OCE 1001 Exam 4

The products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
Compensation depth is the depth in the ocean where the photosynthetic rate exceeds the rate of cellular respiration.
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Tropical open ocean waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world’s oceans.
there is a net gain in organic carbon by organisms.
In primary production:
primary productivity.
In general, the rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter is called:
compensation depth for photosynthesis.
The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the:
The color of light most readily absorbed by water is _________.
pseudo-nitzschia, because it causes amnesic shellfish poisoning.
Mass mortality events of marine mammals and birds may occur after ingesting prey items that contain algal toxins. What organism that can cause harmful algal blooms should humans be concerned about if animals in the area are having seizures and exhibiting erratic, “drunken-like” behavior?
The group of marine macroscopic algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the Division Rhodophyta.
Diatoms are classified as members of the Division Chlorophyta.
Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division:
Important marine autotrophs that have silica incorporated into their cell walls are:
A. Avicennia (black mangrove)
B. Rhizophora (red mangrove)
C. Sargassum (Gulf weed)
D. Spartina (marsh grass)
E. Zostera (eelgrass)
In dead zones resulting from eutrophication, animal life is absent due to the lack of _________.
Of the following types of organisms, which are examples of microscopic algae?
Primary productivity in temperate marine systems is limited solely by the amount of available solar radiation.
Equatorial upwelling decreases primary productivity in tropical waters.
The percentage of biomass regularly decomposed within the euphotic zone is about:
temperate waters, polar waters, tropical waters.
The relative productivity in the world’s oceans from most productive to least productive is:
Productivity in polar oceans is:
All the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity.
Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have unusually high primary productivity rates?
nutrient concentrations are low, solar input is high, and dissolved oxygen decreases.
In temperate oceans of the northern hemisphere during the summer months:
a strong thermocline
Summer productivity in temperate waters typically is hampered by _________.
1.In polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do NOT limit productivity.
2.In polar oceans, there is incredibly high productivity in the summertime.
3. In polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter.
Of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions, which is/are true?
1.In tropical oceans, productivity is limited year-round by the lack of nutrients.
2.In middle-latitude oceans, the fall bloom is limited by the lack of sunlight.
3.In middle-latitude oceans, the spring bloom is limited by the lack of nutrients.
Of the following statements about oceanic productivity, which is/are true?
1.The sunlight penetrates deep into the tropical ocean, warming the surface waters and creating stratification of water masses.
2. The permanent thermocline presents a barrier that keeps nutrients in deeper water from mixing with surface waters.
Which of the following statements correctly explain why biological productivity in the tropical ocean is so meager when compared to biological productivity on land in tropical environments?
bacterial decomposition
In the biogeochemical cycling of matter in marine ecosystems, which process re-mineralizes nutrients back into the dissolved state?
Energy flow in photosynthetic marine ecosystems is unidirectional in contrast to nutrients, which cycle through ecosystems.
Energy flow in an ecosystem is:
100 kcal
If 10,000 kilocalories (kcal) of energy were contained in the primary producers (trophic level 1), on average how many kcal of energy would you expect to be transferred to second-order consumers (trophic level 3)?
A. bacteriovores
B. carnivores
C. decomposers
D. biogeochemical cycle
E. herbivores
deposit feeders
Amphipods are _________.
farming of commercial fish and shellfish
maximum catch without reducing the population of target species
maximum sustainable yield
If the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250,000 kilocalories (kcal), then the expected caloric value for the trophic-level consumers at the second level would be 2,500 kcal.
The standing stock of a population is the maximum number or biomass of individuals that can be removed sustainably.
standing stock.
The mass of a population of fish present at a given time is called its:
result in overfishing.
Catches above the maximum sustainable yield:
All the above are correct.
All the following are challenges to managing fisheries except :
most deep-water organisms have lower metabolic rates; therefore, they grow, mature, and reproduce at a slower rate
With the depletion of fish stocks in coastal waters, more fishing is being conducted in deeper waters. Deep-water species are becoming endangered at a rapid rate, primarily because _________.
photosynthetic bacteria
Of the following types of organisms, which one is considered to be LOWEST in a marine food web?
1.Fishing practices have removed 90% of large marine predatory fish species.
2.In U.S. waters, 80% of commercial marine fish stocks are fully exploited or overfished.
3.A recent study indicates that if fishing practices continue, marine fish stocks will be depleted by 2048.
Of the following statements about marine fisheries, which is/are true?
an organism that feeds on plants or animals
Strategies for staying afloat in pelagic environments include a swim bladder, increased body fat and increased body density.
Krill, cnidarians, and arrow worms are macroscopic zooplankton.
Muscles used in locomotion and found along the sides of fish are called myomeres.
to allow a fish to change position in the water column.
The function of a swim bladder is:
Identify the mismatched pair.
pectoral and pelvic
Which set of fins is used for turning and braking?
Which fin(s) is/are most commonly used for moving fast?
The caudal fin of fast-cruising fish such as tuna is:
A. anal
B. caudal
C. dorsal
D. pelvic
E. ventral
A. copepods
B. foraminiferans
C. krill
D. radiolarians
E. squid.
pectoral and pelvic
The fins used by fishes primarily for maneuvering are _________.
(All but Diatoms)
Of the following groups of organisms, which is/are considered zooplankton?
sensitive lateral lines
Identify the adaptation that allows deep-sea fishes to capture prey without exerting much energy.
Poikilothermic organisms can regulate their internal body temperature.
All the above affect the ability of pelagic organisms to capture food.
Which of the following affect the ability of species to capture food?
The muscle tissue of a “lunger” is predominantly:
it increases the power output of muscle tissue.
Cruisers are thought to have relatively high body temperature because:
Organisms such as a mackerel sharks and tunas that can maintain a relatively constant body temperature are referred to as:
warning coloration.
Bioluminescence is employed by deep-sea animals for all the following reasons except:
Because of the scarcity of food in the deep-sea environment, many organisms rely on _________ as their principal source of food.
A symbiotic relationship in which both participants benefit is called commensalism.
Pick the pair which does not fit the pattern:
A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit is called _________.
1.Schooling reduces the percentage of ocean volume in which a cruising predator might find one of their kind.
2.Schools can move and appear as one large and dangerous fish, thus preventing a predator from attacking.
3.More than half of all fish species are known to join schools during at least a portion of their lives.
Of the following statements about schooling, which is/are true?
direct sharp bursts of sound to stun prey
Marine mammals use sound for a variety of purposes. Which of these examples can only be accomplished by Odontocetes?
One adaptation for deep diving in marine mammals is an increase in heart rate during the dive.
The Odontoceti or toothed whales include the humpback, the gray, and the sperm whales.
Sperm whales
Which of the following is not a member of the Order Carnivora?
sperm whales
All the following are baleen whales except :
is a small mammal with dense fur and lack an insulating blubber layer.
This marine mammal:
mate and give birth in the tropics during the winter.
The gray whale and other baleen whales migrate every year to:
Mysticeti or baleen whales
A group of animals that “violates” the trophic pyramid by feeding on organisms two or three levels below it is the _________.
(All but Marine mammals need to come ashore to give birth.)
1. Marine mammals are warm-blooded.
2. Marine mammals must surface to breathe air.
3. Marine mammals have hair (or fur) during at least some stage of their development.
4. Marine mammals bear live young.
5. Marine mammals evolved from land species.
Of the following statements about the characteristics of marine mammals, which is/are true?
(All of them)
1. Odontoceti lack vocal cords.
2. Odontoceti have large brains relative to their body size.
3. Odontoceti form long-lived social groups.
4. Odontoceti have prominent teeth and good vision.
5. Odontoceti have the ability to use echolocation
Of the following statements about marine mammals in suborder Odontoceti, which is/are true?
The migratory routes of many commercially important baleen whales are poorly known.
killer whales
Probably the greatest threat to gray whale calves today is _________.
(All but Gray whales are the largest of the toothed whales.)
1. Gray whales spend most of their time in coastal waters.
2. Gray whales typically feed on bottom-dwelling organisms, such as crustaceans and clams.
3. Gray whales undertake the longest migration of any mammal.
4. Gray whales are one of only a few species ever to be removed from endangered status.
5. Gray whales used to be known as “devilfish” for their aggressive behavior toward whalers.
Of the following statements about gray whales, which is/are true?
lunate caudal fin
bluefin tuna
truncate caudal fin
gray angelfish
truncate caudal fin
forked caudal fin
Order Carnivora
fur seal
Order Cetacea, Suborder Odontoceti
killer whale
Order Cetacea, Suborder Odontoceti
sperm whale
The supratidal zone of the rocky shore is the area between the highest high tide and the lowest low tide.
Hermit crabs are commonly found inhabitants of tide pools.
primary productivity.
The distribution of benthic biomass is related to:
Along a rocky shore, the spray zone is indicated by the number:
The area on a rocky shore inhabited by organisms adapted to withstand wave energy for the majority of the tidal cycle is indicated by the number:
The most important limiting factor in rocky intertidal communities is:
buckshot barnacles and limpets.
Two dominant organisms of the rocky shore found high on the rocks of the intertidal zone are:
have planktonic larval forms.
Some organisms living in the high water portion of the intertidal zone cannot survive in the supralittoral zone because they:
The subtidal rocky bottom zone along temperate shorelines is dominated by:
A. buckshot barnacle
B. chiton
C. hermit crab
D. limpet
E. periwinkle
sessile animals, nektobenthos, and very few infauna
Benthic animals inhabiting the rocky intertidal environment consist mostly of _________.
a steeply sloping beach face composed of cobble stone
In which sediment-covered shoreline would you find the greatest concentration of subsurface-dissolved oxygen?
Intertidal zonation across a sediment-covered shore is best seen when the shore is gently sloping.
Some of the more common fauna of sediment-covered shores include bivalve mollusks, annelid worms, and crustaceans.
burrowing into the sediment.
The most successful adaptation for living on a sediment-covered shore is:
The common annelid found in a sandy beach environment is the:
mud flats
Organic matter decomposes most slowly in _________.
(All but Burrowing is one of the most common adaptations in rocky intertidal zones.)
1.Some organisms can survive for long periods of time out of water.
2. Many intertidal organisms have adaptations to cope with strong wave activity.
3. A thick exterior or exoskeleton helps protect creatures from being crushed.
4. A thick exterior or exoskeleton helps prevent creatures from drying out.
Of the following adaptations, which apply to life in intertidal environments?
1.The low tide zone holds the greatest number of soft-bodied organisms and marine algae.
2.Mussel beds are a common feature of the middle tide zone.
3.The spray zone is where organisms with shells are mostly found.
Of the following statements about organisms in rocky intertidal zones, which is/are true?
Kelps with air bladders are common along the western and northwestern Pacific coasts of the United States.
Coral reefs contain 25% of all known marine species.
Coral reefs contain more algal biomass than animal biomass.
The Crown of Thorns sea star may be increasingly more common because its predators are fish species belonging to populations that have dramatically decreased due to overfishing.
the distribution of reef-building corals is greater in the tropics.
All of the following are true of corals except :
amount of inorganic nutrients in the water that stimulates excessive algal growth.
Sewage discharge and fertilizer runoff is detrimental to coral growth because it increases the:
mutualistic symbiosis.
The relationship between the protistan zooxanthellae and the polyps of reef-building corals is best described as a/an:
loss of zooxanthellae.
The loss of color (coral bleaching) in coral reef organisms can be a result of:
sea urchin
The organism posing the greatest threat to the kelp forest is the _________.
The symbiotic relationship between the coral animals and the zooxanthellae is an example of _________.
a black smoker releasing water at a temperature near 400 degrees C
As a citizen scientist you have been selected to participate in a once-in-a-lifetime journey to ride along in a deep-sea submersible to explore life in the bathypelagic zone of the ocean. As you descend you anticipate nothing but abyssal plains, but what you see instead is an oasis of life dominated by the tubeworm Riftia! Later you learn that the results of the biological survey reveal that even though this community has 1,000 times more biomass than surrounding deep-sea habitats, the overall diversity is very low. Considering these results, the deep-sea community you visited was __________.
One characteristic of hydrothermal vent communities is the unusually large size of organisms such as tubeworms and clams.
hydrocarbon seep.
These organisms are inhabitants of a/an:
very high temperature.
All of the following are associated with hypersaline seeps except:
Recent studies indicate that the deep biosphere, an environment that exists within the seafloor itself, may account for up to _________ of Earth’s total bacterial biomass.
1.Most coral reefs exist in nutrient-poor waters, so corals have symbiotic algae in their tissues that provide them with food.
2.Reef corals need warm, tropical waters.
3.The biomass of coral reefs is composed mostly of algae.
Of the following statements about coral reefs, which is/are true?
(All but in mid-water depths (below the euphotic zone but above the ocean floor))
1. in areas where high-salinity waters percolate from the sea floor
2. along the mid-ocean ridge associated with black smokers
3. along subduction zones where methane from decomposition of organic material in folded sedimentary rocks trickles from the sea floor
4. at hydrocarbon seeps that emit methane
Of the following environments, which support(s) chemosynthesis?
low tide zone
Pisaster (sea star)
middle tide zone, tide pool
hermit crab
high tide zone, supratidal zone
Littorina (periwinkle snail)
low tide zone
sea anemone
middle tide zone
Mytilus (mussels)
subtidal rocky bottoms
sandy beaches
sand dollar
The temperature of the ocean water has a significant effect on species diversity of benthic communities.
The Earth’s climate system involves the exchange of heat and water among the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere.
A decrease in cloud cover due to a higher moisture content in the atmosphere is an example of a positive-feedback loop.
All the following are parts of Earth’s climate system except the:
negative-feedback loop.
An increase in cloud cover and a corresponding decrease in absorption of solar radiation is an example of a:
(All of them)
1. the presence of fine atmospheric particles called aerosols
2. heat uptake by the oceans
3. the role of clouds at different altitudes
4. the addition of water vapor into the atmosphere
5. the shading effect from air pollution
Of the following, which are examples of climate feedback loops?
1.Trees take up carbon dioxide from the environment and release oxygen.
2.Methane, a greenhouse gas, is released from the digestive system of cattle.
Which of the following are ways in which the climate system is affected by the biosphere?
1.Atmospheric circulation primarily occurs from west to east. These regions are more eastern; therefore, they are impacted by circulation from the west.
2.The continental bodies on which these zones are found are too large for the whole land mass to be affected by the ocean.
Which of the following explains why these climates are nevertheless found along the continental margins of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans?
1.In cold climates, the low temperatures mean there is little evaporation.
2.In these climates, the net precipitation is greater than the evaporation, even though there is little precipitation.
Polar and subarctic climates generally have small precipitation totals. However, these climates are classified as humid rather than dry. Which of the following explains this apparent paradox?
volcanic eruptions
What natural cause of climate change is most similar to the major anthropogenic source?
There is a significant positive correlation between sunspot activity and recent changes in mean global temperature.
Volcanic eruptions have no impact on global climate patterns; they only affect local climate.
The fourth IPCC report on international climate change (2007) confirmed that human activity has produced climate change beginning in the mid-20th century.
All the above are correct.
Variations in Earth’s orbit that influence long-term climate changes include:
A. anthropogenic CO2 inputs
B. changes in solar input
C. tectonic plate movement
D. variation in the Earth’s orbit
E. volcanic activity
Using proxy data, scientists have compiled a detailed record of Earth’s climate over the recent geologic past. This science is called _________.
climate change models can mimic present-day conditions only if human emissions are taken into account
The fourth IPCC Report of 2007 concluded that _________.
(All but the amount of marine life in the oceans)
1.variations in Earth’s orbit
2.volcanic eruptions
3.changes in solar energy
4.the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates
Of the following natural factors, which have caused past climate changes on Earth?
1.Some gases, like carbon dioxide and water vapor, “trap” the heat radiated by Earth, causing warming.
2.When there are more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the greenhouse effect is stronger.
Your roommate, who has not studied climate, says, “I thought the greenhouse effect was a bad thing. Isn’t it what’s causing global warming?” Which of the following statements might you use to help your roommate understand the true nature of the greenhouse effect?
1.”Global warming” means that the average global temperature is increasing. It doesn’t mean that temperatures everywhere are hotter.
2.Weather and climate are different. Cooler weather does not mean the global climate is also cooler.
In a conversation with a friend, he expresses skepticism about global warning. When you inquire about his reasons, he responds by saying that the weather in that area has been the coolest he can remember. Using the information you have learned, what information could you offer to encourage your friend to reevaluate his position?
Greenhouse gases are compounds in the Earth’s atmosphere that dissipate heat.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) has the greatest relative contribution to increasing the greenhouse effect compared to other anthropogenically produced greenhouse gases.
The concentration of methane (natural gas) exhibits the greatest current rate of increase compared to other greenhouse gases.
If all greenhouse gas emissions by humans were reduced to zero, Earth is still projected to keep warming for the foreseeable future.
water vapor.
The atmospheric component that naturally contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth is:
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Which of the following atmospheric constituents has the greatest ability to absorb heat on a per-mole basis?
Since 1750, the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has increased by more than:
methane (CH4)
Domestic cattle production and rice agriculture release relatively large amounts of which gas into the atmosphere?
Over the past 30 years, Earth’s average surface temperature has risen by:
water vapor (H2O)
Of the following atmospheric gases, only _________ is an important greenhouse gas.
1.The circumference of Earth at the equator is 24,900 miles. Based on this, a person at the equator is rotating 1040 miles per hour. (Round to the nearest tens digit.)
2.The tilt of Earth and the latitude of a city affect the degree and amount of direct sunlight that location receives at the winter solstice.
Read the sentences below, and indicate which are accurate for describing the effects of Earth’s rotation and the angle of the Sun.
an increase in oxygen-depleted dead zones
The scientific consensus is that global warming has led to __________.
Sea surface temperatures have remained unchanged during the past 50 years.
The oceans have absorbed the majority of the increased heat in the atmosphere.
Melting ice on land and thermal expansion of water are two of the most important factors causing sea level rise.
SOFAR channel.
The zone ocean where sound can travel extremely long distances is called the:
geological uplifting of ocean basins.
Recent worldwide sea level rise can be attributed to all of the following except the:
All the above are correct.
Hazards associated with sea level rise include all the following except :
A. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet melting
B. deep ocean water thermal expansion
C. melting of terrestrial glaciers and ice caps
D. surface ocean water thermal expansion
E. tectonic uplifting
high-latitude areas
Climate models and observations to date indicate that the oceans will warm the most in _________.
1.an increase in the amount of water in the ocean from the melting of ice on land
2.thermal expansion of ocean water as it warms
What are the main factors that contribute to the documented global rise in sea level?
1.Global warming will likely result in more rainfall.
2.Global warming will likely result in a rise in sea level due to melting glaciers and thermal expansion of warm ocean waters.
3.Global warming will likely result in more prolonged droughts.
4.Global warming will likely result in more intense tropical storms.
Of the following statements about the greenhouse effect and global warming, which is/are true?
absorbing surplus heat energy.
The world’s oceans play a role in reducing global warming by:
reducing the area covered by pavement or structures (houses, garages, pools, decks, etc.) in urban and suburban areas.
Concerned individuals can reduce their personal contribution to greenhouse gas emissions by doing all the following except :
takes carbon from the photic zone and stores it in deep ocean water and seafloor sediments
The oceans’ “biological pump” _________.
1.removing human-caused greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and disposing of them somewhere else.
2.reducing the amount of sunlight reaching Earth.
Global engineering (geoengineering) proposals to reduce Earth’s greenhouse effect include
changes in solar energy
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
process that influences the temperature of Earth’s surface and atmosphere
greenhouse effect
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
study of ancient climates

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