NANO ELECTRIC GENERATOR PAPER PRESENTATION SUBMITTED BY, M. ANANTHA GANESHM. KARTHIKEYAN 3rd YEAR EEE 3rd YEAR EEE ([email protected] com) ([email protected] com) (Contact No-8870804996) Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering FRANCIS XAVIER ENGINEERING COLLEGE TIRUNELVELI-627001 ABSTRACT: Power, more specifically electric power is very much essential to power our machines and equipments and indirectly to power our human lives.
This paper deals with generation of electricity from nano electric generator and its applications. Nano electric generator is different from other conventional generators in the sense that it does not have the rotating parts it operates on the principle of piezo-electric effect. The source for the generation of electricity is different types of vibrations. Introduction of Nanotechnology: Richard Feynman was the first to talk on miniaturization in 1959 and he had argued on the possibilities of “Atom by Atom’’ construction.
Nanotechnology refers to technology, whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales, normally 1 to 100 nanometers, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular scale and may lead to significant improvements in technologies for protecting the environment. It is the technology in which atom of different elements can be altered such that we obtain some other required element.
Nanoscale structures are already being used for enhanced sensing, and treatment and remediation of environmental contaminants. On the bright side, future developments in nanotechnology may lead to greater control over the design of chemical and engineering technologies, such that pollution may be prevented in the first place. It is a technology in which the research is still going on and many innovations are being achieved. 1. Nano electric generator: Today’s electronic equipments depend on batteries for power.
Now researchers have demonstrated that easy-to-make and inexpensive nanowires can generate electricity from mechanical vibrations , which could lead to advances as medical implants that run on electricity generated from pulsing blood vessels and cell phones powered by nanowires in the soles of shoes. An implanted wireless biosensor and other such nano devices requires a power source, which may be provided directly or indirectly by charging of a battery. We charge the battery using a nano –electric generator , or simply we do not need a battery as the nano-electric generator will provide the power to operate that device.
The power generated from a Nano generator of 1 cubic centimeter is 4 watts. Due to its size we can use it where ever we need to produce electricity. A millions of units of nano electric generator can be fabricated to produce maximum watt of power. The different types of sources for generation of electricity are:- Hydraulic ( Body fluids and blood flows. Vibrations ( Acoustic /ultrasonic waves. Stress ( Body movement and muscle stress. A nano electric generator consists of the following parts:- Semi conducting substrate. Nano wire Zig zag electrode 2.
FABRICATION: Fabrication is the process of constructing a nano electric generator. we construct a nano electric generator on a nono-wire. The nano wire could be made up of zinc oxide. Zinc Oxide nano wire is used because of its piezo-electric and semi-conducting properties. These two properties enable power generation through the nano-electric generators. This process can be made in-expensive as we start to produce the nano-wires and fabricate it in a large scale. The nano wires are available from consumer use as they have been developed in a large-scale.
The process of fabrication starts with fabricating an array of vertically-aligned nano wires approximately a half-micron apart on gallium arsenide, sapphire or a flexible polymer substrate. These substrates on which the nano-wires are fabricated are semi-conducting, due to which the charges are generated and are transmitted from the nano –electric generator. A layer of zinc oxide is grown on top of substrate to collect the current. Above the fabricated nano wire array we place a silicon “zig-zag” electrodes, which contain thousands of nanometer-scale tips made conductive by a platinum coating .
The other side of the zigzag electrode is flat. The electrode is placed on top of the nano wire array such that there is enough space so that a significant number of the nano wires are free to flex within the gaps created by the tips. The tip of the nano wires contact the tips of the zig-zag electrodes, when the nano-electric generator starts working, transferring their electrical charges. Therefore, the contact of the nano wires and zig-zag electrodes is important for the transfer of charges. 3. WORKING: Nano electric generator works on the principle of piezo-electric effect.
According to which , when ever there is a mechanical stress on the piezo-electric material electric charges are induced perpendicular to the direction of mechanical stress. Zinc oxide nanowires will show a powerful piezoelectric effect, which is the production of electric charges, which makes electric current in response to mechanical pressure or the vibrations, which are laid upon the nano electric generator. Normally the positive charges and the negative charges of zinc and oxygen ions in these crystalline nano wires cancel out each other.
At this point the nano-electric generator is not working and there is no vibration upon the nano-electric generator. Also the tip of the nano electric generator and the zig-zag electrode are in contact. That is, there exists some gap between the nano wires and zig-zag electrodes. But when the vertically arranged nano wires, which are chemically grown on the substrate, bend in response to a vibration as the zig-zag electrode tip and nano wires tip contacts, and the ions from the zinc and oxygen are displaced from zinc oxide nano wires.
This unbalances the charges and creates an electric field that produces a current when the nanowire is connected to a circuit. As we can see that the contact of the tips of the nano wires and the electrodes is important from charges to be generated. If the nano wires are of different lengths after they are fabricated upon the substrate the nano wires are non uniform and therefore some wires do not touch the electrodes and the charges are not induced and the current is less. But when the nano wires are of uniform size then we obtain the maximum power as all the wires ouch the electrodes. Although each nanowire alone produces very little power, with simultaneous output from many nanowires, we can generate high power. Thus the operation mechanism of the electric generator relies on the unique coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting dual properties of ZnO and the contact of the tips of the ZnO nanowire and the zig-zag electrode. ? WORKING OF NANO ELECTRIC GENERATOR: [pic] 4. Applications: Nano electric generator is a device which is in the size of nano meters. The nano electric generators can be applied for the following applications:- Powering nano robots ? Charging battries ? Powering nano electric devices ? Powering the implanted devices in the human body Nano electric generator is extremely used to power the Nano-electric devices . Providing power for nanometer-scale devices has long been a challenge. Batteries and other traditional sources are too large, and therefore the size advantages of nanodevices are shadowed. Conventional batteries contain toxic materials such as lithium and cadmium, because of which they cannot be implanted into the body to power implanted devices, as part of biomedical applications.
Because zinc oxide is non-toxic and compatible with the body, the new nanogenerators could be integrated into implantable biomedical devices to wirelessly measure blood flow and blood pressure within the body. And they could also find more ordinary applications. We apply the Nano-electric generator to power our Nano-electric devices. We will briefly see the applications of the nano- electric generators in powering charging the batteries. A). Battery charger: The power generated from a unit nano generator is very small and the current from a unit nano generator is in nano amperes range.
The power generated from a nano generator of 1 cubic meter size is 4 watts . Therfore ,we may fabricate many millions of units of nano-electric generators together. That is in a long substrate we may fabricate many millions of nano wires vertically and then place a long zig-zag electrode upon it . The power generated from such generator would in the range of several watts. The most applicable source for the generation of electricty could be the user himself. We ourselves may be able to produce electicity from nano electric generators. We need not do any extra work to generate electricty from Nano electric generators. . Charging the battery: We generate power when we do work these power is not completely consumed therefore some power can be converted into other form, a few works and the power to do that work is given:- Walking ( 67 watts Finger movement ( 0. 1 watts Breathing ( 1 watt It has been proved that 17-30% of this power can be converted to generate electric power. Example:-We may place a nano-electric generator measuring some centimeters in our shoes and we may charge a battery . The power generated in the battery would be able to power laptops or cell phones. [pic] 6. CONCLUSION:
We may be able to generate electricity where ever we want. We do not pollute our environment and the non-renewable resourses can be protected. Many Nano electric generators can be fabricated together to generate power of several watts. We can hope that Nano electric generator will power our Nano robots which will further empower our human lives by destroying the most dangerous virus at present ,HIV. 7. References: ¦ David M. Berube 2006. Nano-hype: The Truth Behind the Nanotechnology Buzz. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-351-3 ¦ Jones, Richard A. L. (2004). Soft Machines. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISBN 0198528558