Oceanography Ch. 13

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another term for incidental catch
standing stock
what is the available biomass of a targeted fish species called
marine mammal act of what year protected dolphins
maximum sustainable yield
what is the maximum catch without reducing the population of a targeted species
sugar and oxygen
name two products of photosynthesis
rhodophyta (red algae)
group of algae with the greatest abundance and the greatest distribution belong to what division
what division do diatoms belong to
temperate waters
which marine waters have the highest rate of productivity in the world
nitrates and phosphates
which two nutrients found in the water have an impact on primary productivity in the ecosystem
compensation depth for photosynthesis
this is the depth at which ocean photosynthetic rays equal cellular respiration
what might increase primary productivity in tropical waters
polar regions are only limited by the amount of what…
this division of organisms is responsible for red tides
harmful algal blooms
what does HaB stand for
productivity in the tropical oceans are limited by what
1,000 kilocalories
if there were 100,000 kilocalories of energy at the primary producer level how much would be left as a second ordered consumer
what is the efficiency of trophic transfer in ecosystems on average
this is a type of pollution caused by an increase in inorganic nutrients
these organisms are autotrophs that have a silicon dioxide (like glass) cell wall
tropical, polar, temporate
level of least productive to most productive of oceans
what is an organism that makes their own carbohydrates from chemical compounds and not directly from the sun
the rate at which energy is stored by organisms through the formation of organic matter using energy from photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Primary Productivity
the process by which solar radiation is changed into energy; 99% of the ocean’s biomass relies directly/indirectly on the organic matter supplied by photosynthesis; occurs when plant cells capture light energy and store it as sugars, and this is reversible using respiration
Water + Carbon Dioxide +Light Energy=Sugar + Oxygen
the process by which chemicals such as sulfur are changed into energy; supports hydrothermal vent bio-communities
can be done using plankton nets, specially designed bottles, monitoring ocean color
Measuring Primary Productivity
photosynthetic organisms which use chlorophyll to capture energy from the sun; the ocean is strongly affected by the presence of chlorophyll so by monitoring ocean coloration scientists can determine the phytoplankton abundance
availability of nutrients, and the availability of solar radiation, and possibly carbon dioxide in rare cases
Primary Productivity Limiting Factors
Continents are main sources of these nutrients so most marine life surrounds continental margins; two of the most important nutrients are nitrates and phosphates
Availability of Nutrients
ratio of carbon to nitrogen to phosphorous as 106:16:1 found in the tissues of algae and zooplankton that feed on diatoms
Redfield Ratio
the depth at which net photosynthesis becomes zero; the euphotic zone extends to 330 feet in open ocean, and 66 feet in the coastal zones because of the prevalence of turbidity
Compensation Depth for Photosynthesis
this is the range where most solar energy falls and affects three regions: major wind belts of the world, thin layer of surface warm water, and photosynthetic regions
Visible Light
the compilation of the wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Red is absorbed by 33 feet, yellow by 330 feet, no sunlight exists below a depth of 3300 feet
Colors of the Ocean
used to measure water transparency and from that the depth of light penetration; turbidity is one of the main limiting factors absorbing light
Secchi Disk
the amount of turbidity from runoff, the amount of photosynthetic pigment from biological production
Ocean Color Influences
areas of low chlorophyll concentration which are found in the open oceans of the tropics
shallow water causing increased seasonal variation, water column that varies in thickness due to tides, breaking waves release large amounts of energy
Characteristics of Coastal Waters
cold water supports better biomass because it contains higher amounts of nutrients
Temperature and Nutrients
flow of deep water towards the surface that brings water from depths below the euphotic zone; rich in nutrients and gases because there is no plankton to consume it
Ekman Transport moves surface water to move away from the continents constantly replacing it with water from depths of 200-1000 meters
Coastal Upwelling
Seed-bearing plants; exist in shallow coastal waters; consists of mangroves, eelgrass, and surf grass
seaweeds; shallow waters along coastal margins; broken up by color type
Macroscopic Algae
Phaeophyta; largest attached marine algae; temperate and cold-water areas
Brown Algae
Chlorophyta; common in freshwater not ocean; intertidal or shallow bays; sea lettuce, sponge weed
Green Algae
Rhodophyta; most abundant large algae; 4000 species; warm/cold waters warm are rare; color depends on depth
Red Algae
source of food for most marine animals; mostly phytoplankton-photosynthetic organisms that live in upper surface water and drift with the current
Microscopic Algae
Chrysophyta; contain yellow carotin; consist of diatoms and coccilithophores
Golden Algae
contained in a shell called a test which collect to form diatomaceous earth and used in filtering devices
covered in coccolliths formed from calcium carbonate; very small but contribute to calcareous deposits in warmer oceans
Pyrrophyta; posses flagella to move into regions of better photosynthetic opportunities; in large amounts they form red tide which leads to harmful algal bloom HAB which has an overabundance of algae detrimental to all species; linked to seafood poisoning such as ciguatera causing intestinal distress; paralytic shellfish syndrome PSP, death by domoic acid is amnesiac shellfish poisoning
Very important even with small size and can be responsible for half of the primary production of food
Photosynthetic Bacteria
weight of carbon (grams)/per unit of area (square meter)/ per unit of time (year) gC/M2/yr ranges from 1 to 4000 grams; result of uneven nutrient distribution and solar availability
Primary Productivity Units
the process of removing material from the euphotic zone to the sea floor; called this because it pumps carbon dioxide and nutrients from the upper oceans and concentrates them in the deep sea
Biological Pump
very little temperature and density chance in polar regions
low because of a strong thermocline which prevents solar radiation from upper water and nutrients from deep water mixing; exceptions to this: equatorial upwelling which leads to Ekman transport breaking thermocline, coastal upwelling, coral reefs which retain and recycle the little amounts of nutrients
Productivity in Tropical Ocean
Winter= low productivity little sunlight; spring= lots of blooms because thermocline traps nutrients high up; summer= low lack of nutrients; fall=fall blooms which is shorter than spring
Temperate Zones
assemblage of organisms that live together within a definable area
Biotic Community
include the biotic community plus the environment with it
Unidirectional flow based on the input of solar energy
Energy Flow in Marine Ecosystems
use photo and chemosynthesis and are autotrophic
eat other organisms and are either herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, or bacteriovores
bacteria which breaks down detritus- dead remains of organisms
biogeochemical cycles which means the nutrients do no dissipate but are cycled from one chemical form to another and it goes: photosynthesis, consumers, decomposes, upwelling, then start over
Flow of Nutrients in Marine Ecosystems
also called filter feeding and the organisms use structures to filter plankton from seawater
Suspension Feeding
eating detritus such as decaying organic and waste products
Deposit Feeding
organisms directly capture and eat other organisms; can be passive-waiting for prey such as sea anemone, or active- such as shark
Carnivorous Feeding
Each level from autotroph to heterotroph
Trophic Levels
average level between algal species is 2%
Transfer Efficiency
the ratio of energy passed on to the next higher trophic level divided by the energy received from the trophic level below; most efficiencies run at about 10% but range from 6 to 15%
Gross Ecological Efficiency
a sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, starting with producer and ending with top carnivore
Food Chain
animal has a variety of foods to eat so not dependent on one food source
Food Webs
the number of individuals and total biomass decrease at successive trophic levels because the energy decreases
Biomass Pyramid
fisheries draw from five areas: nontropical shelves, tropical shelves, upwellings, coastal and coral systems, and open ocean
Marine Ecosystems/Fisheries
the mass present in an ecosystem at a given time
Standing Stock
when harvesting of fish takes place so rapidly that the majority of the population is sexually immature and unable to reproduce
the maximun fishery biomass that can be removed yearly and still be maintained by the fishery ecosystem
Maximum Sustainable Yield
bycatch; any marine organisms that are caught incidentally by fishes seeking commercial species
Incidental Catch
further protects dolphins, however it was not able to completely eradicate the problem
1992 Addendum Marine Mammals Protection Act
monofilament fishing line construction which was able to be fixed to capture illegal fish but the International Convention of Pacific Long Driftnet Fishing in 1989 prohibited this practice
Driftnets/gill nets
the organized effort directed at regulating fishing activity with the goal of maintaining a long-term fishery; assesses ecosystems, fish stocks, fishing practices, and catch limits; historically more concerned with human employment then saving the fish
Fisheries Management
the artificial enrichment of water by a previously scarce nutrient
Ocean Eutrophication
oxygen-poor water that often occurs near the mouth of major rivers after large spring runoffs
Dead Zones
an instrument that conducts ocean color measurements using a radiometer
cyanobacteria, kelp, Sargassum
flounder, starfish
incidental catch
farming of commercial shellfish and finfish
dolphin protection
Marine Mammals Act of 1992
catch without reducing the population of target species
maximum sustainable yield
available biomass of target species
standing stock
The by-products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).
Bacteria that manufacture carbohydrates from inorganic carbon in the absence of solar energy are autotrophs.
Net primary production can be estimated as the amount of photosynthesis plus the amount of respiration.
The group of marine macro algae with the highest abundance and greatest geographic distribution belong to the Division Rhodophyta.
Diatoms are classified as members of the Division Chlorophyta.
Marine algae that grow close to the limits of light penetration have accessory photosynthetic pigments that absorb high energy, short-wavelength light in the blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Eutrophication results in an overabundance of organic matter.
Tropical marine waters have the highest rate of primary productivity in the world’s oceans.
Energy flow is unidirectional in contrast to nutrients, which cycle in ecosystems.
If the total caloric content of the autotrophic organisms in a marine ecosystem were 250,000 KCAL, then the expected caloric value for the second-level consumers would be 25,000 KCAL.
Consumers, producers, and decomposers are all examples of categories of organisms within an ecosystem.
there is a net gain in organic carbon
In primary production:
Chemosynthetic bacteria
Bacteria that make their own carbohydrates by obtaining energy from chemical compounds and not directly from the sun are:
A and B are correct.
Net primary productivity is:
B and C are correct.
The nutrients that tend to limit photosynthesis in marine environments include:
compensation depth for photosynthesis.
The depth at which the cellular respiration rate equals the photosynthetic rate is referred to as the:
The most abundant marine macro algae are members of the Division:
Diatoms, important producers in the epipelagic open ocean, are members of the Division:
The organism that is responsible for red tides and paralytic shellfish poisoning belongs to the Division:
Important marine autotrophs that have SiO2 incorporated in the cell walls are:
Marine flowering plants include all of the following except:
Overproduction of organic matter resulting in anoxic conditions is attributed to:
may produce toxins that affect human neurological functioning.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs):
inorganic nutrient input.
Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by increased:
polar waters, temperate waters, tropical waters
The relative productivity in the world’s oceans from most productive to least productive is:
nutrient concentrations are high, solar input is low, and water temperatures decrease
In temperate oceans during the winter months:
nutrient concentrations are low, solar input is high, and oxygen solubility decreases.
In temperate oceans during the summer months:
All of the above tropical areas have relatively high primary productivity.
Although primary productivity in tropical areas is generally low, which of the following tropical locations have relatively high primary productivity rates?
oligotrophic area.
An area of the open ocean where the rate of primary productivity is very low is referred to as a(n):
Productivity in polar oceans is:
Productivity in tropical oceans is:
If 10,000 KCAL of energy were contained in the primary producers, on average how many KCAL of energy would you expect to be transferred to third-order consumers
Nutrient flow in an ecosystem is:
Energy flow in an ecosystem is:
The efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems is on average around:
whale-barnacle: mutualism
Which of the following pairs is an incorrect match between organisms and the type of symbiotic relationship they manifest?
The percentage of biomass regularly recycled in the euphotic zone is about:
The percentage of euphotic zone biomass that reaches the deep ocean floor is approximately:
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected is:
The relationship between cyanobacteria and fungi that results in a lichen is an example of:
largest catch that can be taken without overfishing.
The maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is best defined as:
continental shelves.
The area of the ocean that produces the largest standing stock of commercial fish is in the:
non-target species that are caught along with commercial species.
The term bycatch refers to:
Limiting the size of the boat.
All the following are effective means of regulating fisheries except:
result in overfishing.
Catches above the maximum sustainable yield
surround and trap fishes.
Purse seines are nets that:
standing stock.
The mass present at a given time of a population of fish is called its:

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