Dr. M. S. PUNIA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR National Oilseeds & A ; Vegetable Oils Development Board. ( Ministry of Agriculture. Govt of India ) . FOREWORD India stands at 6th topographic point in the universe in energy demand and overall demand of rough oil which is expected to lift yearly by 5. 6 % upto 2011. The scenario of lifting monetary values in the universe oil market and several foreign exchange cost are the chief hazard factors for Indian economic system and societal development chances. Furthermore. increased ingestion and high dependance on non-renewable beginnings which well contributed to planetary heating and environmental pollution. presents a window of chance for looking at the curative schemes to run into increasing energy demands.
Bio-diesel. a renewable beginning of energy offers a great potency to ease and extenuate restriction and supplement supplies of fossil fuel. The demand and provide spread of fuel is bridged with the import of crude oil merchandises. If the bing tendency continues. the state of affairs shall go more inexorable. Therefore. bing potency of alternate beginnings need to be trapped which are scattered across the state. Jatropha is one of the best alternate beginnings available for bio-diesel production and its possible demands to be explored. Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas ) belongs to Euphorbiaceae household is a fast turning bush capable to turn and set up in tropical and semitropical part of the state and even on barren. It has assorted advantageous characteristic characteristics viz. non browsed by cowss. best hedge works. less gestation period ( two old ages ) . capable to turn and set up in assorted biotic and abiotic emphasis conditions. high oil content ( 30-42 % in seed ) . multiple utilizations including lubricator and light etc.
Continuing attempts for conveying out assorted proficient bulletins on assorted TBOs i. e. Neem. Jojoba. Wild apricot etc. . the Board has brought out this proficient bulletin covering all of import proficient facets viz. home ground & A ; happening. botanical characteristics. dirt and clime. extension techniques. bundle of patterns. blooming & A ; fruiting. output. station crop engineering. oil features. physico-chemical belongingss & A ; fatty acerb composing. utilizations and economic feasibleness of Jatropha cultivation. I hope this bulletin will decidedly be helpful to the husbandmans. agricultural scientists. field workers and other officials. who are involved in the publicity of Jatropha. The consequence based proficient informations will hike the potency of this of import works ensuing in coevals of extra income. employment. handiness of autochthonal petro-diesel replacement and cut downing import load etc. The suggestions of readers are welcomed to do this brochure more utile. I congratulate to the NOVOD Board officers and functionaries who are straight and indirectly involved in conveying out this proficient publication successfully.
JATROPHA An surrogate beginning for bio-fuel
Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas ) belonging to Euphorbiaceae household is a fast growth bush. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the state and even on waste lands. Ratanjyot. Jamalghota. Jangli arandi etc. are some of the common names of Jatropha. The seed oil of Jatropha has been found a promising and commercially feasible option to diesel. which is a renewable beginning of energy. Alternate fuels for Diesel engines have become progressively of import due to decreasing crude oil militias and consciousness of the increased environmental effects of emanations from petroleum-fuelled engines. A figure of surveies have shown that oils and fats from works beginning hold promise as alternate fuels for Diesels engines. However. the high viscousness. low volatility and hapless cold flow belongingss of triglycerides. which consequence in terrible engine sedimentations. injector chocking and Piston ring sticking. have prevented them from being used straight in Diesel engines.
One manner to better the fuel belongingss of triglycerides is their catalytic trans-esterification with intoxicants to organize monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids. and another method is the ace critical method of bring forthing biodiesel. which is rather similar to hydrocarbonbased Diesel fuels in its chief features and provides similar engine public presentation with low emanation degrees unlike fossil fuels. Economic feasibleness survey shows that the biodiesel obtained from non-edible oils is cheaper than that from comestible oils. 1. HABITAT AND OCCURANCE Jatropha is native of South America and has a long history of its extension by Portugese into Africa and Asia. It grows good throughout India. Andhra Pradesh. Gujarat. Rajasthan. Karnataka. Chattisgarh. Uttrakhand. Tamil Nadu. Maharashtra. Orissa. North Eastern provinces are some of the promising states where it occurs in the locality of small towns and town as semi wild shrub or bush and besides as hedge flora. It is stalwart bush to dry conditions conditions and is non browsed by cowss. 2. BOTANICAL FEATURES It is a shaggy works with legion side subdivisions that arise from its chief root and it attains a tallness of 3-4 m. Leafs are 10-15 centimeters. long and 7-12 centimeter wide with pointed borders. The flowers are xanthous green in loose panicles. The blossoming occurs twice in a twelvemonth i. vitamin E in March-April and in September-October.
The ripe fruits are about 2-5 centimeter. big and ripen fruits are xanthous in coloring material. The seeds resembles with Castor seed in form and are about 1. 8-2. 0 centimeter long and form is either egg-shaped or oblong and are covered in a dull chocolate-brown black capsule. 3. CLIMATE & A ; SOIL Jatropha is a wildly turning stalwart works. in waterless and semi-arid parts of the state on degraded dirts holding low birthrate and wet. It can boom good on stony. gravelly or shoal and even on chalky dirts. It can be grown under broad scope of waterless and semi-arid climatic conditions but can non with base during heavy hoar. For better seed sprouting. assorted hot and humid clime is required. It can be cultivated successfully in the parts holding pantie to heavy rainfall with one-year rainfall ranges from 500-1200 millimeter.
4. PROPOGATION PRACTICES Jatropha can turn easy from seeds. However. commercially it can be propagated by three different ways such as by seeds. baby’s room and root film editing. I. BY SEEDS Fully matured seeds should be selected for seeding. Pre-soaking in H2O for 24 hour is advised. Another manner is to soak seeds in cow-dung slurry for 12 hour before seeding. Soaked seeds are by and large sown in polybags of 10 x20 centimeter size filled with dirt. sand and FYM ( Farm yard manure ) in the ratio of 1:2:1 severally. Germination is by and large noticed after 4-5 yearss and continues upto 15 yearss. If the seedlings are to be retained by 5-6 months before organ transplant. so bigger polybags ( 15?25 centimeter ) should be taken. Bold & A ; disease free seeds from fresh aggregations are to be used for obtaining better sprouting per centum and growing public presentation. Low sprouting per centums and high mortality rates were found if the seeds from old old ages are used. two. SOWING IN NURSERY BEDS Raised beds ( 10 cm high ) are prepared by delving and blending dirt with sand and FYM in 1:1:1 ratio. Each bed is prepared holding 1 thousand x 5 thousand dimensions.
Shallow furrows of 2 centimeter deepness are made by finger or utilizing a stick. Soaked seeds are placed in furrows at an interval of 5 centimeter. and covered with a thin bed of dirt. Care is taken to avoid deep sowing. Light irrigations are given after seed sprouting and bare rooted seedlings are transplanted after 3-4 months in the field during the rainy season. three. BY STEM CUTTING Jatropha responds good for vegetive extension. Propagation through subdivision film editings is non new and husbandmans know this technique. In fact. 90 % Jatropha spread throughout the state for ‘live fence’ was by subdivision film editings merely. Film editings planted during monsoon instantly after Ist showers give better root induction. high endurance rate and good growing public presentation. I. Superior Jatropha trait/ genotypes are selected on the footing of their high seed output and oil content. two. From the selected tree. roll up the subdivisions holding 2-3 centimeter diameter. set them in a pail of H2O.
three. Cut them into 15-20 centimeter long pieces with a knife or a mini hand-saw. four. Dip the film editings into a bath rooting endocrine mixture ( may be commercial Seradix or growing harmones like IBA or NAA of 100 ppm concentration. v. Put the film editings in a poly bagged rooting media ( Soil + Sand in 1:1 ) by infixing the basal part ( about 3 centimeter ) . six. Put the poly bags inside a closed polyethylene chamber or mist chamber to avoid the drying of film editings. Let the film editings inside the chamber for a period of 2-3 hebdomads. Rooting can be seen through the transparent polybags in approximately 3 hebdomads of clip. Rooting response is ever better in harmone treated film editings than in untreated film editings. After taking from polychamber. the ringers ( vegetive propagules ) are to be kept out side under partial shadiness for 2 hebdomads before reassigning them to the field for transfering. Using polytheme chamber or mist chamber is advantageous because the workss do non lose more H2O through evapotranspiration due to look intoing of air current speed. the film editings are kept ever moistened therefore non leting them to go dry and ensures easy and profuse rooting.
The film editings are planted in the month of February-March to acquire best germination and endurance. Experience gained suggests heavy mortality in film editings if planted during rainy season. 5. Plantation PRACTICES The disease free and bold seedlings of Jatropha are transplanted in rows at a spacing of 3?2 metre under irrigated status suiting 1666 plants/ha. On rainfed barren. a high denseness seting at 2 m x 2 m suiting 2500 plants/ hour angle. is recommended. I. Direct planting by seeds The land is ploughed one time or twice depending upon the nature of dirt. In instance of heavy dirt. deep plowing is desirable whereas in light dirt shoal plowing is sufficient.
The 30 centimeter x 30 centimeter cavities dug in the field at needed spacing should be filled with a mixture of dirt. FYM ( 2-3 kilogram ) and fertiliser ( 20 g carbamide. 120 g individual super phosphate and 16 g murate of potassium hydroxide. Two seeds per cavity should be dibbled at each cavity with the oncoming of monsoon. When the seedlings are 4 hebdomads old. the weaker seedlings can be removed and the other bold seedlings can be used for spread filling. two. Transplanting Eight to ten hebdomad old seedlings are to be planted in 30 centimeter x 30 centimeter cavities dug in the field at needed spacings and filled with a mixture of dirt. FYM ( 2-3 kg. ) and fertiliser ( 20 gram Urea. 120 g Single Super Phosphate and 16 g Murate of Potash ) . three. Fertilizer The NPK in the ratio of 46:48:24 kilograms per hour angle are to be applied in split doses from 2nd twelvemonth onwards so as to obtain economic outputs and high oil content in seeds. four. Agri-silvicultural pattern ( Inter cropping ) Since. the gestation period of Jatropha is 2 old ages. the inter-cropping may be taken ab initio for two old ages which will give extra income to the agriculturists.
The intercrops selected by assorted establishments for intercropping in Jatropha depending upon dirt & A ; climatic demands are Chickpea. Rice. Green gm. Black Gram. Sesamum ( Til ) . Ginger. Turmeric. Arhar. Masoor ( Lantil ) . Ragi. Kulthi. Niger. Soybean. Moong. Urad. Wheat. Cowpea. Cluster bean. Water melon. Mustard. Guar and Dhaincha every bit good as Mothbean for green manuring. In add-on. in assured irrigation and broad spacing in between the rows. some leafy and fresh fish and short continuance shade loving harvests may be under taken after two old ages.
v. Inter-culturing and weeding Inter-culturing should be carried out whenever necessary. Annually. 3-4 weedings may be carried out manually for maintaining weed free field during initial growing period. six. Irrigation During dry period merely life salvaging irrigations should be applied to the workss as and when required. Normally from 2nd twelvemonth onwards irrigation is non needed unless dirts are shallow and flaxen. Two irrigations in a twelvemonth if applied at both the blossoming period phases will heighten the output. seven. Plant protection Jatropha workss are less prone to assail by diseases and insects. Following few common diseases & A ; insects are to be checkered clip to clip for better seed outputs: ( A ) Diseases S. No. Name of Causal being disease 1. Muffling off Phytopthera pithium 2. 3. 4. Collar putrefaction Root putrefaction Leaf topographic point Control
Spray of 1. 5 ml/litre of H2O of Metasystox 25 CC Spray of Phosphomedin/ Dimethoate @ 2. 0 ml/3 lt. of H2O Spray of 2 ml/3 lt. H2O of Phosphomedin 6
6. Blossoming AND FRUITING In India. it flowers between September-December and MarchApril. The fruiting extends from September to December. The fruits mature 2-4 months after blooming.
7. Output With proper attention. an mean seed output under rainfed status is expected as under: Old ages 2 3 4 5 6 & A ; onwards Expected seed ( Kg/ha/yr ) 250-300 500-600 1000-1500 1600-2000 2500-4000
8. COLLECTION AND PROCESSING The ripe fruits are plucked from short trees. The gathered seeds are sun dried and decorticated manually or by decorticators. One individual could roll up and decorticate 25-30 kilograms seed per twenty-four hours. Kernels are sold in the market in little measures. This is an income bring forthing village degree activity and can be integrated with the rural development programme alongwith aggregation of other non-traditional oil-rich seeds like Mangifera indica rocks. karanj and nim tree. 9. Oil CHARACTERISTICS The seed resemble Castor seed in form but is smaller in size and is dark in coloring material. Weight of the seed ranges 0. 5-0. 7 g. and length 1-2 centimeter. The seed contains wet ( 6. 62 % ) . protein ( 18. 02 % ) . fat ( 38 % ) . saccharides ( 17. 98 % ) . fiber ( 15. 50 % ) and ash ( 4. 50 % ) . Besides. amylum. saccharose. dextose. glutein. a free acid and an active lipase are besides present.
10. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Characteristics Oil content in kernel Oil content in seed Sp. Gravity 15 % Refractive Index at 400C Acid value Saponification Iodine value Hydroxy value Fatty acid composing Fatty acid Per cent Oleic acid 37-68 Linoleic acid 19-41 Palmitic acid 12-17 11. Use I. The oil is used as lubricators. soap and candle fabrication. It has besides been reported as hair growing stimulent and therefore can be used as hair oil. In animals/live stock. its application is utile against sores. two. As a manure. it is utile and contains 4. 44 % Nitrogen. 1. 4 % P and 1. 2 % potassium hydroxide. three. In England. it is used in wool spinning and in China for fabrication of non or semi drying alkaloids and for sealing after boiling Jatropha oil with Fe oxide. These utilizations can be explored in India.
four. Plant is utile for big scale plantations in hapless or fringy lands as oil output from established plantations will be about 1 to 2 tones per hectare. v. Trans-esterification Bio-diesel is a methyl ester formed by a procedure called Transesterification. Oil can be extracted from seeds of Jatropha with a simple oil expeller ( as used for mustard seeds ) with some alteration in compaction chamber and steam heating/ cooker agreement. The Jatropha oil is reacted with methyl alcohol in the presence of a accelerator to give methyl esters and glycerin. Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide are normally used accelerator.
Heat the oil at 65oc. Dissolve Na hydrated oxide tablets in methyl alcohol to do a solution. The measure of NaOH/KOH and methyl alcohol should be 2 and 25-30 per centum. severally. of the entire measure of Jatropha oil. After blending this solution into hot Jatropha oil. the solution should be stirred for 5 to 7 proceedingss. Then maintain this solution undisturbed at least for 4 hours. Glycerol being heavy will easy settle down at the underside and bio-diesel can be easy separated from the top. To strive the drosss like Sodium. this oil should be washed 2-3 times with H2O. Add H2O to the oil and after 5 proceedingss collect the oil drifting on surface. Repeat this procedure and so eventually heat the oil to vaporize the H2O and bio-diesel is ready to utilize. 12. COST-ECONOMICS OF JATROPHA CULTIVATION ( A MODEL CALCULATION ) A. Cost OF PLANTATION OF JATROPHA ( ONE HA. ) Botanical name: Spacing: No. of workss / hour angle: Survival per centum: Gestation period ( Old ages ) : Particulars 1st Site readying i. e. cleansing and levelling of field Alignment and venturing Digging of cavities ( 2500 Nos ) of 30 Cm3 size @ 50 cavities per MD 600 300 3000 2nd 3rd Jatropha curcas 2M Ten 2M 2500 80 % 2 ( Rs. )
Cost of FYM ( including passenger car ) 2 Kg. per cavities during 1st twelvemonth ( 2 MT ) 1 Kg. per cavity during 2nd twelvemonth onwards @ Rs. 400/MT Cost of fertiliser @ Rs. 6 870 495 per kilogram ( 50 gram. per works during 1st twelvemonth and 25 gram from 2nd twelvemonth forth and 2 MD for each application. Mixing of FYM. 1500 insecticides fertilisers and replenishment of cavities @ 100 cavities per MD Cost of workss ( including 10000 2000 passenger car ) 2500 Nos. during first twelvemonth and 500 Nos. of workss during 2nd twelvemonth for replanting @ Rs. 4. 0 per works Planting and replanting 1500 300 cost 100 workss per MD. Irrigation – 3 irrigation 1500 500 during 1st and one irrigation during 2nd twelvemonth @ Rs. 500/- per irrigation. Weeding and dirt working 1200 1200 Harvesting of fruits/seeds – 1500 2400 – 2 MD per 100kg of seed Plant protection step 300 Sub sum: 22770 4495 0 1500 2400 Contingency ( 10 % of the 2277 449. 5 0 150 240 above ) Grand Total: 25047 4945 0 1650 2640 ¦ Cost from 6th twelvemonth onwards to reiterate in subsequent old ages. ¦ Model cost computation is made for 14 old ages.
B. Net Income FROM PLANTATION OF JATROPHA ( ONE HA. )
NET-NCOME TAKING 14YEARS OF SURVIVAL OF PLANT & A ; YIELD STABILISATION FROM 6TH Year ONWARDS No. of workss per hour angle. 2500 Plants for output computation Yield/income/cost/ Stabilisation Particulars 1st Cost of plantation. care & A ; harvest home ( Rs. ) Seed yield kg/tree Seed output ( kg/ha ) Gross income ( Selling monetary value @ Rs. 7/kg ) Net Income 25047 0 0 0 -25047 2nd 4945 0 0 0 -4945 2500 From 6th twelvemonth onwards YEARS 3rd 0 0 0 0 0 4th 1650 0. 5 1250 8750 7100 fifth 2640 0. 8 2000 14000 11360 6th 3300 1 2500 17500 14200 25750 180250 116268 Sum ( Rs. ) ( 14 old ages period ) 63982
Niobium: The cost-economics may change depending upon assorted agroclimatic conditions. pay rate. input cost etc.