Nullification Crisis

U. S. History 11/05/2013 Jackson Question #1: Nullification Crisis Question #2: Jacksonian Democracy Indian Removal Westward Migration Black Hawk War- Alabama and Mississippi – Abraham Lincoln – Preventing white settlers from moving in on Indian land Assimilation- Sue in court Cherokee Tribe – Romanized their language to make it their language using our alphabet – Literate – Gold rush- 1820s Worcester vs. Georgia – “Cherokee are a nation, they aren’t just people inside the United States” – Indians won in court Trail of Tears – Sent to Oklahoma – Fed poorly, susceptible to disease, river boats Herrenfolk Democracy

Ruled by dominant group All white men decide what happens (White male democracy) The Bank War 1791- Hamilton’s Fiscal Plan – Bank chartered for twenty years 1816- Rechartered 1836- To be rechartered Divides one party into two again – Whigs vs. Democrats – Second Party System Nicholas Biddle – President of Bank Friends of the Bank – Daniel Webster, Henry Clay – Bring bank up for recharter Jackson vetoed the recharter Unconstitutional Has a monopoly on banking The way the rich oppress the poor Foreigners own stock in the bank and it’s how they’ll take over the country Opposition party in England – Whigs – Bank: soft and hard money Promissory notes Pet banks – Roger Taney – Panic of 1837 Conclusion – Martin Van Buren (OK) – Log cabin and hard cider campaign – Presidential power increased – Increased democracy Slavery In the early 1800s, cotton production dominated all economic activity in the south. Slavery exhibited regional variation; still it is important to understand some generalities about slave life in the antebellum south. “King Cotton” – Cotton price trends Panic of 1819 (Loans form bank), stabilizes Panic of 1837, stabilizes Stabilized throughout 1840s and 1850s, cotton prices stabilize – The “Black Belt” – Slave exporting regions 790s + – Paternalism Pater = Father -ism = Ideology Slave father = father of a family (slaves) Father circumcised himself, his children and his slaves Informs and justifies slavery Good for the owner, good for the south, good for the slaves Enables “slavery is good for a slave” Regional variation Slave life in the antebellum U. S. (1830-Civil War) – Solely profitable – Illegal for slaves to be literate – WPA slave narratives 7 November 2013 Employed people to interview slaves during 1930s – Chattel property Treating humans like animals – Discipline Up to master, regulated by law in some states

Illegal to murder slaves as punishment Slaves can’t testify in court against slave owner Had to have special permission from legislature to dismember a slave Most common form of discipline = whipping Master = Lord of property – “Can see to can’t see” – Skilled slaves “Hiring out” ? southern households own slaves Other ? support secession 20% factory workers 80% agricultural workers Cotton, sugar cane (most brutal) – Diet Dietary deficiency diseases Pellagra – Only eating pork and corn – Houses Not strong shelter Bed built in wall Chair (if built themselves) – Clothing Got clothing two times a year- winter and summer

Cotton, wool & cotton One pair of slaves shoes a year Rough leather, no socks – Medical care $3/ Doctor visit per slave Slave life (How they endured) – Slave family Slave marriage Children – Religion Conversion to Christianity Master paid preacher to pray on plantation “Slaves obey their masters” – Folk tales Negro spirituals (songs) Slave behavior “Sambo” “I need slavery to stay alive” Acting slave Runaway slaves Ran away or rebelled Slave patrols Catches slaves who run away White men who don’t own slaves If they catch you without a pass, they can tie you to a tree and administer thirty-nine lashes Taken to jail, can be lashed

Make an advertisement for runaway slave Taken back to plantation, lashed again Runaway slave advertisements A “Troublesome Property” Don’t rebel or runaway Don’t work- leave barn door open, chase horse through woods all day Steal pig, have a feast Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening led to a democratized form of Christianity influencing public policy, especially because of its emphasis on millennialism. Attempts to perfect society in anticipation of Christ’s return took many forms and significantly changed American society. Millennialism- Jesus will come back and rule for one-thousand years.

If people cleaned up American society enough, He will return to Earth. 12 November 2013 Reformers – Women’s Rights Movement – Slavery reform Second Great Awakening – “Christianization” of America Entrance into public square First Great Awakening Linking religion and politics Pilgrims Mass Christianization – Frontier Awakening 1801 Fighting with Indians Fish hooking Camp meetings 10,000 people meeting on camps Welcoming to slaves and free people Everybody is equal (egalitarian) Cane Ridge, KY Led by front range people Revivals Put on by Presbyterian Church Paving way for democracy “Treeing the Devil”

Free blacks and slaves – Burned over district Upstate New York Cities along Erie Canal Rochester. NY and Albany? Charles G. Finney Lawyer, politician, Presbyterian – Major beliefs During the period of the Second Great Awakening, America democratized. At the same time it democratized, it Christianized. Democratized the same time it Christianized Free-will theology Shift away from Puritanism You pick God— “Vote for God” Conversion Anxious bench Charles Finney How/where you’re converted Admit you’re a sinner and convert them to God Egalitarianism Approach to Bible- hierarchical Democratization of Bible interpretation

Institution of church in background (Harvard & Yale) Corrupted original and pure Christianity Restorationists “Every man his own interpreter” Joseph Smith Church of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) Book of Mormon Angel = Moroni = need to restore original Christianity Accepted glasses from Angel, tablets of gold Millennialism The 1,000 year reign Jesus will have on Earth World will go down until Jesus comes back Clean up society or He won’t come Age of Reform Sparks from Millennialism Sabbatarianism Force all of society to obey the Sabbath whether they are Christian or not Part of cleaning up society Shut down ferries

Can’t operate on the Sabbath (Sunday) Got federal post office to quit delivering mail on Sundays Shut down everything else from opening on Sundays Blue Law- Shutting businesses down on Sundays- 1830s Penitentiary and Asylum Criminals and the insane Thrown in a hole, throw away the key Separate you from society so you don’t do it again Create a person who is penitent Humble, reformed, doesn’t want to do the evil thing again Temperance Getting people to drink less—abstinence East Coast urbanization district Early stages of industrial revolution Moral persuasion Drinking makes you beat you wife and kids

Pledging themselves a “T” for total abstinence – Women’s rights Cult of True Womanhood (the “ideal” woman) Piety Religion- Christian Purity Sexual purity- virginal until marriage Domesticity Women should be oriented towards the home, not society Submissiveness Submission to father or husband Laws of coverture- property/ land=husbands Susan B. Anthony Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1840s- first wave of women’s rights Daughter of elite lawyer in NYC- Wealthy, well-educated Learned about legal status of women when she was eight- reading her father’s lawyer books Married Henry Bruster Stanton Honeymoon- London—Anti-slavery convention

Mary Walston Craft Against: Concept of gender as an idea- Biological What society says a man or woman should do Women shouldn’t work in factories Cult of True Woman- Be in home, only submissive with father or husband Domesticity- Find quotes in textbook proving she’s against cult of domesticity Can’t vote, submissive Lucretia Mott At world anti-slavery convention Became friends with Stanton Seneca Falls Convention Miserable living here Put together a convention for women’s rights activists in Seneca Falls (20-30 women showed up) Declaration of Sentiments 14 November 2013 Modeled on Declaration of Independence

Appendix- Look between D. O. I. and D. O. Sentiments Grievances Right to vote Did not work until 1920s Inspired by religious revival Right to vote- Slaves can and women can’t Bible- Women’s Bible Changed what Bible said about women Anti-Slavery – American Colonization Society Liberia, Monrovia Founded by American Colonization Society Get rid of slavery and slaves 2,000 vs. 2,000,000 1831- Nat Turner Rebellion Caused Virginia to have a convention for a gradual emancipation of slaves Illinois considering legalizing slavery at this time Formed Radical Abolitionism – Quakers Believed everyone had the “inner light”

Not right to keep slaves enslaved with the “inner light” Benjamin Lundy Free slaves in your will Don’t whip the slaves – Radical Abolitionism William Lloyd Garrison The Liberator (Newspaper) Northerner Don’t want slaves and don’t want slavery (Common in north) Radical abolitionism view on slavery: Slavery is as awful as rape and murder = Morally evil Must be done away immediately Must change 13th Amendment of Constitution “To hell with the Constitution” Lit it on fire and threw it on the ground Extremely rare in North Wendell Phillips Slavery is not just a Southern thing, it’s a U. S. thing “Slavery is a national moral evil”

Immediate emancipation and full granting of political rights to the slaves Frederick Douglass The North Star Black abolitionist Born a slave in Maryland Skilled slave Taught to read Learned how to make an argument to whites that slavery is evil Escaped, went around England speaking “Black man is not fit for slavery” Purchased own freedom Bible = Slavery (Jews and Egypt) Slavery permits a slavery different than this slavery Abolitionists: Slavery= moral evil such as rape or murder. If the bible supports slavery, I don’t support the bible (radical abolitionists) – unpopular in the north and especially in the south.

Flood the south with pamphlets. Abolitionist brought war on faster OR abolitionists created a situation where war was the only option. Increase the chance of confrontation. Necessary evil pro-slavery defense – Holding wolf by ears- not a good thing to do- if you let go, it’ll eat your face off Leads to positive good pro-slavery defense North- Oppose slavery but don’t like slaves. If you get rid of slavery you need to get rid of the slaves. Approached bible = find a verse that justifies slavery U. S. almost broke in half to abolish slavery (Civil War) 19 November 2013

In the period between 1830 and 1860, three separate societies in America; Northeast, Northwest, and the South merged into two- North and South. They were distinguished by their views on industrialization and wage labor, and each society thought the others’ economic system threatened the existence of the republic. Why does the South secede? Why does the North not let the South secede? ? households own slaves in South- ? don’t economically benefit from slavery **In 1776 & 1787, when they “got married,” the states were all basically the same. Every state had slavery. North changes into something different and South stays the same.

Political ideology- Republicanism (can’t have parties—parties). Republicanism changes in the north and diverges in the south (Northern Republicanism- Southern Republicanism) (Both think the other will destroy each other). Gettysburg Address. Economic Sectionalism – Northeast Market Revolution Agricultural goods sold in a national market Industrialization More farmers than industrial workers Laborers Lowell System Worked in factory to pay off dowellery Commerce, finance, manufacturing 24 banks by 1847 Average lifespan for a bank = 5 years Hate tariffs (along with northwest) Urbanization, transportation

Railroads between farmland and urbanizing/industrializing More food to feed armies Overwhelmingly agricultural Built more ships than anyone else and had better rivers Loads of immigrants from Germany and Ireland come to the Northeast Industrial workers Low factory wages 90% of industrial capacity in U. S. – Northwest NW Ordinance, 1787 Prohibited spread of slavery in northwest Advanced agriculture Overwhelmingly small farmers Mechanization of agriculture Mechanical reapers Sirus McCormick Grain Homestead Act If you set up on land and improve it, you get the land for free “Free soil for free white men”

Anti-slavery message Don’t want slaves Causes South to oppose it Antagonism with south, 1845-1860 – Northern Republicanism Ideology = Republicanism Parts of northern society it has changed Made peace with political parties Emphasis on free labor Freedom is good Natural right to sell your labor on the market (free labor) No one has the right to take it away from you Right to fruits of your labor Slavery is against liberty and a threat to freedom Possible destruction of America Survival on Earth is at stake – South Slavery ? households have a slave Rural Agricultural Overwhelmingly Yeoman farmers No slaves

Planters 20+ slaves Cotton bails (2/3 of all manufacturing) King cotton diplomacy Really are capitalists—see themselves as paternalists “Organic” No real banking or railway systems – Southern Republicanism Hold with Jefferson that capitalism and freedom cannot coexist During the Enlightenment: People have rights Adam Smith: Extends assumptions of political freedom to the economy Law of supply and demand Selling labor (functions as an apple market) Essay–21 November 2013 The politics of slavery in the 1840s and 1850s was the politics of territorial expansion. Each time the issue of expanding slavery arose the U.

S. inched closer to war, and that issue ultimately led to the destruction of the second party system and rise of a purely sectional political party; the Republicans. Believed that there is a slave power conspiracy South seceded to protect slavery, can’t spread Division/debate over spread of slavery destroyed second-party system (Democrats and Whigs) Third party system- Democrats and Republicans Republicans- not a national party (only exist in north) – Taken control of government – The political crisis of the 1850s destroyed the second party system and replaced it with a sectional party system. Texas Republic, 1836 – Send in buffers- controlled immigration (failed) – Treaty of Valasco Signed under duress – Sam Houston, President, Friend of Andrew Jackson – John Tyler, President of Annexation – Annexation, 1845 Joint resolution of Congress – Election of 1844- James K. Polk won Mexican-American War – Rio Grande, Newasis River (Border between Texas and Mexico) John Schlidel- $25 Million – Spot amendment – Zachary Taylor- President after Polk – Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexican government- not at war – Mexican Cession U. S. forced Mexico to give land to stated for $15 million Wilmot Proviso – David Wilmot

Any new land we take from the Mexicans cannot have slavery Similar to Tallmadge amendment Compromise of 1850 (Saved U. S. from Civil War for ten years) 1. California free Cali wants to be a free state, not territory North win 2. New Mexico/ Utah Territories Slavery was neither legal nor illegal 3. D. C. Slave Trade In between Maryland and Virginia (slave states) Slaves building D. C. Slave market- Treating people like animals Goal: Get rid of slave markets (D. C. Slave Trade is abolished) 4. Texas Boundary Panhandle- Until it meets Rio Grande Slavery= smaller 5. Fugitive Slave Law Still property if the slave leaves the state

Grants greater power to Southerners to go back and get their slaves Daniel Webster – Worked with Henry Clay (Kentucky) – “Great Compromiser” Harriet Beecher Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) – Sold millions of copies – Antagonizes the South Paternalistic lie Kansas-Nebraska Act- Final – Stephen Douglas, Politician from Illinois Most important person in senate Manifest Destiny Wants to be president that fixed the country Popular sovereignty – Transcontinental Railroad To San Francisco gold rush St. Louis and Chicago Facilitate land between St. Louis and Chicago Creates territories Land that was Louisiana Purchase North of 36’30 Popular sovereignty Let the people in the place decide if they want slavery or not – Repeals Missouri Compromise Replaces with popular sovereignty South= not sacred Franklin Pierce Franklin Pierce – Put thru the Missouri Compromise repeal Republican Party – Anti-Slavery – Favor tariff – Northwest Ordinance of 1770 – Slavery can’t spread, won’t touch it where it exists – Southern Whigs opposed the K-N Act and northerners think it’s generally okay – Destroys second-party system, created new national political party (third party system) Fire-Eaters – Break up of second-party system Bleeding Kansas – John Brown New England 20 children

Call himself: “The Lord High Admiral of the Almighty sent to make the south pay for slavery” God sent me to kill slave owners 200 people died 1856- marched into Powalamity 26 November 2013 The crises of the 1850s led to an increasing tension over slavery that traditional two-party politics could not contain after the destruction of the Whig Party and rise of the Republicans who were purely sectional (northern). The south seceded to protect slavery from Lincoln and the Republicans. Politics didn’t work after 1854 and 1855, until 1860 Territorial Expansion and Slavery – Charles Sumner – Preston Brooks Senate- “caned” Sumner – Election of 1856

John C. Fremont Explorer in military James Buchannan Before Lincoln and Civil War – Dredd Scott Case Roger Taney Appointed by Andrew Jackson Tennessee slave holder On order as K-N Act Slavery spreading to territories Calhoun: Slavery is property- the Constitution protects property, if a southerner owns property, he should be able to take his property wherever he chooses to, can’t protect slavery without slave laws (slave codes) Dredd Scott- slave, owner- Army doctor, Wisconsin (North of 36’30) Dredd Scott couldn’t bring case to the supreme court because he was “not a citizen of the United States” (reason for 14th amendment) Significance:

Huge victory for south, southern position vindicated “Slavery can spread” Slave power conspiracy, destroy it Secession and Civil War – Lincoln-Douglas Debates Slavery can’t spread Douglas cast Lincoln as a radical abolitionist – Abraham Lincoln Born very poor Self-made lawyer – Harper’s Ferry Raid John Brown- terrorist Left paper trail- invade south with his kids Original target: arsenal Guns and money and go to valley in Virginia, kill slave owners – Election of 1860 John C. Breckinridge Southern Democrat Stephen Douglas Northern Democrat John Bell Constitutional Union Abraham Lincoln Republican Won Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union” States rights Seceding to protect slavery Modeled after Declaration of Independence 1. Doing what the Revolutionaries did 85 years before 2. Why the south thought they could secede Virginia-Kentucky revolution Compact theory Nullification and secession 3. Why they want to secede Said slavery was bad, violated compact theory Abolitionist societies disturb the peace Encourage and insist slave to leave home Power of common government Sectional party (Republicans) Lincoln Seceding to protect Lincoln and the Republican party

Cornerstone Speech 3 December 2013 Understand why Lincoln would not let the South secede. Discuss the goals of the war and how they changed. Briefly survey the course of the war and important developments. Lincoln’s Decision – Idealistic Save the Union: Lincoln’s primary goal If the south secedes, it will destroy freedom in all the world -Practical Southern half of Mississippi River – Political Don’t want to be the party that destroyed America (Republicans) Fort Sumter – April 12, 1861 – Charleston, SC (where they seceded) – Robert Anderson – Confederates started shooting- Start of Civil War U. S. Declares War – April 15th

Upper South Secedes – VA, NC, AR- KY/ MO Comparisons of Resources – U. S. A. 91% of Industrial Capacity 75% of Farmland 71% of Railroad Mileage 2. 8 Million Troops Served – C. S. A. Ag. (cotton) Economy Almost no Industry (Tredegar) Must create new Government 1. 4 Million Troops Served Carl von Clausewitz – “War is an act of violence to compel the enemy to accept our political will. ” Political Goals – North: Convince south to rejoin Union Kill Southerners to convince them to agree with north – South: Convince North it’s not worth it anymore Total War – “Absolute or total devotion of the productive capacity of a society to war” Large Conscript Armies Draft – Mobilize Home Front Big war – War on Civilian Society Cordon Defense – We’ll (south) stay put until you (north) come down and fight Offensive Defense – South- Defense Antietam (Sharpsburg) – 1862 – Lee and Jackson – Bloodiest day in American history (5,000 people) Emancipation Proclamation – Late 1862, take effect in 1863 – Freed some slaves, not others Any slave in southern territory is free – World Opinion – Diplomatic Maneuver – Shift in War Aims Gettysburg – Gettysburg Address – July 1863 Outcome Reconstruction Slavery caused the Civil War Kansas-Nebraska and Dredd Scott have to be in essay


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