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Sultan of Malacca| Reign| Parameswara (aka Iskandar Shah)| 1400 – 1414| Megat Iskandar Shah| 1414 – 1424| Muhammad Shah| 1424 – 1444| Abu Syahid| 1444 – 1446| Muzaffar Shah| 1446 – 1459| Mansur Shah| 1459 – 1477| Alauddin Riayat Shah| 1477 – 1488| Mahmud Shah| 1488 – 1528| ????? ???? ,??????? ??? : ?? , ?? | ?????????????????? ,??????? ???????????? ,????????????? | ????? Parameswara| ????? | ?? | 1344? – ????? | ?? | 1424? – ?????? | ??????????? (??? :Parameswara 1344? -1424? ),????????? (????? )?????????? (Sejarah Melayu)?????? ,?? (???????? )??????? ,?????????????????????????????? ?? [?? ] * 1 ????? * 2 ???????????? 2. 1 ???? * 3 ?????? * 4 ??????? * 5 ?? | [?? ] ????? ??????????????? ,????? (Palembang)????? (Temasik,????? ),??????????? ,????????? ,????????? (Amla, Melaka tree) ???? ,???????????????? ,??????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????? (????? )?????? [?? ] ???????????? ????????????? 40??????? ,??????????????????? ,??????????????????? ,???????? ,??????????????????? ,????????? [?? ] ???? “…??? ,????????????? ,?????????????? ,????????? ??????????? ,?????????????????? ,???? ,???? ,??????????? ,?????????????????? ?,????????? ,??????????? ,??????? ,???????????? ,????????? :“??? ,?????? ,???? , ?????????? ”??????? ,??? ????? :“??????? ,??????????????? ,??????????????? ,?? ????????????? ,??????????????? ,??????????????? ,??????????????? ,?????????? ????? ,???????? ”???? ,???? ,???????????????? ,????? ,?????? ,????????????????? ?? ,??????????????? ,????????????? ,???? ,??????????????? ,?????????????? ,?? ????????? ,????????? ,?????????? ,??????? ,????? ,??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????? ;???????? ,???????????? ,?????????? ,??????? ?,??????? ,???????? ,??????????? ,????????? ,?????? ,??? ,???????????? ,??????? ??????? ,?????????????? ,?????????? ,?????????? ,??????? ……” [?? ] ?????? ?????????? ,????????????? ??????????????????? ,?????????????????? ,????????????????????????? 1414? ,??????????????????? (Pasai ?? )????? ,????????????? (Sultan Megat Iskandar Shah),????????????????? ,???????????? ,???????????????????? ??????????????????? ,?????????????????????????????? 1424? ,???????????????? 1511?? [?? ] ??????? ???????????????? ,??????????????? ,????????????????????? 1961????????????????????????????? : * * ?????????????????? ,?????????????? ,????????????? * Megat Iskandar Shah of Malacca * From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia *   (Redirected from Megat Iskandar Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) * Jump to: navigation, search Megat Iskandar Shah is the second Sultan of Malacca and also the son of Parameswara. Preceded by Iskandar Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1414–1424| Succeeded by Muhammad Shah| * The position of Megat Iskandar Shah as the second ruler of Malacca has historically been contested. * In the 2005 book, Admiral Zheng He & Southeast Asia published by the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Professor Wang Gungwu in his paper ‘The First Three Rulers of Melaka’ published in 1968, puts forward strong reasoning to support the fact that Megat is the second Malaccan ruler. This fact is recognised in Malaysian school text books. Wikipedia readers are to note that both the Tome Pires’s Suma Oriental as well as the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals) does not have references to Megat but describe that Iskandar Shah (Parameswara) had ruled Malacca until 1424. * Sir Richard Winstedt who earlier in 1935 supported the existence of Megat, soon after the Second World War changed his opinion when he became aware of the descriptions from the Suma Oriental. Muhammad Shah of Malacca From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Muhammad Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) Jump to: navigation, search | This article does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009)| Sultan Muhammad Shah (1424–1444) was the third sultan of Malacca. He is the son of Megat Iskandar Shah (Sultan of Malacca). He ruled Malacca from 1424 to 1444. He was succeeded by Sultan Abu Syahid. He was popularly known as Raja Tengah. [edit] The dream It was said that one night the king had a dream. He dreamt that he saw Prophet Muhammad clearly and the Prophet subsequently told him to repeat ‘there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger’.

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After the king repeated these words, the Prophet said that a ship from Jeddah would anchor at the time for afternoon prayers, and the king was to follow the directions of the man who would come out of the ship to pray. With that, the Prophet disappeared from sight. Sure enough, everything described in the dream happened. Preceded by Megat Iskandar Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1424–1444| Succeeded by Abu Syahid| Abu Syahid Shah From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Abu Syahid (Sultan of Malacca)) Jump to: navigation, search Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah| Sultan of Malacca| Reign| Malacca Sultanate: 1444 – 1446|

Predecessor| Muhammad Shah| Successor| Muzaffar Shah| Sultan Abu Syahid Shah was the sultan of Malacca from 1444 to 1446. Despite the fact that Malacca was a Muslim kingdom, Syahid Shah was a practicing Hindu. He styled himself as Raja Sri Parameswara Dewa Shah. His predecessor, Sultan Muhammad Shah had alleged a meeting with the Prophet Muhammad and converted to Islam. Syahid Shah on taking a Hindu title represented a traditionalist reaction in Malacca against Islam, the new religion. He reigned for only seventeen months, after which he was murdered in a plot allegedly conspired by the Tamil Muslim Bendahara (Prime Minister), Tun Ali.

Syahid Shah was then given the title Abu Syahid which means the Matyred King. [edit] References 1. Modul Latihan Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Sejarah, Pusat Perkembangan Kurikulum Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia. 2. Malaysia Kita, International Law Book Services, Kuala Lumpur, 2005 Preceded by Muhammad Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1424–1444| Succeeded by Muzaffar Shah| Muzaffar Shah of Malacca From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Muzaffar Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) Jump to: navigation, search Sultan Muzaffar Shah was the fifth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled from 1445 to 1459.

He is the son of Sultan Muhammad Shah. Preceded by Abu Syahid| Sultan of Malacca 1445–1459| Succeeded by Mansur Shah| Mansur Shah of Malacca From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Mansur Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) Jump to: navigation, search | This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2006)| Mansur Shah| Sultan of Malacca| Reign| Malacca Sultanate: 1459 – 1477| Predecessor| Muzaffar Shah| Successor| Alauddin Riayat Shah| Consort| Hang Li Po and others|

Father| Muzaffar Shah| Sultan Mansur Shah was the fourth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled Malacca from 1459 to 1477. He ascended the throne after the death of his father, Muzaffar Shah. Contents[hide] * 1 Expansions of Malaccan Empire * 2 Marriage alliances * 3 Economic policy * 4 Spread of Islam| [edit] Expansions of Malaccan Empire Mansur Shah implemented a policy of expansionism during his rule. Many territories in Peninsular Malaysia and eastern Sumatra and the surrounding islands were under the control of Malacca during his rule such as Selangor, Bernam, Kampar, Siak, Manjung, Rupat, Singapore, and Bintan.

Mansur Shah also ordered the attack of Pahang by Tun Perak, the Bendahara of Malacca, to secure the defense of Malacca on the east coast. Siantan and Inderagiri in Sumatra were also given to Malacca as dowry for his marriage to the princess of Majapahit. [edit] Marriage alliances Mansur Shah also used marriage alliances between princesses of Malacca and the rulers of conquered states to strengthen Malacca’s control over those states. This was one of the ways of Islam’s expansion in the Malay archipelago. An example of these marriage alliances is the marriage between the king of Siak to Mansur Shah’s daughter, Princess Mahadewi.

Besides that, princesses of those conquered states were also married to sons of Malaccan ministers. For example, Princess Wanang Seri of Pahang and Raden Galoh Candra Kirana were married to sons of ministers like Tun Putih Nur Pualam. According to historian Tom Pires, Mansur Shah also married concubines who were foreign princesses such as Hang Li Po and daughters of merchants from India and Pasai to strengthen trade relationships. These princesses were also converted to Islam. following the lead of the sultan, others married foreigners as well making foreign marriage customs a not uncommon sight in Malacca. [edit] Economic policy

Mansur Shah reduced taxes on trade items during his reign. This increased the interest of merchants to trade in the port of Malacca. The Preferential Tariff System was introduced. Merchants from the west of Malacca such as Arabia and India were imposed a 6 % tax on trade items while merchants from around the Malay archipelago were imposed 3% taxes. However, merchants from China, Japan and Java were not taxed at all. Another economic advantage of Malacca was the easy access to labourers. [edit] Spread of Islam Mansur Shah, who had a great interest in Islam, encouraged scholarship in Islamic theological studies.

He studied tasawuf himself. He also studied under Maulana Abu Bakar, who brought the Ab Darul Manzum scriptures to Malacca. He also ordered the translation of the scripture to Malay by Makhdum Patakan. Mansur Shah referred to scholars from Pasai on religious issues due to their expertise. Preceded by Muzaffar Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1456–1477| Succeeded by Alauddin Riayat Shah| * Alauddin Riayat Shah of Malacca * From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia *   (Redirected from Alauddin Riayat Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) * Jump to: navigation, search | This article does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009)| * Alauddin Riayat Shah| Sultan of Malacca| Reign| Malacca Sultanate: 1477 – 1488| Predecessor| Mansur Shah| Successor| Mahmud Shah| Wives| Raja Fatimah(his cousin) Tun Senaja (niece of temenggung seri maharaja)| Father| Mansur Shah| * Alauddin Riayat Shah was a sultan of the Malacca Sultanate from 1477 to 1488. * He was famous for going undercover at night to personally check on the well-being of his people, as well as on the condition of his sultanate itself.

On one of these nights he was even reported to have ran after a thief himself. He was very good and religious ruler and is renowned to be a fair king. But his position is envied by his brother, Raja Ahmad (the ruler of Pahang, a region under Malaccan rule), because Raja Ahmad believed that the rulership of Malacca was his right. Sultan Alauddin had many enemies, both within and outside of his court. He had a total of four children, two from each of his two wives, and this has led to his wives squabbling over the heirship to his throne. The sultan’s second wife is from mamak descent.

The term mamak refers to Indian Muslims living in the Malay community in the era. During this period, Sultan Alaudin has been facing problems with the mamak people, who were beginning to grow in power in comparison to Malays. His first advisor, Bendahara Seri Maharaja (equivalent to the modern-day prime minister) was also of mamak blood. After 11 years on the throne, Sultan Alauddin was reported in history to have died of mysterious causes. Other accounts suggest that he was poisoned in a conspiracy primarily involving Raja Ahmad, Bendahara Seri Maharaja and Tun Senaja, his second wife.

His son, Raja Mahmud and his brother-in-law Raja Merlang (Tun Senaja’s brother) was also thought to be involved. After his demise, the rulership went to Raja Mahmud, whom he fathered with his Tun Senaja, and denying Raja Munawar, Sultan Alaudin’s firstborn son with his first wife Raja Fatimah, who was widely thought to be the true successor to the throne. In any case, the mamak bloodline finally gained control over the Malaccan Empire. However, it was not long before the Portuguese invasion came in 1511, the aftermath of which ended the Sultanate rule over the Malacca.

Preceded by Mansur Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1477–1488| Succeeded by Mahmud Shah| Mahmud Shah of Malacca From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Mahmud Shah (Sultan of Malacca)) Jump to: navigation, search Mahmud Shah| Sultan of Malacca| Reign| Malacca Sultanate: 1488 – 1528| Died| 1528| Place of death| Kampar, Sumatera| Predecessor| Alauddin Riayat Shah| Successor| Sultan Ahmad Shah of Malacca| Wives| Princess of Sultan of Pahang Princess Onang Kening Tun Teja Ratna Menggala Tun Kudu Tun Fatimah| Royal House| House of Malacca-Johor| Father| Alauddin Riayat Shah|

Sultan Mahmud Shah (died 1528) ruled Malacca from 1488 to 1528. He was the son of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. Upon his father’s premature death, he was installed at a very young age. The regent at that time was the prime minister (Bendahara in Malay) Tun Perak. During his initial years as a young adult, the sultan was known to be a ruthless monarch. The administration of the sultanate was in the hands of an able and wise Tun Perak. After the death of Tun Perak in 1498, he was succeeded by a new Prime Minister Tun Mutahir. The death of Tun Perak changed Sultan Mahmud into a more responsible ruler.

During Portuguese admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira’s visit to Malacca from 1509–1510, the sultan planned to assassinate him. However, Sequeira learned of this plot and fled Malacca. When the famous Portuguese naval officer Afonso de Albuquerque received word, he decided to utilize this to embark upon his expeditions of conquest in Asia. [1] Malacca was then subsequently attacked by the Portuguese in the Capture of Malacca (1511), during which the Sultan retreated to Muar, Johor and later further to Kampar, Sumatra and held a government there until his death in 1528. He had several wives. Among the most famous was Tun Teja.

The sultan was also surrounded by able men and warriors such as Hang Tuah, Khoja Hassan and Hang Nadim. He had three sons; Sultan Ahmad Shah, Muzaffar I of Perak and Alauddin Riayat Shah II of Johor. Ahmad Shah succeeded Mahmud when Mahmud mistakenly killed the Tamil Bendahara Tun Mutahir and the Bendahara’s family after other jealous Malay ministers accused Mutahir of planning a rebellion. Ahmad Shah was killed by Mahmud Shah himself after the Portuguese conquered Malacca. Mahmud Shah then took back the throne. Muzaffar went north to establish the Sultanate of Perak while Alauddin Riayat went on to found Sultanate of Johor.

Sultan Mahmud is associated with the Malay legend of Puteri Gunung Ledang which is about his failed courtship of a fairy princess. Sultan Mahmud is also said to have killed Tun Mutahir and the Bendahara’s family members because Mutahir did not give his daughter, Tun Fatimah’s hand in marriage to Sultan Mahmud. Tun Fatimah was married to Tun Ali. [edit] See also * Legend of Gunung Ledang * Johor Sultanate * Afonso de Albuquerque * Malacca * Diogo Lopes de Sequeira * Kubu Bentayan [edit] References 1. ^ Haywood, John (2002). Historical Atlas of the Early Modern World 1492-1783. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 0760732043.

Preceded by Alauddin Riayat Shah| Sultan of Malacca 1488–1528| Succeeded by Sultan Ahmad Shah of Malacca| Tun Perak| 5th Bendahara of the Sultanate of Malacca| In office 1456 – 1498| Preceded by| Sri Nara Diraja Tun Ali| Succeeded by| Tun Perpatih Putih| | Bendahara Paduka Raja Tun Perak (d. 1498) was the fifth and most famous bendahara, a Malay rank similar to a prime minister, of the Sultanate of Malacca. He served under four sultans (Sultan Muzzafar Shah, Sultan Mansur Shah, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah and Sultan Mahmud Shah [1]) from 1456 to 1498. Early in his life, Perak was a soldier-statesman for Malaccan rulers.

In 1445, he led the Malaccan army to victory by defeating Siamese invaders. As a result, he was made bendahara in 1456. Tun Perak was the son of Malacca’s first bendahara, Sri Wak Raja Tun Perpatih Besar. In 1445, he was appointed as Malacca’s representative in Klang. Tun Perak was then appointed as bendahara in 1456 after he upset the Siamese attack against Malacca. He stopped another Siamese invasion in 1456 as well. Tun Perak was also instrumental in colonising Pahang, Terengganu, Johor, Riau, Lingga, Bengkalis, Karimon, Rokan, Siak, Kampar, Jambi, Inderagiri and Aru.

The rulers of these governments converted to Islam due to Malaccan influence. Tun Perak was very loyal towards the Malaccan Sultanate. When his son, Tun Besar was killed by Sultan Mahmud Shah’s son Raja Muhammad due to a misunderstanding, he did not seek revenge against the sultan. Instead, he requested Raja Muhammad to be crowned elsewhere. The sultan honored Tun Perak’s request, therefore Raja Muhammad was made a sultan in Pahang. He died in 1498 and was replaced by his younger brother Tun Perpatih Putih. Hang Tuah is a legendary Malay hero who lived during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century.

He was the greatest of all the laksamana, or sultan’s admirals, and was known to be a ferocious fighter. Hang Tuah is held in the highest regard, even in present-day Malay culture, and is arguably the most well-known and illustrious figure in Malay history and literature. Contents[hide] * 1 Early Years * 2 Hang Tuah’s Career * 3 Hang Tuah the Legend * 4 Hang Tuah in Popular Culture * 5 Places and things named after Hang Tuah * 5. 1 In Malaysia * 5. 2 In Indonesia * 6 Further reading * 7 See also| Early Years

Hang Tuah was born in Kampong Sungai Duyong, Malacca, to Hang Mahmud and Dang Merdu Wati. His interest in religious knowledge and skill in the art of self-defense became apparent at a young age, and he was said to be inseparable from his four childhood friends: Hang Kasturi, Hang Jebat, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu. Hang Tuah and his close-knit group of friends eventually became the Malay equivalent of the Three Musketeers. He perfected his natural abilities at self-defense by practicing silat under a teacher named Guru Adi Putra, who also taught Hang Kasturi, Hang Jebat, Hang Lekir and Hang Lekiu.

It was under this teacher’s instruction that Hang Tuah also learned how to meditate. As a youth, Hang Tuah was first noticed by the Bendahara (in modern parlance, the Prime Minister) of Malacca, Tun Perak. A band of pirates ran amok, causing havoc in a village, and Tun Perak and his guards’ attempts to quell the unrest resulted in further attacks on the Bendahara. The Bendahara’s guards fled, but when Hang Tuah and his friends saw the commotion, they were reported to have killed the group of pirates, thus saving the Bendahara.

Tun Perak was so impressed by the boys’ courage that he recruited them to work at the palace, where the five youths rose in the ranks, eventually becoming feared members of the Sultan’s royal guard. Hang Tuah’s Career Hang Tuah’s illustrious career as an admiral or laksamana includes tales of his absolute and unfaltering loyalty to his Sultan, some of which are chronicled in Sejarah Melayu (the semi-historical Malay Annals) and Hikayat Hang Tuah (a romantic collection of tales involving Hang Tuah). Hang Tuah became the Sultan’s constant aide, accompanying the King on official visits to foreign countries.

On one such visit to Majapahit, Taming Sari, a famous Majapahit warrior, challenged Hang Tuah to a duel. After a brutal fight, Hang Tuah emerged as winner and the ruler of Majapahit bestowed upon him Taming Sari’s kris or weapon. The Taming Sari kris was named after its original owner, and was purported to be magical, empowering its owner with invincibility. It is said to be the source of Hang Tuah’s alleged supernatural abilities. Hang Tuah also acted as the Sultan’s ambassador, travelling on his Sultan’s behalf to allied countries.

Another story concerning Hang Tuah’s legendary loyalty to the Sultan is found in the Hikayat Hang Tuah, and involves his visit to Inderaputa, in Pahang during one such voyage. The Sultan sent Hang Tuah to Pahang with the task of persuading the princess Tun Teja, who was already engaged, to become the Sultan’s companion. Tun Teja fell under the impression that Hang Tuah had come to persuade her to marry him, not the Sultan, and agreed to elope with him to Melaka. It was only during the voyage home that Hang Tuah revealed his deception to Tun Teja.

The Hikayat Hang Tuah and Sejarah Melayu each carry different accounts of this incident, however. The Hikayat records that it was Hang Tuah who persuaded Tun Teja to elope with him, thus deceiving her. Sejarah Melayu, however, claims that it was another warrior, Hang Nadim, who deceived Tun Teja. Perhaps the most famous story in which Hang Tuah is involved is his fight with his closest childhood companion, Hang Jebat. Hang Tuah’s deep loyalty to and popularity with the Sultan led to rumours being circulated that Hang Tuah was having an illicit affair with one of the Sultan’s concubines.

The Sultan sentenced Hang Tuah to death without trial for the alleged offense. The death sentence was never carried out, however, because Hang Tuah’s executioner, the Bendahara, went against the Sultan’s orders and hid Hang Tuah in a remote region of Melaka. Believing that Hang Tuah was dead, murdered unjustly by the Sultan he served, Hang Jebat avenged his friend’s death. Hang Jebat’s revenge allegedly became a palace killing spree or furious rebellion against the Sultan (sources differ as to what actually occurred).

It remains consistent, however, that Hang Jebat wreaked havoc onto the royal court, and the Sultan was unable to stop him, as none of the Sultan’s warriors dared to challenge the more ferocious and skilled Hang Jebat. The Bendahara then informed the Sultan that the only man able to stop Hang Jebat, Hang Tuah, was still alive. The Bendahara recalled Hang Tuah from his hiding place and the warrior was given full amnesty by the Sultan and instructed to kill Hang Jebat. After seven gruelling days of fighting, Hang Tuah was able to kill Hang Jebat.

It is notable that the two main sources of Hang Tuah’s life differ yet again on the details of his life. According the Hikayat Hang Tuah, it was Hang Jebat who avenged his friend’s death, only to be killed by the same friend, but according to Sejarah Melayu, it was Hang Kasturi. The Sejarah Melayu is the more historical account, but the Hang Jebat story, as the more romantic tale, remains more popular. Hang Tuah continued to serve Malacca after the death of Hang Jebat. Later in his life, as Hang Tuah progressed in his years, the warrior was ordered by the successive Malaccan

Sultan to court a legendary princess on the Sultan’s behalf. The Puteri Gunung Ledang (Princess of Mount Ledang) was so named because she resided on Mount Ledang at the Melaka-Johor border. According to legend, the Princess met with Hang Tuah, and only agreed to marry the Sultan if he satisfied a list of requirements, or pre-wedding gifts. The list included a golden bridge linking Melaka with the top of Gunung Ledang, seven trays of mosquito livers, seven jars of virgins’ tears and a bowl of the Sultan’s first born son’s blood.

Hang Tuah knew the tasks would not be fulfilled, and was said to be so overwhelmed that he failed his Sultan that he flung his kris into a river and vowed only to return to Melaka if it resurfaced, which it never did. It was also said that he then vanished into thin air. According to other sources, however, Hang Tuah lived until old age, and his body is said to be have been buried in Tanjung Kling in Melaka, where his tomb can still be seen today. Hang Tuah the Legend

Hang Tuah is famous for quoting the words “Takkan Melayu Hilang di Dunia” which literally means “Malays will never vanish from the face of the earth” or “Never shall the Malay(s) (race) vanish from the face of the earth”. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism. He remains an extremely popular Malay legend, embodying the values of Malay culture at the time, when allegiance and loyalty were paramount above all else. The Hang Tuah and Hang Jebat story, whether completely true or not, represents a paradox in the Malay psyche about loyalty and justice, and remains a point of debate among students of Malay history and literature.

Hang Tuah in Popular Culture Hang Tuah is a prominent legendary figure in Malaysia’s popular culture and his story has been adapted into several movies. The more famous of these movies include Hang Tuah, starring the late P. Ramlee, and Puteri Gunung Ledang, which starred M. Nasir as Hang Tuah. In 1995, XX Ray 2, a film by Aziz M. Osman was made and tells about moderns scientists were sent back in Hang Tuah’s era. In the film, Hang Tuah (played by Jalaluddin Hassan) got the quote Takkan Melayu Hilang Di Dunia from one of the scientists from future (played by Aziz M. Osman). Places and things named after Hang Tuah


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