Oceans Study Guide

Question Answer
What is the % of ocean water compared to land? 71% Ocean and 29% Land.
What is the most abundant salt in ocean water? Sodium Chloride.
How did oceans form? Steam from volcanos condensed causing rain and comets.
What is the salinity level at the mouth of a river? Less salty at the mouth of the river because freshwater dumps into the ocean.
Which zone is the temperature most constant? The deep zone because more salt at the bottom and the coldest.
As the salinity of the water increases what happens to the density? Density increases.
Where does oxygen in seawater come from? The atmosphere and from algae.
What are the salinity levels in warm temperature versus cold temperature areas? Polar Areas and Warmer Areas equals high salinity. Cool waters have lower salinity levels.
What is the most important function of the ocean? To balance temperature on Earth.
What properties increase as you descend through the water column in the ocean? Salinity, Pressure, and Density.
Where does salt come from? Freshwater rivers and streams dissolve rocks on the way down to the oceans bringing minerals.
Why are green plants not found on the ocean floor? No sunlight so plants can't survive.
What is the rate of absorption between land and water? Land heats and cools off faster than water.
In the open ocean, which zone do algae live in? Algae live on the surface because it's closest to the sun's energy.
Which zone is the densest? The Deep Zone is the densest because of cold temperature and more salinity.
What happens to the temperature of the water in the Thermocline/Transistion Zone? Drastic Drop in Temperature.
Which zone does salinity change the most? Surface Zone because of climate and addition of freshwater from rivers.
Which zone is most affected by weather? Surface because it is closest to the atmosphere.
Why are submersibles useful? People use this vehicle to explore the ocean and to protect from extreme pressure and temperature.
Why is it difficult to research the ocean floor? Too much pressure and too cold.
What process occurs at the mid ocean ridege? Sea Floor Spreading.
What type of boundary are mid-ocean ridges found? Divergent Boundaries.
What type of boundary are trenches found? Convergent because more dense oceanic plate sinks under less dense continental plate.
What is a gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent? Continental Shelf.
What process occurs at a trench? Subduction.
What is the abyssal plain? Flat, deep part of the ocean floor covered in mud.
What is happening to the Pacific that is the opposite of the Atlantic? Pacific is shrinking because of so many trenches.
What is a deep canyon in the ocean floor called? Trench.
What is the feature that is the result of volcanoes rising above the surface? Volcanic Island.
What is SONAR? Ships at the surface send pulses down to the ocean floor and then time it takes to come back up is measured and used to map ocean floor.
What is the true gentle sloped edge of a continent where rock that makes up the continent stops and the rock of the ocean floor begins. Continental Shelf.
What are volcanos under the surface of the ocean? Seamounts.
What is the name of the research vehicle or vessel that explored the deepest parts of the ocean? Alvin.

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