highest part of wave above average water level
the valley between wave crests below average water level
is the horizontal distance between two successive crests
the time it takes for a wave to move a distance of one wavelength
is the number of waves passing a fixed point per second
form as wind friction stretches the water surface and as surface tension tries to restore it to smoothness
Capillary wave, wind wave, seiche, seismic sea waves (tsunami)
Size of waves
the dominant force that returns the water surface to flatness after a wave has formed in it (gravity or surface tension)
waves moving through water deeper than half their wavelength
that in deep water waves the velocity is set by the wave length — longer wave length, faster
depth of water is length of wave/ 2
Deep Water waves
waves in water shallower than 1/20 their original wavelength
that in shallow water waves the velocity is set by the ocean depth
Shallow water waves
deeper than 1/20 but shallower than half
gravity waves formed by the transfer of wind energy into water
waves moving forward
a ratio of height vs length 1:7= wave is 7 metres long 1 is the height
progressing groups of swell with the same origin and wavelength
the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of a specific strength, duration, and fetch
fully developed sea
clearly important to wind wave development
the length of time the wind blows
uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without significant change in direction
waves whether big or small will add and subtract from each other
cancellation effect of subtraction, because wave interference destroys or cancels waves
the additive formation of large crests or deep troughs
much larger than any waves noticed before or after
denser bits of water that lay underneath sea water
the abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by a tropical cyclone or frontal storm
water in standing areas like lakes rock left and right
rocking of water back and forth
tsunami’s Long wavelength shallow water progressive waves caused by teh rapid displacement of ocean water
seismic sea waves
The speed of ocean waves usually depends on their wavelength, with long waves moving fastest. Arranged from short to long wavelengths (and therefore from slowest to fastest), ocean waves are generated by very small disturbances (capillary waves), wind (wind waves),and volcanic activity or other sudden displacements (tsunami), and gravitational attraction (tides)
. The behavior of waves depends largely on the relation between a wave’s size and the depth of water through which it is moving. Waves can refract and reflect, break, and interfere with one another.
Wind waves can be deep-water waves if the water is more than half their wavelength deep. The waves of very long wavelengths are always in “shallow water” (water less than half their wavelength deep). These long waves travel at high speeds, and some may have great destructive power.
the familiar smooth undulation of the ocean surface
the middle of an water basin where the water circles around the point counterclockwise
tides caused by inertia and gravitational force of the sun and moon
the bulges are the crests of the planet sized waves
correspond to the troughs the area between bulges
24hr 50 min when the moon is highest in sky to when it is the next day
storms can affect tide height, whether affects tides
successive high tides and low tides are of significantly different heights throughout the cycle (LA)
mixed tide (or semidiurnal mixed tide)
two high tides a day and two low tides
aka tidal wave: a steep wave moving upstream generated by the action of the tide crest in the enclosed area of a river mouth
high water to low water height difference varies in basin configuration
periodic short term changes in the height of the ocean surface at a particular place.
They are caused by a combination of the gravitational force of the moon and the sun, the motion of Earth, and the tendency of water in enclosed ocean basins to rock at a specific frequency
no longer being acted on by the force that created them, no maintaining force
when the sun moon and earth align the highest and lowest tides
when the moon earth and sun create a right triangle, high tide isnt to high and low tide isnt to low
a steep wave moving upstream generated by the action of the tide crest in the enclosed area of a river mouth
Tides have the longest wavelengths of the ocean’s waves. They are caused by a combination of the gravitational force of the moon and the sun, the motion of Earth, and the tendency of water in enclosed ocean basins to rock at a specific frequency. Unlike the other waves, these huge shallow-water waves are never free of the forces that cause them and so act in unusual but generally predictable ways.
water in between tides. calm water
they make their own food
conversion of simple carbon molecules into carbon hydrate using the oxidation of inorganic molecules as a source of energy
there is little light but not enough to have photosynthesis
three types bateria archaea eukarya
the capacity to do work
upper most part of the photic zone where the most biological productivity occurs
they are capable of life under extreme conditions,
under high pressure and temperature. Bacteria often form on the rocks near the hydrothermal vents.
is a group of organisms linked by complex feeding relations in which the flow of energy can be followed from primary producers through consumers
organisms such as animals that must consume food from other organisms
grouping of objects by degrees of complexity grade or class
categories of life, animal vegetable and mineral
a physical or biological necessity whose presence in inappropriate amounts limits the normal action of the organism
A variety of physical factors affects the density, variety, and success of the life forms in each marine habitat. These factors include water’s transparency, temperature, dissolved nutrients, salinity, dissolved gases, hydrostatic pressure, acid-base balance, and others.
first person to classify groups of organisms into natural categories or kingdoms
Linnaeus, Carolus Carl von Linné (1707- 1778)
the rate at which energy releasing reaction proceed within an organism increasing with temp
for living organism that biologists use to day relies on the evolutionary history and developmental characteristics of organims
natural system of classification
where the light is present
light energy is used to synthesize molecules rich in stored energy
animals that eat primary producers
genus and species
the study of biological classification
top of food chain
organisms on a pyramid listing who eats who
Phytoplankton and seaweed
synthesis of organic materials from inorganic substances by photosynthesis of chemosythesis
a compound required for the production of organic matter
the most specific form of classification
at least 50 million different species (kinds) of living things on Earth
food for many birds squids fishes and whales. keystone for the antarctic ecosystem
first zone the shallow beach
plankton larger than about 1 centimeter across
category of animals that include clams and snails
pelagic organisms that actively swim
near shore over the continental shelf
deep water zone beyond the continental shelf
27000 bony fish species hard strong lightweight skeleton that supports them
organisms that live suspended in water
Plankton: drift or swim weakly, going were the ocean goes, unable to move consistently against waves (Giant Jellyfish to small arrow worm)
Nekton: actively swim
two different sections: Netritic zone: over continental shelf
Oceanic zone: open water
contribute to food webs and they generate large amounts of atmospheric oxygen
autotrophic plankton, photosynthesis
drift or swim weakly going where the ocean goes cant go against waves or tides
special glands on turtles sea snakes and reptiles who breathe air with lungs, are covered in scales and a relatively impermeable skin, equipped with special salt glands to concentrate and excrete excess sats from body fluids
fish schools teach fish how to act, defense
most numerous primary consumer in ocean
10% of the size as phytoplankton
planktonic organisms that eat the primary producers
Benthic zones are the ground
The distance measured from trough to trough of a wave is:
The period of wind waves is usually expressed in:
the waves are sorted by velocity and form the swell
As wind waves move out of a storm area:
the short waves move out first and form “chop.”
the short-period waves overtake the long-period waves.
the waves are sorted by velocity and form the swell.
the sea becomes flat outside the storm area
Near shore, if the wave crests are 200 feet apart, the wave will “feel” bottom when the depth is about
Waves tend to be parallel to the shore when they break due to the process of:
The uninterrupted distance over which the wind blows without change in direction is the:
A ___________ is a gravity wave formed by the transfer of wind energy over the water.
A standing wave causes major progressive wave forward movement and results in a large amount of energy that is being transferred.
An abrupt bulge of water driven on shore by a tropical cyclone is known as a(n) .
Wind waves travel in groups called:
Waves are created by disturbing forces and and flattened by forces.
Spring tides occur
at the first-quarter moon
at the third-quarter moon
at full moon
by two high tides and two low tides of nearly equal level each lunar day.
A semidiurnal tide is characterized by
one high and one low tide per day.
by two high tides and two low tides of nearly equal level each lunar day.
a high tide followed by low tide of significant difference of heights throughout the circle
hurricane forced winds
A steep wave moving upstream generated by the action of the tide crest in the enclosed area of a river mouth is called a:
the gravitational attraction of the moon and the sun
The primary force(s) that cause(s) tides in the sea is (are):
the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun.
the gravitational attraction of Mars and Jupiter.
wind and storms at sea.
coastal earthquakes and landslides.
high tide also
The side of the Earth facing the moon will experience a high tide, while the opposite side of the Earth will have a:
time of no tidal action.
high tide also.
tide cannot be predicted.
The type of tide associated with the full and new moons are:
Tides are free waves.
The wavelength of a tsunami generated by a seismic event can by up to 200 km. How deep has the ocean to be for this wave to be a deep water wave?
At least 200 km deep
At least 100 km deep
At least 50 km deep
At least 11 km deep (the depth of the Mariana Tren
Tides are the shortest of all waves
A tide is characterized by occurring twice in one lunar day with two high tides and two low tides
A tide is characterized by occurring once each lunar day with one high tide and one low tide
A tide is a tidal pattern of significantly different heights throughout the day.
A tide is a tide influenced by the weather.
A(n) tide is a tide caused by inertia and the gravitational forces of the sun and moon combined.
Which of the following is a true tidal wave?
A good “working definition” for life might be: “A highly organized system that can capture, store and transmit ________.”
The organisms that are capable of converting carbon dioxide into glucose are called:
the carbon hydrogen bond of crbohydrates
In photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight ultimately rests in:
carbon dioxide molecules.
the carbon-hydrogen bonds of carbohydrates.
the oxygen-hydrogen bonds of water molecules.
The organisms that cannot produce their own food are called:
The zone of lighted ocean where marine autotrophs are able to thrive is called:
the disphotic zone.
the euphotic zone.
the aphotic zone.
the mesopelagic zone.
Natural selection is the differential survivorship and reproduction of organisms that have favorable adaptations.
Which of the following statements best characterizes natural selection?
Most marine organisms have an internal temperature very close to that of their surroundings. They are known as ______ organisms.
The requirements for photosynthesis include all of these EXCEPT:
Each of the following is a domain EXCEPT:
Photosynthetic organisms live in the ____________of the ocean.
An example of a primary producer is:
The zone where most biological productivity of the ocean occurs is called:
A form of autotrophy other than photosynthesis is:
The area in the ocean without light is called the:
Which of the following functions to maintain a balanced pH in the ocean?
The aphotic zone is the upper layer of the ocean where there is enough light for photosynthesis and vision.
Life is characterized into two domains: one for all the prokaryotic organisms and one for all the eukaryotic organisms.
An example of a zooplankton that is very important to many pelagic communities is:
Which of the following statements is FALSE concering the baleen whales?
A. They are marine mammals and hence are air breathers.
B. Some species of baleen whales migrate long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds.
C. The baleen whales are the smallest of the true whales because they only feed on plankton.
D. Some species of baleen whales use complex songs to group communicate.
the temperate zones
Where, through a year, is the greatest total oceanic primary productivity?
in the tropics.
in the temperate zones.
in the polar regions.
productivity is about equal at all latitudes.
Only part of this organism’s life cycle is spent as a member of the plankton community:
Single-celled plant-like organisms are called:
Organisms such as diatoms or copepods that spend their entire life cycle as plankton are called:
Animals that generate and regulate metabolic heat and maintain an internal body temperature generally higher than that of their surroundings are called:
Which of the following groups include manatees and sea cows?
An area that has high nutrient levels and very high seasonal primary productivity are the:
tropical coastal regions.
tropical open ocean.
The active swimmers of the pelagic realm are called the zooplankton.
Coccolithophores are zooplankton that form oozes on the seabed.
The distribution of phytoplankton in the ocean is directly influende by the distribution of nutrients.
Sharks have skeletons made of cartilage, not bone.
The zone of open water away from shore, past the continental shelf is the zone.
Longest wingspan on any flying bird is on the :
females raising their young
Typical polar bear behavior includes:
Living in large groups.
The males teaching their cubs survival skills.
The females raising the cubs.
Mating for life.
The organisms that drift in the ocean are known collectively as plankton. The plant-like organisms that comprise phytoplankton are responsible for most of the ocean’s primary productivity. Phytoplankton — and zooplankton, the small drifting or weakly-swimming animals that consume them — are usually the first links in oceanic food webs. Plankton are most common along the coasts, in the upper sunlit layers of the temperate zone, in areas of equatorial upwelling, and in the southern subpolar ocean. Marine scientists have been inspired by the beauty and variety of plankton since first observing them under the microscope in the nineteenth century.
1. Continental Shelf
2. Bathyal zone
3. Abyssal zone
4. Hadal zone
5. deep sea trenches
Seafloor is called what
Plus the sections from shore to deep ocean
live on bottom of ocean floor
too small to be resolved by light microscopes and slip undetected through filters
account for 80% of of all photosynthtic activity is parts of the ocean
the most productive photosynthesis organism in the plankton.
some planktonic animals are juvinile stages of crabs, clams and sea stars