of agro wastes for cultivation of mushrooms in the yesteryear. stated that the cultivation of comestible mushroom is a value added procedure to change over the agricultural residues such as rice and wheat straw is a value added procedure to change over these stuffs, which are otherwise considered to be wastes, into human nutrients.
was used wood waste to cultivate wood-inhabiting ligninolytic white-rot basidiomycetous of the genus Pleurotus used rice bran and sugar cane baggase for the cultivation of Pleurotus species.
Cultivation OF FRUIT BODIES
Fruiting organic structures of Pleurotus species were produced within 3-5 hebdomads. The caps of the fruiting organic structures were ab initio hollow with a curving interior surface ; with clip, they normally became loosely concave and eventually level. The caps were harvested at 5-15 centimeter in diameter. They were ab initio grey blue on the interior surface and became lighter grey to blanch xanthous brown to light sunburn with age.
Consequence of Substrate
The mycelium growing of mushroom sp. is mainly dependants upon the substrate, foods and the turning conditions. In this present probe, three different agro wastes were used for the cultivation of Pleurotus Florida and the growing of this mushroom growing was optimized with assorted concentration of spawn.
Among the three different substrates ( paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggase ) , paddy straw yielded the maximal production of about 1200g/1000g followed by sugar cane baggases and saw dust with the production of 676g/1000g and 519g/1000g. Similarly, observed that the cellulose activity Pleurotus and Volvariella species varied with the substrate and was more on Paddy straw than other substrates.
Consequence of Inoculum
Different concentration of spawn ( 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 gms ) were used along with different substrates ( paddy straw, sawdust and sugarcane baggase ) . With the 250g of spawn, 1000g of Paddy straw showed the maximal production.
Consequence of Incubation clip
Between the different clip intervals, 15-22 yearss of incubation period yielded the highest production of 520g with 1000g of Paddy. On the other manus, reported the incubation period for the different tried media ranged from 30 – 41 yearss, sawdust recorded the shortest period, while sugar cane baggase recorded the longest 1.
Comparative consequence of different substrates on the Production of Pleurotus Florida
Different substrates of paddy straw, sawdust and sugar cane baggases were analyzed for the production of mushroom. Comparing the three lignocellulosic residues as substrates for the cultivation of Pleurotus Florida showed that paddy straw supported best growing of P. Florida as evidenced by complete and heavy colonisation of substrates organizing a compact white mass of mycelium within 2 hebdomads of vaccination. The public presentation of the three substrates was besides apparent by their elevated biological efficiency values on soya bean straw followed by paddy straw. Among these substrates, paddy straw output upper limit of 1200 g. This is singular when compared to rest of the substrates. These consequences suggested the best suited substrate for the production of much is paddy straw.