Oceanography Final

A good “working definition” for life might be : “A highly organized system that can capture, transform, store, and transmit ______
all life shares certain basic underlying mechanisms within each individual
By using the word “commonality” to describe one of the basic attributes of life, we mean:
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3.5 -4 billion years ago
Most biologists and geologists now think life began on earth about:
the life that first formed on earth was in the forms of complex cells and multicellular organizms such as we see around us today
tender loving care
in order to survive, every organism must have a continuous external source of:
free atmospheric oxygen
which of these factors was not present in large quantities on earth’s surface at the time of the origin of life here?
the Gaia hypothesis, suggested in 1979 by James Lovelock, suggests that life influences the physical environment of earth, possibly by intentional control
carbonate rocks
carbon dioxide
shells and oooze
dissolved organic carbon DOC
which of the following is never part of the carbon cycle?
binding an atom into a larger molecule
“fixation” means
relatively rare- perhaps 6 great extinctions have occured since the origin of life on earth- roughly every 250 million years or so
mass extinctions are
the euphotic zone
the zone of lighted ocean in which marine autotrophs tap more energy (surplus) than they use to stay alive is called:
70 meters (230 ft)
though it is difficult to generalize for the ocean as a whole, the bottom of the euphotic zone is typically ____ meters in mid latitudes
nitrates and phosphates
the two main inorganic nutrients necessary for the success of marine autotrophs are:
an organisms metabolic rate approximately doubles with a temperature increase of 20 C
poikilothermic (multi-blooded)
most marine organisms have an internal temperature very close to that of their surroundings. They are known as ______ organisms
all other factors being equal, a greater quantity of dissolved gas can be held in solution in warm seawater than in cold seawater
acidic, its PH is lower
when carbon diolxide dissolves in water, the water becomes slightly more
limiting factor
a physical or biological necessity whose presence in inappropriate amounts limits the normal action of an organism is called a
a marine animal placed in fresh water would be ____ in its environment
diffusion of water through a biological membrane is called:
active transport
the movement of a substance through a biological membrane from a region of low concentration to a region of higher concentration is called
the open ocean realm, away from land
the open ocean environment (up in the water column), in general
refers to the bottom, in general
the open ocean environment, over the continental shelves
natural selection
a population of fish in an enclosed lagoon was threatened with overpopulation was a stressed food supply until a number of predators discovered the population. after a tie, there were fewer fish, but the average swimming speed of the population of fish had increased. this is a good illustration of:
number of living offspring
“success” in biology means:
environmental requirements
geographic distribution
seasonal or physiological aspects of sexual reproduction
sexual structures
isolation of varieties resulting in the formation of a new species can involve differences in:
mutation and or variation
selection “for” a trait
successful reproduction
speciation (origination of new species) nearly always requires some form of:
reproductive isolation from other species
the classical definition of species depends ultimately on:
evolution is the maintenance of life under changing conditions
which of the following best states the evolutionary theory?
Carolus Linnaeus
the inventor of the system of biological nomenclature we use today was:
evolutionary relationships
a natural system of classification for living organisms relies on an analysis of
reproductive isolation
a single species is segregated from all other kinds of living things by
universally applicable to the species in question
usually descriptive in an unchanging language
monitored to prevent duplication
scientific names are
will eventually die
when a phytoplankter remains below its compensation depth, it:
the question is meaningless
the compensation depth for zooplankton is ________ that for phytoplankton
seaweeds are a great interest to marine biologists, but have no commercial value
flexible outer covering
propelled by twin whip like projections
two values, or shells, of glass like substance
HABs or “red tides” are usually caused by these
these sometimes use a small droplet of oil for flotation
the more primitive of the two (evolved first)
some species are brightly bioluminescent
cut through by tiny pores that permit contact of membranes with seawater
of the two plant like organisms listed, this one has the deeper average compensation depth
the more efficient photosynthesizer of the two plants listed
smallest drifting organisms
part of the organisms life cycle is spent as a member of the plankton community
plant like organisms
drifting with the currents
plankton is a phylogenetic category
red algae, the rhodophyta
the group of marine algae best adapted to deep water is:
brown algae, the phaeophyta
kelp, or common seaweed, is in this group:
marine algae are non-vascular plants
the biomass (living bulk) of seaweeds in the ocean is greater than the biomass of phytoplankton
what is produced in primary productivity?
in teh temperate zones
where, through a year, is the greatest total oceanic primary productivity?
between 5 and 10 meters (17 and 33 ft)
the depth at which phytoplankton productivity is often greatest when averaged for a whole day is:
typical plankton productivity in the temperate zone is about _____ gC/m2/yr
all large (ie easily visible to the unaided eye) marine plants are marine algae
bacteria and viruses
ultraplankton consist mainly of
chlorophyll concentration
primary productivity can be measured from satellites by sensors that detect
the same as
primary productivity occuring on land is now thought to be about ______ primary productivity in the ocean
primary producers
the organisms that produce food are called:
in photosynthesis, the energy of sunlight ultimately rests in
roughly ______ of energy consumed by any consumer is stored in the eater as flesh
the organisms that consume autotrophs are called:
animals are incapable of synthesizing their own food
the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere increased significantly
during the “oxygen revolution”
phylum echinodermata
a phylum whose members are radially symmetrical, based on teh number 5, and have tube feet at some time in their development
phylum arthropoda
the most successful phylum on earth, if success means the number of individuals and number of species is
an exoskeleton of protein
which if these is not characteristic of members of the phylum arthropoda?
the fishes
which of the vertebrate groups is considered the most ancient?
the sharks, skates, and rays are members of this group:
bony fish (like tuna or anchovies) are members of this group:
a marine fish must ______ seawater, and ______ salt from special glands in the gills
in opposite directions….increases
in the gill of a fish, water and blood circulate ______, which ________transfer efficiency
their skin is too permeable to water
there are no true marine amphibians, mainly because
their heads retract into their shells
all of these statements about marine turtles are true except:
all sea snakes are venomous
long, thin, and pointed
the wings of the most “severely oceanic” birds (that is, birds spending nearly all of their life span aloft over the ocean) tend to be
using salt glands to extract salt from their blood
marine birds eliminate salts by
animals that generate and regulate metabolic heat and maintain an internal body temperature generally higher than that of their surroundings are called:
marine mammals began to evolve distinctly from land mammals about ____ million years ago
marine mammals
manatees, sea cows
seals, sea lions, walruses
teeth in powerful jaws
which of these characteristics is not applicable to all cetacea?
whales of suborder mysticeti
these whales are also known as baleen or whalebone whales:
most sharks are dangerous to humans
toothed whales, primarily
sonar is used by
the blue whale
the largest whale is:
members of the odontocete group
catch prey with their teeth
may stun their prey with very loud sounds
appear to be quite intelligent
which of these statements describes the smallest whales?
sun angle and the position of distant stars
polarized light
earth’s magnetic field
sea birds navigate by using
which group of marine mammals was named because of its fanciful resemblance to mermaids?
a group of organisms of the same species occupying a specific area is called
the many populations of organisms that interact with one another at a particular location form a ______________
an organisms “address” within a community is its _________, while an organisms___________is its “occupation” within that habitat
a stenohaline organism would probably be able to withstand a broad range of salinities
organisms newly introduced into a favorable environment with no competitors for food or space will, for a time, reproduce in a ____________curve
environmental resistance
referring to #5 above, the rate of growth described by this curve is rarely maintained for long because of
even distribution
the rarest pattern for organism distribution is:
a climax community
a stable, long-established community is known as:
rich in live, with considerable species diversity
generally speaking, the intertidal area is:
hiding when wave comes
gluing themselves to the rocks
sliding into a small crack as the waves crashes around them
running away
intertidal organisms can protect themselves from wave shock by:
intertidal coarse black sand beaches
perhaps the most difficult oceanic habitat is:
very few autotrophs live in estuaries, but many animals can be found there
which of these statements is not true of estuaries?
abundant and accessible, and there are many animals to take advantage of it
food in the intertidal zone is:
salt marshes associated with estuaries
which of these areas is generally considered to be the most productive and to be inhabited by the largest number of species?
the zones farthest from dry land
intertidal zones are an often obvious feature of the shore. which zones would experience the greatest numbers of individuals and species?
a mixture of fresh and saltwater
brackish water is:
a relatively dense aggregation of fishes, squid, and other animals that migrate up and down in the ocean in synchrony with daylight
the “deep scattering layer” is:
more living things exist on the deep ocean floor than in that part of the water column immeiately above it
deep vent communities depend on specialized autotrophs that extract the exceedingly dim light that filters down to that depth, and uses it is a specialized form of photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates
they are the most frequently observed life style of the earth’s animals
which of the following statements is true of symbiotic relationships?
the mose of symbiosis represented by the clown fish anemone relationship is:
the most frequently encountered form of direct symbiosis is:
a specific parasite can parasitize only one species of host
species-specific means
although the ocean itself contains abundant life, marine organisms have not found niches in the sediments significantly below the surface of the sea bed
sandy beaches are so harsh that no small animals can survive between their sand grains
whaling has effectively ceased; the taking of whales for meat and profit is a thing of the past
deep abyssal seafloors probably contain even more oil and natural gas than the continental shelves. these zones have not been exploited only because of the difficulty in drilling in these areas
though desalination is a technically feasible method for obtaining fresh water from seawater, large commercial-scale desalinization in the USA is minimal, due to the high-energy costs
global warming by greenhouse gases is a new global phenomena, and would not have happened if humans had never generated excess carbon dioxide, methane, CFCs, going up into the atmosphere
in the terms of tonnage worldwide, marine fish farming is growing while wild caught fishing is constant
most synthetic pollutants resist attack by water, air, sunlight, and living organisms because the compounds of which they are composed resemble nothing in nature
worldwide, the commercial fishing consortia are, for the most part, very careful to conserve the worlds marine fishery resources, and not to exceed the maximum sustainable yield
generally speaking, a spill of crude oil is more dangerous to marine life than a spill of refined oil
eitrophication is an example of a “good” pollutant. most organisms in a eutrophic area thrive and grow at a normal or accelerated rate with little to no harmful side effects
drift nets were developed in response to demands that fishing nets take only target species, and that commercial fishing techniques be more environmentally sensitive
nettings and lines strangle birds, turtles, and seals
bags are swallowed by turtles and fish, clogging their digestive systems
plastics cause significant biological damage in the ocean when______
seals, toothed whales, and polar bears
which of the following marine life are expected to have the highest concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, and PCBs in their tissues?
which of the following is NOT a highly toxic heavy metal?
as widespread back lumps that litter the deep seabed
manganese nodules can be found _______
in temperate waters over continental shelves
the best fishing grounds are located _______
mostly the baitfish like cod, herring, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines
the worlds commercial catch of fish is made up mostly of what particular group of fish?
occured back in the 1960s; is presently occuring
peak petroleum discoveries in the world ______, while peaking petroleum production _____________
rapid human population growth
the most dangerous threat to the marine environment, in the long run, is definitely ____________
crude oil
what accounts for most of the total greatest value of world trade transported by sea?
the thermal gradient
the greatest amount of marine energy is theoretically available from _______
tidal currents
the only marine energy source being successfully exploited on large scale is/are:
370 km 200 miles
the exclusive economic zone EEZ stipulated by the 1982 draft convention extends ________
are all considered toxic, even lethal to marine organisms
the synthetic organic pollutants that have been added to the ocean over the years ________
runoff from land sources, particularly from coastal urban areas
the worst source of petroleum pollution in the marine environment is __________
650,000 years
the present level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not been seen on earth for the past_____
particularly noted with synthetic organic substances and heavy metals
which of the following statements is true of pollutant related bioamplification
it shield us and other organisms from ultraviolet radiation from the sun
the ozone layer is important becuase ______
they are more dilute, harder to reach, and more difficult to recover
which of the following statements applies to resources from the sea?
34 years
the doubling time of the human population that is the length of time necessary for the number of humans to double is presently about _______
sand and gravel
second to petroleum and gas, the most profitable physical resource recovered form the ocean is:
quiet basins for the accumulation of organic material
little oxygen and the presence of anaerobic bacteria
heat and pressure
deep burial by sediments
the formation of crude oil will occur in an environment that provides __________
which of the following fishing practices is considered the least environmentally friendly

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