Oceans Review

Shoreline or Coast Area where the land meets the ocean
Beaches Shorelines made of sand
Waves They can wear away the land and expose a rocky shore or they can deposit sand along the shore and form a beach
Islands Pieces of land surrounded by water on all sides
Barrier Islands Pieces of land surrounded with water on all sides, with sandy beaches
Barrier Islands Function They occur naturally and protect the mainland from the effects of waves on its shore
Estuaries Area where a river meets the ocean; they have a mixture of freshwater and saltwater
Inlets Water-filled spaces between barrier islands; Ocean currents and storms can change the shape of its opening
Crest Highest part of a wave
Trough Lowest part of a wave
Tsunamis Giant sea waves caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or landslides
Currents Flowing streams of water that move continuously throughout he ocean in a specific direction
Surface Currents These currents are caused by the movement of the Earth and by the force and direction of the wind
Warm Surface Currents These currents are driven by Earth's rotation from the tropics to higher latitudes
Cold Surface Currents These currents are driven by Earth's rotation from the polar latitudes toward the equator
Tides The regular rise and fall of waters in oceans and seas; they are caused by the pull on the Moon's gravity on Earth
Natural Resources Water, Oil and Wood
Pollution Examples include careless dumping of trash on land; oil spills in oceans and smoke and fumes from burning fuels that ruins the air
Conservation Efforts Human activities that help keep the natural resources on Earth available and clear of pollution
Ways farmers can reduce erosion on farmland Installing fence lines or planting trees, bushes or grass

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