In data networks, the task of directing information efficiently to the correct destination is handled by connectivity devices, primarily switches and routers.
Advances in NIC technology are making this hardware smarter than ever.
It is best to perform connectivity tests on a computer connected to a live network.
Bridges are protocol independent.
Cut-through switches can detect corrupt packets.
NICs contain a(n) —-, which transmits and receives data signals
By far, the most popular expansion board NIC today is one that uses a(n) —- bus.
PCIe slots vary depending on the number of —- they support.
Buses differ according to their – – – -.
CompactFlash is an example of a peripheral device attached to the computer’s —- bus.
To install a NIC, you must first install the —-.
Each time a computer starts up, the device drivers for all its connected peripherals are loaded into —- .
In general, a steady or blinking green LED, sometimes labeled —- , indicates that the NIC is functional and has a connection to the network.
In addition to viewing its LEDs and using a loopback plug to test a NIC’s functionality, you can also check a NIC’s connectivity with —- .
simple commands/pinging the loopback address
A hardware component that can be changed without disrupting operations is known as —- .
Repeaters operate in the —- layer of the OSI model.
At its most primitive, a —- is a repeater with more than one output port.
A —- is a repeater with more than one output port.
A —- can interpret physical addressing information.
Traditional switches operate at the —- layer of the OSI model.
Switches can create —- by grouping a number of ports into a broadcast domain.
To eliminate the possibility of a broadcast storm, switches and bridges implement the —-.
Switches that operate anywhere between Layer 4 and Layer 7 are also known as —- switches.
A —- is a multiport connectivity device that directs data between nodes on a network.
—- routing is a technique in which a network administrator programs a router to use specific paths between nodes.
—- are combinations of networking hardware and software that connect two dissimilar kinds of networks.
A computer’s —- is the circuit, or signaling pathway, used by the motherboard to transmit data to the computer’s components, including its memory, processor, hard disk, and NIC.
A(n) —- NIC is integrated into the motherboard.
A(n) —- is software that enables an attached device to communicate with the computer’s operating system.
On a Linux workstation, a popular utility called —- allows you to view and change NIC settings.
A router that directs data between nodes on an autonomous LAN (or one owned and operated by a single organization) is known as a(n) —- router.
Has no means to interpret the data they retransmit
Holds incoming data and accommodates bursts of traffic.
Devices that connect two network segments by analyzing incoming frames and making decisions about where to direct them based on each frame’s MAC address.
A switch running in this mode reads the entire data frame into its memory and checks it for accuracy before transmitting the information.
Plugs into a port and crosses over the transmit line to the receive line so that outgoing signals can be redirected into the computer for testing.
A switch running in this mode reads a frame’s header and decides where to forward the data before it receives the entire packet.
Capable of transferring data at up to 1 Gbps per data path.
Connectivity device that subdivides a network into smaller logical pieces.
Logically separate networks within networks.
Describe how a computer’s bus can be expanded to include devices other than those found on the motherboard.
A computer’s bus can be expanded to include devices other than those found on the motherboard by using its expansion slots that allow devices to connect to the expanded bus.
When selecting a NIC to install, explain what an administrator should do if a motherboard supports more than one kind of expansion slot.
If a motherboard supports more than one kind of expansion slot, refer to the NIC and PC manufacturers’ guidelines for information on the preferred type of NIC. If possible, you should choose a NIC that matches the most modern bus on the motherboard.
Define wireless NICS. Include a description of disadvantages associated with their use.
A wireless NIC uses an antenna to exchange signals with the network. Disadvantages include cost and bandwidth and security limitations.
Describe how a bridge translates between two segment types.
To translate between two segment types, a bridge reads a frame’s destination MAC address. If the destination node is on another segment on the network, it forwards the packet to that segment. If the destination address belongs to the same segment as the source address, the bridge filters the frame.
Explain why network engineers value VLANs. Include a discussion on reasons for using VLANs.
Network engineers value VLANs for their flexibility. Reasons for using VLANs include:
● Separating groups of users who need special security or network functions
● Isolating connections with heavy or unpredictable traffic patterns
● Identifying groups of devices whose data should be given priority handling
● Containing groups of devices that rely on legacy protocols incompatible with the majority of the network’s traffic.
● Separating a very large network into smaller, more manageable subnets
Describe the Routing Information Protocol.
RIP (Routing Information Protocol), a distance-vector routing protocol, is the oldest routing protocol. RIP factors in only the number of hops between nodes when determining the best path from one point to another.
Describe a distance-vector routing protocol suited to WANs.
A distance-vector routing protocol suited to WANs is BGP. BGP communicates using BGP-specific messages that travel between routers over TCP sessions. Using BGP, routers can determine best paths based on many different factors. Network administrators can configure BGP to follow customized policies. It is the routing protocol of choice for Internet traffic.
Explain hybrid routing protocols. Describe an example.
Hybrid routing protocols reflect characteristics of both link-state and distance-vector routing protocols. The most popular example is EIGRP. EIGRP is used on interior or border routers, was developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems. It has a fast convergence time and a low network overhead, and is easier to configure and less CPU-intensive than OSPF. EIGRP also offers the benefits of supporting multiple protocols and limiting unnecessary network traffic between routers. It accommodates very large and heterogeneous networks, but is only supported by Cisco routers.
Describe the IS-IS routing protocol.
Intermediate System to Intermediate System. IS-IS is a link-state routing protocol, which uses a best-path algorithm. IS-IS is designed for use on interior routers only. It supports two Layer 3 protocols: IP or an ISO-specific protocol.
Describe two popular types of gateways.
● E-mail gateway— A gateway that translates messages from one type of e-mail system to another.
● Firewall— A gateway that selectively blocks or filters traffic between networks.