Ocean Ch. 7

movement of water from the top to the bottom of the water column
net water movement to the left or right of the direction of the wind
Ekman transport
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water flow driven by gravity and modified by the Coriolis force
Geostrophic current
movement of water from the bottom to the top of the water column
cold current, southern hemisphere, temperate latitudes
Benguela current
cold current, northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes
California current
cold current, northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes
Canary current
northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes, warm current
Gulf Stream
northern hemisphere, temperate latitudes, warm current
Kuroshio current
cold current, polar latitudes, southern hemisphere
West Wind Drift
Surface or wind-driven currents move water primarily in a vertical direction in the ocean.
A Doppler flow meter is a scientific instrument used to measure current flow rates.
Dynamic topography can be used to determine current direction and velocity.
Surface currents affect about 90% of the world’s ocean water.
Surface ocean currents are vertical currents in the water column that are density-driven.
The circular movement of surface water currents driven by the major wind belts are called gyres.
Western boundary currents such as the Gulf Stream transport warm water from the tropics towards higher latitudes.
An eastern boundary current is generally narrow and swift.
In the northern hemisphere, Ekman transport pushes surface water to the right of the wind direction.
The five subtropical gyres exhibit geostrophic flow, related to pressure gradients, friction, and the Coriolis effect.
Downwelling may be the result of winds blowing parallel to a coastline or the convergence of surface currents.
The main current in Antarctic waters is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, also called the West Wind Drift.
The West Wind Drift occurs at 60 degrees North around the Arctic Circle.
The Gulf Stream moves water away from the equator; the Benguela Current moves some of this same water back toward the equator.
Monsoons are seasonal pressure systems that develop at lower latitudes over continents, which cause changes in seasonal winds and precipitation patterns.
Thermohaline circulation is wind-driven.
Deep ocean currents often move cold, dense water away from the poles.
During its time in the deep ocean, deep water can become enriched in oxygen.
Deep ocean water does not travel across the equator.
Deep ocean water masses have characteristics temperatures and salinities.
The densest ocean water is North Atlantic Deep Water.
density differences; differences in salinity and temperature
Deep ocean currents are driven primarily by (blank) and modified by (blank).
wind; the Coriolis effect and land
Surface ocean currents are driven by (blank) and modified by (blank).
surface currents form circular patterns in the major ocean basins called “gyres”
Which of the following statements is true of surface ocean currents?
trade winds
Equatorial currents are driven by the:
Labrador Current, Humboldt Current
Identify the mismatched par from the choices below.
All of the above statements are true of western boundary currents
Compared to an eastern boundary current in a gyre, which of the following statements is true for a western boundary current?
Brazil Current
Which of the following is a western boundary current?
broad and slow
Compared to western boundary currents, eastern boundary currents are:
Gulf Stream
Which of the is not an eastern boundary current?
the wind and the Coriolis effect
The Ekman spiral is caused by:
geostrophic circulation
Which type of current flow moves in a circular path around a subtropical convergence, reflecting Ekman transport, gravity, and the Coriolis effect?
to the left of the wind direction
In the southern hemisphere, the direction of Ekman transport is always:
gravity and the Coriolis effect
Geostrophic circulation within a gyre driven by:
All of the above statements are the result of westward intensification
Western intensification causes:
Surface waters are pushed away from land and replaced by nutrient-rich bottom water through:
where deep ocean water currents are formed
Strong upwelling occurs in al of the following except:
two circumpolar currents dominate it, one current that moves water to the east and one current that moves water to the west
Which of the following is true of surface water circulation near Antarctica?
the Antarctic Circumpolar Current contributes to the development of Antarctic bottom water in the Weddell Sea
All are true of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current expect:
cold-core ring
When a meander from the Gulf Stream pinches off and isolates a body of water within the North Atlantic gyre, the body of water is called a:
flow from land to sea and are dry
During winter months, monsoons winds over the Indian Ocean:
the relationship between sea surface temperature and changing atmospheric pressure
The El Nino Southern Oscillation can best be described as:
drought in the U.S. Gulf coastal states
The worldwide effects of El Nino include all of the following except:
density differences
Thermohaline circulation is driven by:
lower in oxygen
Compared to Antarctic Bottom Water, North Atlantic Deep Water is:
Atlantic Intermediate Water, North Atlantic Deep Water, Antarctic Bottom Water
The arrangement of water masses in the southern Atlantic Ocean from the surface to the bottom is:
subtropical convergences
Sources of deep water in the ocean include all of the following except:
greater dissolution of oxygen in colder water than warmer water
Deep-water circulation brings dense, cold, oxygen-rich water from the surface to the deep ocean because of:
Gulf of Alaska
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
-Gulf of Alaska
-N. Atlantic
-S. Atlantic
-S. Pacific
Aghulas Current
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
– Agulhas Current
– Benguela Current
– California Current
– Canary Current
– West Australian Current
Peru Current
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
– Gulf Stream
– Kuroshio Current
– North Equatorial Current
– Peru Current
– Somali Current
California Current
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
– California Current
– Canary Current
– Gulf Stream
– North Atlantic Current
– North Equatorial Current
Strong trade winds
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
– Australian drought
– decreased fish stock in coastal Peru
– flooding rains in southeastern U.S.
– Peruvian upwelling stops
– strong trade winds
Kuroshio Current
Choose the one that does not fit the pattern:
– thermohaline circulation
– density-driven circulation
– Antarctic Bottom Water
– Kuroshio Current
– North Atlantic Deep Water
– Western boundary currents carry warm water from the equator northward along the western side of an ocean basin.
– Eastern boundary currents carry cool water from the poles southward along the eastern side of an ocean basin.
– Western boundary currents are fast and relatively deep and narrow in contrast to eastern boundary currents which are slow, shallow, and broad by comparison
Compare and contrast western boundary currents and eastern boundary currents.

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