OCE chapter 13

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sand star
an organism that feeds on plants and animals
incidental catch
dolphins and other mammal protection
marine mammal protection act
available biomass of a target species
standing stock
the products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water
compensation depth is the depth in the ocean where the photosynthetic rate exceeds the rate of cellular respiration
an overabundance of oxygen results in eutrophication
the group of marine macroscopic algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the division rhodophyta
marine algae that grow close to the limits of light penetration have accessory photosynthetic pigments that absorb high energy , shot wave-length light in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum
primary productivity is equal to the amount of photosynthesis plus the amount of respiration
the amounts of carbon dioxide and available nutrients affect the rate of primary production in an ecosystem
bacteria that manufacture carbohydrates in the absence of solar energy are autotrophs
primary producers, herbivores and carnivores are all examples of trophic levels within a food chain or web
if the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250000 kilocalories then the expected caloric value for the trophic level consumers at the second level would be 2500 kcal
the distinction between a good chain and a food web is that a good chain describes a linear relationship among trophic levels whereas a food web descries the interconnected relationships among trophic structures in nature
the standing stock of a population is the maximum number of biomass of individuals that can be removed sustainably
primary productivity
in general, the rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter is called
compensation depth for photosynthesis
the depth at which cellular respiration equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the
the most abundant marine macroscopic algae are member of the division
important marine autotrophs that have silica incorporated into their cell walls are
marine seed bearing plants include all the following except
the percentage of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor is approximately
temperate waters, polar waters, tropical waters
the relative productivity in the world’s oceans from the most productive to least productive is
productivity in polar oceans is
all of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity
although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have unusually high primary productivity rates
nutrient flow in an ecosystem is
the efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is on average around
nontropical shelf areas
the area of the ocean that produces the largest standing stock of commercial fish is in the
largest catch that can be taken without overfishing
the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is best defined as
result in overfishing
catches above the maximum sustainable yield
all of the above are correct
all the following are challenges to managing fisheries except
of the follownig nutrients, which are used in photosynthetic primary productivity by phytoplankton
pseido-nitzschia because it causes amnesic shellfis poisoning
mass mortality events of marine mammas and birds may occur after ingesting prey items that contain algal toxins. What organis that can cause harmful algal blooms should humans be concerned about if animals in the area are having seizures and exhibiting erratic “drunken-like behavior”
of the following types of organisms, which are examples of microscopic algae?
1600 years
how many years would it take to accumulate 2000 on the deep sea floor in the open ocean?
equatorial upwelling
coral reefs
coastal upwelling
of the following locations, which are exceptions to the general rule that productivity is steady and low in tropical regions
-in middle-latitude oceans, fall bloom is limited by the lack of sunlight
-in tropical oceans, productivity is limited year-round by the lack of nutrients
-in middle -latitude oceans, the spring bloom is limited by the lack of nutrients
of the following statements about oceanic productivity, which are true?
in middle-latitude waters along a continental margin
of the following locations, where would you expect to find the highest annual oceanic productivity?
-in polar oceans, nutrient concentrations are usually adequate and do Not limit productivity
-in polar oceans, there is incredibly high productvity in the summertime
-in polar oceans, productivity is limited by the lack of sunlight in the winter
of the following statements about oceanic productivity in polar regions which are true?
-suspension feeding is the same thing as filter feeding
-suspension feeding involves filtering plankton from seawater
-carnivorous feeding involved either passive or active predation
-carnivorous feeding involves organisms directly capturing and eating other animals
-deposit feeders include worms that ingest sediment that is coated with organic matter
of the following statements about feeding strategies, which are true?
photosynthetic bacteria
of the following types of organisms which one is considered to be LOWEST in a marine food web?
-fishing practices have removed 90% of large marine predatory fish species
-a recent study indicates that if fishing practices continue, marine fish stocks will be depleted by 2048
-in US waters 80% of commercial marine fish stock are fully exploited or overfished
of the following statement about marine fisheries which are true?
water add carbon dioxide are converted to oxygen as gas and sugar
a fact regarding photosynthesis is that
in dead zones resulting from eutotrophication animal life is absent due to the lack of
3 grams
if primary photosynthetic productivity in a given area of the ocean is 300 about how much organic matter is added to the seafloor sediments per square meter each year
in the ongoing processes of photosynthesis , respiration, and deconomposition in the ocean, all components are recycled except
deposit feeders
amphipods are
most deep-water organisms have lower metabolic rates, therefor, they grow, mature, and reproduce at a slower rate
with the depletion of fish stocks in coastal waters, more fishing is being conducted in deeper waters. Deep-water species are becoming endangered at a rapid rate primarily because

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