Occupancy Load Calculation For Atrium Construction Essay

HWY Engineering Service Pte Ltd, has been tasked by the Client, herein referred as H.W.T.G Development, to commissioned a new office development next to its bing rock edifice. Located in the metropolis Centre, this new edifice is to be connected to the bing edifice by an atrium with new cellar carpark installations in which the bing edifice is missing.

HWY is called for the design proposal for the new edifice and atrium. The Client is looking for a high quality universe category architecture, nevertheless, with a limited budget.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Occupancy Load Calculation For Atrium Construction Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

The clients are besides concern with the environment factors and are acute to understate waste of all signifiers during and after the building of the undertaking. Hence, careful idea of the stuffs used should be taken into consideration in which, the Client is besides looking at the “ Whole Life Costing ” of the edifice.


In order to find the entree and get away path during an exigency, the tenancy of the edifice have to be established.

2.1 Occupancy evaluations

Based on the architectural program that can be seen in Appendix 1, the tenancy evaluations are as follows:

Proposal: Atrium

Occupancy burden computation for Atrium:


Functional Space

Floor Area

( M2 )

Area of floor per individual ( m2/Person )

No of individuals



Cafeteria Preparation and Counter Area





Cafeteria Seating Area




Proposal: New Building

Occupancy burden computation for 1st Storey, 2nd Storey, 3rd Storey each:


Functional Space

Floor Area

( M2 )

Area of floor per individual ( m2/Person )

No of individuals



Facilities Manager Office





Staff Kitchen





Female Changing Room & A ; WC




Male Changing Room & A ; WC




Office Area





Main Corridor & A ; Lift Lobby


2.2 Emptying and Escape Route

In the event of a fire eruption, a edifice agency of emersion is the most of import agencies of flight which is provided by 2 strategically located fire flight stairwaies.

The 2 fire flight staircases shall be fitted with a door with a fire opposition of at least half an hr, fitted with a self-closing device that runs automatically and doors which are made of individual foliage door and shall be of the appropriate fire opposition as required by the codification and ordinance.

Direction of the gap of the issue door is harmonizing to the issue travel and the fire flight staircase shall take to anchor flat outside of the edifice. Personnel shall non hold to go through through other suites to sail to the fire issue. Hence, the entree to the fire issue is by agencies of the chief corridor. As per FSB Chapter 2.2.7 ( pg42 ) , the demand for the clear breadth of the issue door of 0.85m broad shall be met and dead terminal within corridor shall non transcend the demand of 15/20m. The lone dead terminal located within the corridor is merely at 6m which satisfied the ordinance.

Appropriate signage exterior and within the fire flight staircase shall be conspicuously placed to ease in directing residents out of the edifice in instance of an exigency. Signage shall besides be strategically located and seeable to residents traveling up and down the fire flight stairway.

Degree centigrades: UsersVictorDesktopOutput 1 Model ( 1 ) .jpg

Fire Escape Route

2.3 Fire Fighting Measures

Fire is a burning procedure affecting chemical reactions between 3 elements which are fuel, O and heat. This reaction will take topographic point when the three elements are in copiousness.

2.3.1 Classs of Fire

Class A – Fires affecting ordinary combustible stuffs such as wood, fabric, paper, gum elastic and many plastics

Class B – Fires affecting flammable combustible liquids, lubricating oils and gases

Class C – Fires affecting energies electrical equipment

Class D – Fires affecting combustibles metals, such as Mg, Na and K.

Hence it is of import to place the categories of fire that could go on, so as to supply the appropriate firefighting equipment.

2.3.2 Fire Protection Facilities

Based on the stipulated Fire Fighting Regulation, the proposed installations needed for the new edifice are as follows:

Smoke Detection Systems: Widely recognized to observe fume and direct warning to all relevant parties involved and to look into.

Fire dismaies / Break Glass system: A device that is designed to inform residents and employees in the edifice that an exigency exists. It includes hearable dismaies, which primary intent is to give an early warning for warning and emptying.

Fire Hose Reels: To supply a reasonably accessible and controlled supply of H2O to battle a possible fire hazard strategically located

Fire Fire extinguishers: An active fire protection device used to snuff out the incipient fire. Most common type which will be used is the ABC dry chemical type. This type can be used for Class A, B and C types of fires and shall be strategically located

2.4 Accessibility for Disable Person

Design proposals for new edifices must take into consideration the handiness of the handicapped sand adequate planning and design to guarantee proper exigency flight.

All new edifices should hold one entryway for all people, which do non show a barrier for the handicapped to utilize unaided. The subsequent tract after the entryway shall be of at least 1200mm for at least a wheelchair user and a individual to walk. The tract should be free of stick outing stuffs as these would farther impair the sightless. ( Constructing Construction Authority,2007 )

Service counters should follow a individual lower tallness counter at a max tallness of 800mm. A kneehole infinite can besides be designed to let a wheelchair user to draw up to the counter. ( Constructing Construction Authority,2007 )

Sanitary commissariats must be made available to the disabled at all floors, one for the male and female. The washroom must be adequately broad where the opposite walls to be non less than 1750mm, to suit the wheelchair user. Washrooms have been designed and made available at every floor, as per required by the Accessibility Code. A H2O cupboard has been designed in every male and female washroom. In the event of an exigency, a call bell has to be provided in the washroom for the handicapped. Aid can be rendered to those in demand. ( Constructing Construction Authority,2007 )

Entree to the upper and cellar of the edifice, is through the lift. The lift anteroom has been designed to allow a wheelchair usage to travel clear of lift leting another wheelchair usage to base on balls. The lift is designed specifically to suit wheelchair users without any hinderance. Name buttons located at the anteroom has to be free from obstructor. This is to forestall overreaching to the call button. The call button has to be at the tallness of 900mm to 1200mm. ( Constructing Construction Authority,2007 )


Structure as define in a edifice is the chief signifier of system that holds the edifice in topographic point to keep its form and place and defying widely altering physical forces. ( Iver Wahl,2007, p.3 ) The construction can take on many types of signifiers and form and can be constructed utilizing many sorts of stuffs.

As mentioned by Derek O. & A ; Roger.G,2002, pg.28-34, there are 4 basic sort of construction signifier which are:

Continuous Structure – Continuous back uping walls which transfer the combined tonss and forces chiefly by direct compaction

Frame Structure – Model of lumber, steel, reinforced concrete consisting of a regular horizontal beams and perpendicular columns

Panel Structure – Load-bearing panel which carry burden without the usage of columns and beams

Membrane Structure – Non-structural membranes organizing walls and roof supported by tenseness and or compaction members

Derek O. & A ; Roger.G,2002, pg.2 defines the demands of a edifice as:

Degree centigrades: UsersVictor HooDesktopIMG_2170.JPG

Typically, there are many types of stuffs used for building of edifices. Some of these illustrations are ice, wood, clay, concrete, steel, rock, straws.

However, to building a edifice of 3 floors high and a cellar carpark, the picks of stuffs are being narrowed down to reenforce concrete and or steel. These 2 stuffs picks are considered due to its belongingss for enabling to build a edifice of our nature. An analysis of the 2 stuffs is given below:

3.1 Reinforced Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of H2O, sand, Portland cement and sums which combines to organize a stuff that is good in compressive strength but low in tensile strength and ductileness. With inclusion of steel support into the composite stuffs, strengthened concrete is achieved in which it is both good in compaction and tensile capacity. Therefore, the building of strong and high edifice is possible and straightforward.

And due to its liquid province before the concrete is cured, the ability to model the concrete into assorted forms and sizes is effortless with the utilizations of suited formworks.

Concrete besides performs good in defying fire as it has a non-combustible stuff and has a slow heat transportation rate. However, prolong heat and utmost temperature can do concrete to go brickle and cleft.

3.2 Steel Structures

Steel is an metal of Fe and C which gives it his high tensile strength, ductileness and hardness belongingss. Steel used in the building sectors are in the signifier of an I-beam, steel home bases, hollow subdivisions, C-channels and angle bars. By utilizing these structural steel members, edifice can be form and constructed to really strong and high edifices.

However, steel loses its belongingss when heated to sufficient temperature and therefore, loses its abilities to back up its intended burden. In order to heighten its fire opposition belongingss, usually steel structural members are encased in concrete or fire retardents.

Steel, unlike concrete which requires sufficient clip to derive its strength, can be used to build a edifice in a comparatively shorter period of clip as compared to utilizing concrete. However, due to this belongings, the costs of utilizing steels are by and large higher than of concrete.

3.3 Environmental Consideration

Steel are traditional, see to be more environmental friendly as comparison to concrete due to its ability to be recycle, ( Steel can be re-melted and once more hammer into functional merchandise ) .

However, “ Green concrete ” has emerged in the modern universe as engineering progresss. “ Green concrete ” are made by utilizing waste merchandises generated by other industries and in the thick of utilizing the waste merchandises, H2O can besides be saved in the fabrication of concrete as the procedure suggest. ( Holcim, 2012 )

3.4 Decision

The new edifice shall comprising of a frame construction consist of column, beams and slab in a 2 manner span system utilizing strengthened concrete has been chosen for the undertaking. As the chief signifier of the edifice is in a square grid system, the 2 manner span system is best to use to full possible burden bearing capacity of the frame construction.

Heavy tonss can be support utilizing the 2 manner columns, beams and slab span system and the span between each column can be maximize. And by utilizing strengthened concrete, the frame constructions are capable of heavy tonss and enhance stableness.

This construction system is easy to build and is cost-efficient in supplying one of the best solution in medium span and heavy burden building. This is system is besides really normally usage in the industry and hence, resources, engineering and pricing is really competitory which is good to the client.

“ Green concrete ” shall be used for the building and due to its indistinguishable layout of the structural frame, impermanent stuffs like formworks are reclaimable in which cut down waste by merchandise from the building works.

With the usage of concrete, lastingness of the edifice can be ensured and care of the edifice shall be comparatively easy. Fire protection, sound control and thermic comfort of the residents in the edifice are besides easy fulfill due to the nature of the stuff itself. Not merely that this suggests that satisfaction of the residents can be guarantee, the whole life costing of the edifice shall be kept at its lower limit.

The same construct is applied to the atrium with the exclusion of the roof which shall be constructed utilizing a steel frame system back uping a glass roof.

The primary construct of holding a glass roof at the atrium is for the inflow of natural visible radiation. As most residents shall non be in the atrium as dark falls, light of atrium during the dark shall be kept at lower limit. It is during the lunch hr in which most of the residents shall be at that location in which natural lighting can light the country ; hence, energy nest eggs can be possible from this design.

As Derek O. & A ; Roger.G,2002, pg.4 suggest, this is the public presentation demands of a edifice.

Degree centigrades: UsersVictor HooDesktopIMG_2173.JPG

Beginning: Derek O. & A ; Roger.G,2002, pg.5



Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out